Gunfighter and gunslinger pron.: //, are 20th-century words, used in cinema or literature, referring to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation as being dangerous with a gun. Gunman was a common term used for these individuals in the 19th century.
Origin of the term 
Noted amateur etymologist Barry Popik has traced the term "gun slinger" back to its use in the 1920 Western movie Drag Harlan. The word was soon adopted by other Western writers such as Zane Grey and became common usage. In his introduction to The Shootist, author Glendon Swarthout says that "gunslinger" and "gunfighter" are modern terms and that the more authentic terms for the period would have been "gunman", "pistoleer", "shootist" or "bad man". While Swarthout seems to have been correct about "gunslinger", Bat Masterson used the term "gunfighter" in the newspaper articles he wrote about the lawmen and outlaws he had known. Clay Allison (1841–1887), a notorious New Mexico and Texas gunman and cattleman originated the term, "shootist". Chuck Parsons, Clay Allison: Portrait of a Shootist (Seagraves, Texas: Pioneer, 1983). Joseph Rosa further supports the use of "gunman" during the Old West period, noting that even though Masterson used the term "gunfighter", he "preferred the term 'mankiller'" when discussing these individuals.
Often the term has been applied to men who would hire out for contract killings or at a ranch embroiled in a range war where they would earn "fighting wages." Others, like Billy the Kid, were notorious bandits and still others were lawmen like Pat Garrett and Wyatt Earp. A gunfighter could be an outlaw, a robber or murderer who took advantage of the wilderness of the frontier to hide from, and make periodic raids on, genteel society. The gunfighter could also be an agent of the state, archetypically a lone avenger, but more often a sheriff, whose duty was to face the outlaw and bring him to, or more likely personally administer, justice. The title is often misused in historical accounts to describe men killed in gunfights. For instance, the three Cowboys who died in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral—Billy Clanton, Frank McLaury, and Tom McLaury—were sometimes called "gunfighters" although the three were more likely cowboys and ranchers.
Gunslingers frequently appear, along with cowboys, as stock characters in Western movies and novels. In Western movies, the characters' gun belts are often worn low on the hip and outer thigh, with the holster cut away around the pistol's trigger and grip for a smooth, fast draw. This type of holster is a Hollywood anachronism. Twirling their revolver is a trademark trick of movie gunslingers, and drawing and spinning the pistol from time to time, without intending or being expected to shoot, is a commonly portrayed habit or compulsion. Fast-draw artists can be distinguished from other movie cowboys because their guns will often be tied to their thigh. Long before holsters were steel-lined, they were soft and supple for comfortable all-day wear. A gunfighter would use tie-downs to keep his pistol from catching on the holster while drawing.
Depiction in culture 
The Hollywood Cowboy/ Gunslinger as a stock character is normally rooted in archetypal conflict:
- Good vs. bad
- Virtue vs. evil
- White hat vs. black hat
- Man vs. man
- Settlers vs. natives
- Cowboys vs. rustlers
- Humanity vs. nature
- Civilization vs. lawlessness
- Villains vs. heroes
- Lawman vs. outlaw
- Social law and order vs. anarchy
- The rugged individualist vs. the community
- The cultivated East vs. the Wild West
- Farmer vs. industrialist
Often the hero of a Western meets his opposite "double", a mirror of his own evil side that he has to destroy. Western gunslinger heroes are often local lawmen or enforcement officers, ranchers, army officers, cowboys, territorial marshals, a nomadic loner, or a skilled fast-draw artist. They are normally masculine persons of integrity and principle - courageous, moral, tough, solid and self-sufficient, maverick characters (often with trusty sidekicks), possessing an independent and honorable attitude (but often characterized as slow-talking). They are depicted as similar to a knight-errant, wandering from place to place with no particular direction, often facing curious and hostile enemies, while saving certain individuals and communities from them in terms of chivalry. The Western hero usually stands alone and faces danger on his own, commonly against lawlessness, with an expert display of his physical skills (roping, gun-play, horse-handling, pioneering abilities, etc.).
In films, the gunslinger often possesses a nearly superhuman speed and skill with the revolver. Twirling pistols, lightning draws and trick shots are standard fare for the gunmen of the big screen. In the real world, however, gunmen who relied on flashy tricks and theatrics died quickly, and most gunslingers took a much more practical approach to their weapons. Real gunslingers did not shoot to disarm or to impress, but to kill.
