Guntur district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Guntur.
Guntur district
గుంటూరు జిల్లా
District of Andhra Pradesh
Location of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Administrative division Guntur district
Headquarters Guntur City
Tehsils 57[1]
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Guntur, Narasaraopet, Bapatla
 • Assembly seats 17
Area
 • Total 11,391 km2 (4,398 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,889,230[2]
 • Urban 33.89%
Demographics
 • Literacy 67.99%
 • Sex ratio 1003
Major highways NH-5
Coordinates 16°18′N 80°27′E / 16.300°N 80.450°E / 16.300; 80.450Coordinates: 16°18′N 80°27′E / 16.300°N 80.450°E / 16.300; 80.450
Website Official website

Guntur district, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, is in the delta on the southeast coast of India where the Krishna River empties into the Bay of Bengal. The district's coastline is approximately 100 kilometers. Guntur City is the largest city and the administrative center of the Guntur District. The district is a major centre for education and learning.

Etymology[edit]

There are several opinions on the meaning and origin of the word Guntur. The word owes its origin to words like gundu (a rock), gunta (a pond) and kunta (1/3 of an acre). In Sanskrit, Guntur is called Garthapuri (Guntlapuri).[3]

History[edit]

Brahmi Script inscribed on a Railing Pillar at Velpuru

The original Sanskrit name (ancient Vedic culture) for Guntur was Garthapuri. The 'Agasthyeswara Sivalayam' in the old city of Guntur is an ancient temple for Siva.

It has inscriptions on two stones in 'Naga Lipi' (ancient script). It is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta-Yuga around the Swayambhu Linga and hence the name. The 'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region. The place of Sitanagaram and the Guthikonda Caves can be traced (through Vedic Puranas) back to the last Treta-Yuga and Dwapara-Yuga (Traditional Time scale: 1.7 to 0.5 million years ago).

Guntur District is home to the second oldest evidence of human habitation in India, in the form of Palaeolithic (old stone age) implements. Ancient history can be traced from the time of Sala kings who ruled during the 5th century BCE. The earliest reference to Guntur, a variant of Guntur, comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922–929 CE), the Vengi Chalukyan King. Guntur also appears in two inscriptions dated 1147 and 1158 CE.

Since the beginning of Buddhist time, Guntur stood in the forefront in matters of culture, education and civilization. Gautama Buddha preached at Dharanikota/Dhanyakatakam near Guntur and conducted Kalachakra ceremony, which takes its antiquity to 500 BCE.[4] Taranatha, a Buddhist monk writes: "On the full moon of the month Caitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of "The Glorious Lunar Mansions" (Kalachakra).[5] Buddhists established universities in ancient times at Dhanyakataka and Amaravathi. Scores of Buddhist stupas were excavated in the villages of Guntur district. Acharya Nagarjuna, an influential Buddhist philosopher taught at Nagarjunakonda and is said to have discovered Mica in 200 BCE. Chinese traveller and Buddhist monk Hiuen Tsang (Xuanzang) visited Amaravati in 640 C.E., stayed for sometime and studied 'Abhidhammapitakam'. He observed that there were many Viharas and some of them were deserted, which points out that Hinduism was gaining ground at that time. Xuanzang wrote a glorious account of the place, Viharas and monasteries that existed.[6]

Guntur was successively ruled by famous dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Vishnukundina, Kota Vamsa, Chalukyas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Reddis, Vijayanagara and Qutb Shahis during ancient and medieval times. The famous battle of Palnadu which is enshrined in legend and literature as Palnati Yuddham was fought in Guntur district in 1180 CE.

Guntur became part of the Mughal empire in 1687 CE when the emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Qutb Shahi sultanate of Golconda, of which Guntur was then a part. In 1724 CE, Asaf Jah, viceroy of the empire's southern provinces, declared his independence as the Nizam of Hyderabad. The coastal districts of Hyderabad, known as the Northern Circars, were occupied by the French in 1750. Raja Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu (1783–1816) shifted his capital from Chintapalli in Krishna district to Amaravati across the river Krishna. He ruled with munificence and built many temples in Guntur region. Guntur was brought under the control of the British East India Company in 1788, and became a district of Madras Presidency.

Post Independence[edit]

The Guntur region played a significant role in the struggle for independence and the formation of Andhra Pradesh. The northern, Telugu- speaking districts of Madras state, including Guntur, advocated to become a separate state after independence. The new state of Andhra Pradesh was created in 1953 from the eleven northern districts of Madras. In 1970, part of Guntur district was split off to become part of the Prakasam district.[7]

The district suffers from Naxalite insurgency and is a part of the Red Corridor.[8]

Geography[edit]

Districts of Andhra Pradesh

Guntur district occupies an area of approximately 11,391 square kilometres (4,398 sq mi),[9] comparatively equivalent to Indonesia's Bangka Island.[10] The Krishna River forms the northeastern and eastern boundary of the district, separating Guntur District from Krishna District. The district is bounded on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Prakasam District, on the west by Mahbubnagar District, and on the northwest by Nalgonda District.

