Scholars often use the term gunpowder empires to describe the Islamic empires of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal. Each of these three empires had considerable military exploits using the newly developed firearms, especially cannon and small arms, to create their empires. They existed primarily between the fourteenth and the late seventeenth centuries.
- Streusand, Douglas E (2010). Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals. Perseus Books Group. ISBN 9780813391946.
- Evans, Charles T. "The Gunpowder Empires". Northern Virginia Community College. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
- "The Islamic Gunpowder Empires, 1300-1650". Civilization Past & Present. Pearson Education. Retrieved December 28, 2010.