Another classic bit of cinema, the showdown at high noon, where two well-matched gunslingers agreed to meet for a climactic formal duel, largely is a matter of myth as well, although rarely these duels actually happened, at least in the case of the Wild Bill Hickok – Davis Tutt shootout. Typically, gunfights were more spontaneous, a fight that turned deadly when one side reached for a weapon, and the drinking of alcoholic beverages often was involved. Gunfights could be won by simple distraction, or pistols could be emptied as gunmen fought from behind cover without injury. When a gunman did square off, it rarely was with another gunfighter. Gunslingers usually gave each other a wide berth, and it was uncommon for two well-known gunslingers to face off.
The gunslinger's reputation often was as valuable as any skills possessed. In Western films and books, young toughs often challenge experienced gunmen with the hopes of building a reputation, but this rarely happened in real life. A strong reputation was enough to keep others civil and often would spare a gunfighter from conflict. Even other gunslingers were likely to avoid any unnecessary confrontation.
In the days of the Old West, tales tended to grow with repeated telling, and a single fight might grow into a career-making reputation. For instance, the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral made legends of Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday, but they were relatively minor figures before that conflict. Some gunslingers, such as Bat Masterson, actively engaged in self-promotion. Johnny Ringo built a reputation as a gunslinger despite never taking part in a gunfight and killing unarmed civilians.
Fact vs. fiction 
Most gunfights are portrayed in films or books as having two men square off, waiting for one to make the first move. This was rarely the case. Often, a gunfight was spur-of-the-moment, with one drawing his pistol, and the other reacting. Often it would develop into a shootout where both men bolted for cover. Other times, one or both were drunk and missed several normally easy shots. Many times the shootout was little more than one taking advantage of the other's looking away at an opportune moment. In popular folklore, men who held noteworthy reputations as a gunfighter were eager to match up against another gunman with the same reputation. On the contrary, in cases where two men held a similar reputation, both would avoid confrontation with one another whenever possible. They rarely took undue risks, and usually weighed their options before confronting another well-known gunman. This respect for one another is why most famous gunfights were rarely two or more well-known gunmen matched up against one another, but rather one notable gunman against a lesser-known opponent or opponents.
These fights were usually close-up and personal, with a number of shots blasted from pistols, often resulting in innocent bystanders hit by bullets gone wild. Much of the time, it would be difficult to tell who had "won” the gunfight for several minutes, as the black powder smoke from the pistols cleared the air.
Generally, two well-known gunmen coming into contact with one another would result in either the two keeping a distance but being cordial, or avoiding one another altogether. In cases where one well-known gunman was a lawman, and another was merely in town, the one that was visiting would avoid any confrontation with the law-serving gunman.
How famous gunfighters died is as varied as each man. Many well-known gunfighters were so feared by the public because of their reputation that when they were killed, they died as a result of ambush rather than going down in a "blaze of glory". Others died secluded deaths either from old age or illness.
Mythology and folklore often exaggerate the skills of famous gunfighters. Most of these historical figures were not known to be capable of trick shooting. Nor did they necessarily have a reputation for precision sharpshooting. Such tropes that are frequently seen in Westerns include shooting the center of a coin, stylistic pistol twirling, glancing shots that intentionally only graze an opponent (the bullet through the hat being an example), a bullet cutting the hangman's rope, shooting the guns out of opponents' hands (typically as an alternative to killing), or shooting an opponent's belt buckle (thus dropping his pants). In reality, success at gunfighting involved luck and survival instinct as opposed to fancy, stylistic gunplay.
Gunfighters King Fisher, John Wesley Hardin, Ben Thompson, Billy the Kid, and Wild Bill Hickok all died as a result of ambush, killed by men who feared them because of their reputation. Gunmen Kid Curry, Jim Courtright, Dallas Stoudenmire and Dave Rudabaugh were killed in raging gun battles, much as portrayed in films about the era, and usually against more than one opponent. Bill Longley and Tom Horn were executed. Famed gunman Clay Allison died in a wagon accident. Gunmen Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Commodore Perry Owens, and Luke Short all died of natural causes, living out their lives on reputation and avoiding conflict in secluded retirement. Rare are the gunfighters who, like William Sidney "Cap" Light, died accidentally by their own hand.
Famous gunfights and showdowns 
The image of a Wild West filled with countless gunfights was a myth generated primarily by dime-novel authors in the late 19th century. However, gunfights did occasionally occur. The most notable and well-known took place in the states/territories of Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The cause for each varied. Some were simply the result of the heat of the moment, others were the result of longstanding feuds, while others were between outlaws and lawmen. There were also various other reasons that resulted in gunfights. Some of these shootouts became famous, while others faded into history with only a few accounts surviving.