Guntur Coast by NASA

Guntur Coast is located on the along the southeast coast of India (also known as the Coromandel Coast) (quotes from NASA site [11]). Krishna merges into Bay of Bengal at the coastal area of Guntur district. The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, and extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna River flows through relatively flat terrain and carries substantial amounts of sediment, especially during the monsoon season. Surya Lanka near Bapatla Bobbara Lanka in Repalle are tourist beaches in Guntur coastline.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Guntur district has a population of 4,889,230,[12] roughly equal to the Central African Republic[13] or the US state of Alabama.[14] This gives it a ranking of 22nd in India (out of a total of 640).[12] The district has a population density of 429 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,110 /sq mi) .[12] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 9.5%.[12] Guntur has a sex ratio of 1003 females for every 1000 males,[12] and a literacy rate of 67.99%.[12]

Guntur district covers an area of 11,391 km2 and has a population of 4,889,230, of which 2,441,128 are males and 2,448,102 are females as of 2011.[15]

Languages

Telugu is the main language spoken in this district. The second official language is Urdu.[16]

Household indicators

In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1230 households in 36 villages across the district.[17] They found that 90.8% had access to electricity, 93.2% had drinking water, 52.2% toilet facilities, and 46% lived in a pucca (permanent) home.[17] 30.3% of girls wed before the legal age of 18[18] and 74% of interviewees carried a BPL card.[17]

Divisions[edit]

It is divided into four revenue divisions (Guntur, Tenali, Narasaraopet and Gurazala) with 57 mandals.

Mandals

The list of 57 mandals in Guntur district are:[19]

Culture[edit]

Places of historical importance in Guntur District are Amaravathi, Bapatla, Ponnur, Bhattiprolu, Vinukonda, Kotappakonda, Undavalli caves, Gurazala, Macherla, Kondavid fort, Tenali and the archeological museum in Guntur.

Religious worships

Lord Hanuman temple, Ponnur

Prolaya Vema Reddi built number of Lord Shiva temples during his reign.Number of temples were constructed in Krishna valley during the reign of Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu. Tall towers (Gaali Gopuram) of these temples in many villages and towns of Guntur district stand testimony to his devotion and munificence. Some of the famous destinations are Nadivelamma Talli Temple in Rajavolu, and there will be annual festival on Full moon day in the month of Chaitra maas. Amaravathi temple, the abode of Lord Shiva, present in the form of a 15 ft (4.6 m) Shiva Linga. The Auspicious Hill of Mangalagiri town, is dedicated to Lord Narasimha with three temples of Panakala Narasimha Swamy on the hill, Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy at the foot of the temple, Gandala Narasimha Swamy at the top of the hill, are also famous. Other famous temples are Bhavanarayanaswami temple in Bapatla, Sri Laxmi Chennakesava Swamy Temple in Macherla, Kotappakonda,[20] Pedakakani, Vykuntapuram in Tenali.

Economy[edit]

Tobacco Drying at Grandhasiri village in Guntur district

Paddy, tobacco, cotton,pulses and chillies are the main agricultural products cultivated in the district.

Educational Institutions[edit]

Guntur has also many educational institutions such as Hindu College, Andhra Christian College, Guntur Medical College, TJPS College, MBTS Polytechnic, Katuri Medical College, JKC College, Bapatla Engineering College Acharya Nagarjuna University, RVR & JC College of Engineering,Vignan University, NRI Medical College, and Bhashyam Group of Institutions. Guntur has two of only seven deemed universities in Andhra Pradesh, namely Vignan University and K L University.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District - Guntur". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "CITY PROFILE". Guntur Municipal Corporation official website. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  3. ^ About Guntur- Zilla Parishad Guntur. Zpguntur.ap.nic.in. Retrieved on 2011-12-29.
  4. ^ Buddha's Preaching of the Kalachakra Tantra at the Stupa of Dhanyakataka, H. Hoffman, in: German Scholars on India, Vol. I, 1973, pp. 136–140, Varanasi
  5. ^ Taranatha; The history of the Kālacakra tradition in Sambhala and India
  6. ^ In the footsteps of Xuanzang
  7. ^ Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  8. ^ "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  9. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. 
  10. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "Bangka 11,413" 
  11. ^ Earth from Space - Image Information
  12. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Central African Republic 4,950,027" 
  14. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Alabama 4,779,736" 
  15. ^ Provisional Population Totals. Census of India 2011. Andhra Pradesh. censusindia.gov.in
  16. ^ A. R. Fatihi (4 April 2003). "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh". In M. S. Thirumala. Language in India 3. 
  17. ^ a b c "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007–08: India. Andhra Prades" (PDF). International Institute for Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  18. ^ "How Do I? : Obtain Marriage Certificate". National Portal Content Management Team, National Informatics Centre. 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-03. "To be eligible for marriage, the minimum age limit is 21 for males and 18 for females." 
  19. ^ "Mandals in Guntur district". AP State Portal. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  20. ^ http://www.kotappakonda.com Kotappakonda.com

External links[edit]