The Gunfight at the OK Corral is a famous example of a real-life western shootout. It lasted only 30 seconds, contrary to many movie adaptations. The gunfight itself didn't actually happen in the corral, but happened in a vacant lot outside of the corral. The shooting started when Billy Clanton and Frank McLaury cocked their pistols. It is not known who fired the first shot, but Doc’s bullet was the first to hit home, tearing through Frank McLaury's belly and sending McLaury’s own shot wild through Wyatt’s coattail. Billy Clanton fired at Virgil, but his shot also went astray when he was hit with Morgan's shot through his rib cage. Billy Claiborne ran as soon as shots were fired and was already out of sight. Ike Clanton, too, panicked and threw his gun down, pleading for his life. "Fight or get out like Claiborne!" Wyatt yelled and watched Ike desert his brother Billy, as he ran towards the door of the photography shop. But Ike then drew a hidden gun and fired one more round at Wyatt before disappearing. The sound distracted Morgan, enough so that Tom McLaury sent a bullet into Morgan's shoulder. Doc instantly countered, killing Tom with blasts from both barrels of his shotgun. Desperately, wounded and dying, Billy Clanton fired blindly into the gun smoke encircling him, striking Virgil's leg. Wyatt responded by sending several rounds into Billy.
A famous and well-recorded duel occurred on 21 July 1865. Wild Bill Hickok and Davis Tutt quarrelled over cards and decided to have a gunfight. They arranged to walk towards each other at 6 p.m. When they were about 50 yards apart, both men drew their guns. Tutt fired first but missed. Hickok's shot hit Tutt in the heart. This was the first recorded example of two men taking part in a quick-draw duel. The following month Hickok was acquitted after pleading self-defense. Tutt was one of the estimated 20,000 men in the American West who were killed by gunshot between 1866 and 1900.
Another well-known gunfight is the Long Branch Saloon Shootout, involving Levi Richardson, a buffalo hunter, and "Cockeyed Frank" Loving, a professional gambler. Richardson had developed some affection for Loving's wife Mattie, and the two began to argue about her. In the saloon, Frank sat down at a long table, Richardson turned around and took a seat at the same table. The two were then heard speaking in low voices; no one could make out what they were saying. After the conversation, Richardson drew his pistol, and Loving drew his in response. The Long Branch Saloon was then filled with smoke. Dodge City Marshal Charlie Bassett was in Beatty & Kelley's Saloon, heard the shots and came running. Both men were still standing, although Richardson had fired five shots from his gun and Loving's Remington No. 44 was empty. Deputy Sheriff Duffey threw Richardson down in a chair and took his gun, while Bassett disarmed Loving. Richardson then got up and started toward the billiard table, when he fell to the floor with a fatal gunshot in the chest, as well as a shot through the side and another through the right arm. Frank Loving, who had only a slight scratch on the hand, was immediately taken to jail. Two days later, on April 7, 1879, the coroner's inquest ruled that the killing had been in self-defense and Loving was immediately released.
Another face-to-face gunfight in the American West happened in Fort Worth, Texas, and was known as the Luke Short-Jim Courtright Duel. Timothy Isaiah "Longhair Jim" Courtright was running the T.I.C. Commercial agency in Fort Worth, which provided "protection" to gambling dens and saloons in return for a portion of their profits. At the same time, Luke Short, a former friend of Courtright's, was running the White Elephant Saloon and Jim was trying to get Short to utilize his services. But the Dodge City gunfighter told Courtright to "go to Hell," that he could do any gunslinging that was necessary to take care of his business. On February 8, 1887, the two quarreled, and with Bat Masterson at Short's side, Courtright and Short dueled in the street. They drew their pistols at close range, and Short fired first, blowing off Courtright's thumb. Courtright attempted the "border shift", a move where a gunfighter switches his gun to his uninjured hand, but he was too slow. Short shot him in the chest, killing him.
On March 9, 1877, gamblers Jim Levy and Charlie Harrison argued over a game of cards in a saloon in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Levy challenged Harrison to take it outside, Harrison agreed, and the two squared off in the street. Western novelist James Reasoner claims in a recent issue of Esquire that this was "the most 'Hollywood' showdown". During the duel, Harrison shot wild, while Levy took more careful aim and shot him. He then approached the dying Charlie and shot him again. Many accounts claimed that Harrison fired at Levy while sprawled on the ground, but contemporary opinion held that Levy had shot the man while he was down. Harrison died 13 days later.
Another well-documented gunfight, which resulted in the most kills by one person in a single event, was Jonathan R. Davis's shooting of eleven bandits single-handedly on 19 December 1854. Unknown to Davis and his companions, a band of robbers was lying in wait in the canyon brush near the trail. They were a typically diverse and motley group of Gold Rush bandits: two Americans, one Frenchman, two Britons, five Sydney Ducks, and four Mexicans. As Captain Davis and his companions trudged on foot past the place of ambush, the bandit gang charged out of the brush, pistols flaming. James McDonald died instantly, without time to draw his revolver or react in any way. Dr. Bolivar managed to get his six-shooter out and fire twice at the highwaymen before he dropped, badly wounded. Captain Davis later described himself as being "in a fever of excitement at the time." Unfazed, he stood his ground, pulling both pistols and firing a barrage at the charging outlaws. One after another he shot down his assailants. The outlaw bullets tore at Davis's clothing but caused only two slight flesh wounds. Within moments seven of the bandits were dead or dying on the ground and Davis's pistols were empty. Four of the remaining robbers now closed in on the Captain to finish him off. Davis whipped out his Bowie knife, and quickly warded off the thrusts from the two of the bandits. He stabbed one of them to death; the other he disarmed by knocking the knife from his grasp and slicing off his nose and a finger of his right hand. The two last attackers were the men who had been wounded in a previous bandit raid. Despite their weakened condition, they foolishly approached Davis with drawn knives. The captain reacted in an instant. Slashing with his heavy Bowie, he killed them both. Seven of the robbers were dead, three desperately wounded, and the eleventh, the now noseless bandit, did not appear to be fatally injured. The three remaining outlaws fled.
Not as well known today but famous in his time was the dapper, derby-wearing train robber Marion Hedgepeth, who despite his swell appearance, "was a deadly killer and one of the fastest guns in the Wild, Wild West". William Pinkerton, whose National Detective Agency had sought to capture Hedgepeth and his gang for years, noted that Hedgepeth once gunned down another outlaw who had already unholstered his pistol before Hedgepath had drawn his revolver.
Living on reputation 
Most Old West men who were labelled as being "gunfighters" did not kill nearly as many men in gunfights as they were given credit for, if any at all. They were often labelled as such due to one particular instance, which developed from rumours into them having been involved in many more events than they actually were. Often their reputation was as much "self-promotion" as anything else, such was the case of Bat Masterson.
Wyatt Earp with his brothers Morgan and Virgil along with Doc Holliday killed three outlaw Cowboys in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona Territory. He has been said to have been involved in more than one hundred gunfights in his lifetime. But Prof. Bill O'Neal cites just five incidents in his Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters.
Earp expressed his dismay about the controversy that followed him his entire life. He wrote in a letter to John Hays Hammond on May 21, 1925, that "notoriety had been the bane of my life."
After his brother Virgil was maimed in an ambush and Morgan was assassinated by hidden assailants, the men suspected of involvement were provided alibis by fellow Cowboys and released without trial. Wyatt and his brother Warren set out on a vendetta ride to locate and kill those they felt were responsible. Wyatt has been portrayed in a number of film and books as a fearless Western hero. He is often viewed as the central character and hero of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, at least in part because he was the only one who was not wounded or killed. In fact, his brother, Tombstone Marshall and Deputy U.S. Marshall Virgil Earp had considerably more experience with weapons and combat as a Union soldier in the Civil War, and in law enforcement as a sheriff, constable, and marshal. As city marshal, Virgil made the decision to disarm the Cowboys in Tombstone and requested Wyatt's assistance. But because Wyatt outlived Virgil and due to a creative biography, Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal published two years after Wyatt's death, Wyatt became famous and the subject of various movies, television shows, biographies and works of fiction.
Only one killing has been attributed to Doc Holliday prior to that shoot out in Tombstone. There are no records to support the reputation that Johnny Ringo developed. Of the documented instances where Ringo killed men, they were unarmed, and there is no evidence to support his participation in a single gunfight.
Others deserved the reputation associated with them. Jim Courtright and Dallas Stoudenmire both killed several men in gunfights both as lawmen and as civilians. Clay Allison and Ben Thompson had well-deserved reputations. At the same time, gunmen like Scott Cooley are all but unknown, when they actually led a life reflective of what most would consider a gunfighter to be. In other cases, certain gunfighters were possibly confused, over time, for being someone else with a similar name. The most well known of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch gang, the Sundance Kid, was in reality only known to have been in one shootout during his lifetime, and no gunfights. Some historians have since stated that it is possible that over time he was confused with another Wild Bunch member, Kid Curry, who was without a doubt the most dangerous member of the gang, having killed many lawmen and civilians during his lifetime before being killed himself. Hence, it is the Sundance Kid who is better known.
Outlaw or lawman 
It is often difficult to separate lawmen of the Old West from outlaws of the Old West. In many cases, the term gunfighter was applied to constables. Despite idealistic portrayals in television, movies, and even in history books, very few lawmen/gunfighters could claim their law enforcement role as their only source of employment. Unlike contemporary peace officers, these lawmen generally pursued other occupations, often earning money as gamblers, business owners, or outlaws—as was the case with "Curly" Bill Brocius, who, while always referred to as an outlaw, served as a deputy sheriff under sheriff Johnny Behan. Many shootouts involving lawmen were caused by disputes arising from these alternative occupations, rather than the lawman's attempts to enforce the law.
Tom Horn, historically cited as an assassin, served both as a deputy sheriff and as a Pinkerton detective, a job in which he shot at least three people as a killer for hire. Ben Thompson, best known as a gunfighter and gambler, was a very successful chief of police in Austin, Texas. King Fisher had great success as a county sheriff in Texas. Doc Holliday and Billy the Kid both wore badges as lawmen at least once.
"Big" Steve Long served as deputy marshal for Laramie, Wyoming, while the entire time committing murders and forced theft of land deeds. A town with a substantial violent crime rate would often turn to a known gunman as their town marshal, chief, or sheriff, in the hopes that the gunman could stem the violence and bring order.
Known gunmen/lawmen were generally effective, and in time the violence would subside, usually after the gunman/lawman had been involved in several shooting incidents, eventually leading to a substantial and well earned fear that kept everyone in line. At times they were hired by cattlemen or other prominent figures to serve as henchmen or enforcers during cattle wars. Although sanctioned by law enforcement officials, the gunmen were not always actually deputized. Sometimes, however, just to make things "official", they would go through the formality of deputization. A case in point: the service of the Jesse Evans Gang, and outlaw Jesse Evans himself, as agents for the Murphy-Dolan faction during the Lincoln County War. While technically working as lawmen, they were little more than hired guns.
Usually, when a gunman was hired by a town as town marshal, they received the full support of the townspeople until order was restored, at which point the town would tactfully indicate it was time for a change to a less dangerous lawman who relied more on respect than fear to enforce the law. Sometimes the gunman would simply become bored as the times changed and move on. A good example was the 1882 decision by the El Paso, Texas, town council to dismiss Town Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire. He entered the council hall and dared the councilors to try to take his guns or his job, at which point they immediately changed their mind, saying he could keep his job. He resigned on his own a couple of days later. Another example was the dismissal of Sheriff Commodore Perry Owens in Holbrook, Arizona, after which the local county commission also withheld his last paycheck. Owens entered the county building and forced them to pay him at gun point, and he received no resistance.In the case of Marshal Jim Courtright, for example, he did "clean up the town" while serving as town marshal for Fort Worth, Texas. However, it was his habit of strong-arming local businesses in the area into paying him for protection that ultimately led to his fatal gunfight with gunman and saloon owner Luke Short.
Modern gunslinger 
People relive the Wild West both historically and in popular culture by participating in cowboy action shooting events, where each gunslinger adopts his or her own look representing a character from Western life in the late 1800s, and as part of that character, chooses an alias to go by.
There are different categories shooters can compete in. There's the gunfighter, frontiersman, classic cowboy and duelist - each with its own specifications.
In popular culture 
Gunfighters have been featured in media even outside the Western genre, often combined with other elements and genres, mainly science-fiction Space Westerns, steampunk, and the contemporary setting. Abilities, clothing and attitude associated with gunfighters are seen in many other genres. An example of these is Han shot first, in which Han Solo, a gunfighter-like protagonist in Star Wars, kills an alien with subtle. under-the-table draw. He also wore his holster low on, and tied to, the thigh with a cutaway for the trigger. Roland Deschain from the fantasy series The Dark Tower is gunfighter pitted against fantasy-themed monsters and enemies. Inspired by the "Man with No Name" and other spaghetti-western characters, he himself is a detached or unsympathetic, often reacting uncaring or angry at signs of cowardice or self-pity, yet he possess a strong sense of heroism, often attempting to help those in need, a morality much seen in Westerns.
Jonah Hex, from the DC Comics, is a ruthless bounty hunter bound by a personal code of honor to protect and avenge the innocent. IGN ranked Jonah Hex the 73rd greatest comic book hero of all time. Throughout the DC Universe, Hex has been, on many occasions, transported from the Old West to the contemporary settings and beyond. Even in an unfamiliar territory and time period, Hex managed to outgun his enemies with more advanced weaponry. Two-Gun Kid is another comic book gunfighter from Marvel Comics. Skilled with revolvers, he has aided many super-heroes in future timeline, most notably She-Hulk.
Many Japanese manga and anime has also adopted the western genre. Yasuhiro Nightow is known for creating the manga Trigun, which also was adopted into an anime. The story's protagonist, Vash the Stampede, is a wandering gunslinger with a dark past. Unlike other violence-themed gunslingers, Vash carries a Shane-like pacifist attitude, and avoids killing men, even dangerous enemies. Behind him is the gun-totting priest named Nicholas D. Wolfwood, who carries with him a heavy machine gun and rocket launcher shaped like a cross. Nicholas is more violent than Vash, and the two would often argue about killing opponents. Other western genre themed manga and anime includes Cowboy Bebop and Kino's Journey, both who incorporate knight-errant adventure themes.
Contemporary western gunslingers have also caught attention, though not branded as gunslingers. They have skills, challenges, and attitude seen more in the Old West. Raylan Givens from the television series Justified shares the same ambiguous moral code of an Old West sheriff, even using a fast draw to dispatch his enemies. The hitman Anton Chigurh from No Country For Old Men shares many elements of a riding frontiersmen. But Chigurh is the complete opposite of Raylan Givens, and represents more of the ruthless outlaw on the hunt and against local authority. Additionally, the comic book character Vigilante is a self-proclaimed gunfighter born in the 1940s.
Gunfighters has also been featured in many video games, both in traditional Old West, and in contemporary and future settings. Colton White, the protagonist of 2005's best selling western video game Gun, is ranked #7 on Game Informer's "Top 10 Heroes of 2005" list. Another well-known video game Western protagonist is John Marston, who was nominated in Spike's Video Game Awards 2010. Network World stated: "John Marston is a complicated character, having been a bad person who is trying to make things right." The New York Times stated: "he and his creators conjure such a convincing, cohesive and enthralling re-imagination of the real world that it sets a new standard for sophistication and ambition in electronic gaming."
See also 
- The term "gunslinger" and "showdown" were unknown in the Wild West. Gunslinger (or Gun Slinger)
- Rosa, vii.
- History Channel Gunslingers
- Old West Gunfight archives
- Spartacus Educational
- Long Branch Saloon Shootout
- Gunfights: Long Branch Saloon Shootout
- Legends of America
- Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters
- Fournier, Richard. "Mexican War Vet Wages Deadliest Gunfight in American History", VFW Magazine (January 2012), p. 30.
- Grady, David P. (July/August 1996). American Cowboy: 64 http://books.google.com/books?id=2OoCAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA65&dq=hedgepeth+four&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rsvsT4iBK-HY0QGt0L32BQ&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hedgepeth%20four&f=false
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 28 June 2012. More than one of
- Dworkin, Mark. "Charlie Siringo, Letter Writer". Western Outlaw Lawman Association Journal. Winter 2003, Vol. XI (4): 16–18.
- Gatto, Steve. "Wyatt Earp History Page". WyattEarp.Net. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- Ashford, David (September 3, 1994). "First action hero: Wyatt Earp was an elderly movie groupie who failed to make it as an extra...". The Independent (London). Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- Douglas Linder (2005). "Testimony of Virgil Earp in the Preliminary Hearing in the Earp Case". Famous Trials: The O. K. Corral Trial. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- The Script Lab
- "Top ten Heroes". Game Informer.
- Schiesel, Seth (May 17, 2010). "Way Down Deep in the Wild, Wild West". The New York Times.
- Eugene Cunningham Triggernometry: A Gallery of Gunfighters. (Originally 1934). University of Oklahoma Press (1996).
- Bill O'Neal. Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters. University of Oklahoma Press (1979).
- Joseph G. Rosa. The Gunfighter: Man or Myth? University of Oklahoma Press (1969).
- List of and History of Old West Gunfights
- Slap Leather, Gunfighter Myth