Gurgaon

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Gurgaon
City
Gurgaon
Nickname(s): Millenium City
Location of Gurgaon district in Haryana
Location of Gurgaon district in Haryana
Gurgaon is located in India
Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Location of Gurgaon in India
Coordinates: 28°42′N 77°02′E / 28.7°N 77.03°E / 28.7; 77.03Coordinates: 28°42′N 77°02′E / 28.7°N 77.03°E / 28.7; 77.03[1]
Country  India
State Haryana
District Gurgaon district
Historic colony Kingdom of Great Britain A part of Punjab Province of British India
Government
 • Body Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon
 • Mayor Vimal Yadav
 • Lok Sabha constituency Gurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency
 • Vidhan Sabha constituency Gurgaon City
 • Planning agency Haryana Urban Development Authority
Area[1]
 • Total 282.7 sq mi (732 km2)
Elevation[2] 711.9 ft (217 m)
Population
 • Estimate (2011) 876,824
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ZIP code(s) 122001 to 122017
Area code(s) 0124
Website gurgaon.nic.in

Gurgaon is a city in India and is a leading financial and industrial center, situated in the National Capital Region near the Indian capital New Delhi in the state of Haryana. Located 19.9 miles (32 km) south-west of New Delhi, Gurgaon has a population of 876,824.[3] Gurgaon has witnessed rapid urbanization, chiefly as a result of multinational corporations opening outsourcing offices in the city.[4] Gurgaon has the third highest per capita income in India.[5] Simultaneously, the city faces the obstacles of economic inequality, lack of proper infrastructure and utilities, frequent power outages and rising crime.[4][6] In the mid-1970s, Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited set up a small manufacturing plant in Gurgaon.[7] By October 2013, half the Fortune 500 companies had opened offices in the city.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the city's name can be traced back to ancient Hindu scriptures.[citation needed] It is believed that this land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru for warfare, as an appreciation of his training.[citation needed] The land came to be known as Guru Gram, which literally translated means "Village of the Guru", which in due course of time got distorted to the name Gurgaon.[citation needed] The village still exists within the modern day city.[8]

History[edit]

Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe.[citation needed] The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition.[citation needed] Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam.[citation needed] This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur.[citation needed] During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra.[citation needed] As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia.[citation needed] The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana.[citation needed] It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing[citation needed] and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836.[citation needed] Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari[9] and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of a new state.

Geography[edit]

Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 282.7 square miles (738.8 km²)[10]

The average land elevation is 711.9 ft (217 m) above sea level.[11]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa).[12] The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring, summer, autumn and winter, along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically very hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 110 °F (43 °C). Winters are very cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 37.4 °F (3 °C). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 28.1 inches (714 mm).[12]

Climate data for Gurgaon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 70
(21.1)
75.6
(24.2)
86
(30.0)
97.2
(36.2)
103.3
(39.6)
102.7
(39.3)
95.2
(35.1)
91.9
(33.3)
93
(33.9)
91.2
(32.9)
82.9
(28.3)
73.4
(23.0)
88.5
(31.4)
Average low °F (°C) 45.1
(7.3)
50.2
(10.1)
59.7
(15.4)
70.7
(21.5)
78.6
(25.9)
82.9
(28.3)
79.9
(26.6)
78.6
(25.9)
75.9
(24.4)
67.1
(19.5)
55
(12.8)
46.8
(8.2)
65.8
(18.8)
Rainfall inches (mm) 0.799
(20.3)
0.591
(15.0)
0.622
(15.8)
0.264
(6.7)
0.689
(17.5)
2.161
(54.9)
9.114
(231.5)
10.185
(258.7)
5.031
(127.8)
1.429
(36.3)
0.197
(5.0)
0.307
(7.8)
31.389
(797.3)
Avg. rainy days 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 3.6 10.0 11.3 5.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 39.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.9 217.5 238.7 261.0 263.5 198.0 167.4 176.7 219.0 269.7 246.0 217.0 2,688.4
[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Gurgaon has an estimated population of 876,824[13] as per 2011 India census, of which 475,612 or 54.24% are males and 401,212 or 45.76% females. Gurgaon has a sex ratio of 844. The population under the age of six is 108,623, with 58,842 males and 49,781 females, making child sex ratio 846. The number of literates are 662,696 with 373,164 males and 289,805 females. The effective literacy rate of population aged 7+ is 86.30 of which the male rate is 89.54 and the female rate 82.46.[3]

Urban Planning[edit]

Cyber Green Building, Gurgaon, Haryana, India - 20070613.jpg

Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon's skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognized, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon has an estimated 1,100 residential skyscrappers.[14] The average cost of a 1,000 square feet two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹100,000,00).[14] There are a few skyscrapers which are currently one of the most expensive new office and residential towers in India. Most of the city lacks proper urban infrastructure with broken roads and streets that often leads to traffic jams.

The initial settlements in Gurgaon started in the area east to National Highway 8, a part of which shows urban planning. Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of single-family detached homes, though a large number of attached Multi-dwelling units, including apartments, condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated by The Times of India, are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa, Gurgaon One and Raheja Atlantis.[15] Some inhabitants in the city live in slums in shanty houses lacking proper sanitation, safe water supply, electricity, hygienic streets, or other basic human necessities.

Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority. The key parks are the Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 36 acres; Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; and Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.[16]

Economy and inequality[edit]

A commercial area in DLF Cyber City
A high rise under construction in Gurgaon. Many workers do not have semi-permanent fabricated housing and have to make do with improvised shanties.[4]

Once a small dusty agricultural village, Gurgaon has now emerged to become the city with the third highest per capita income in India.[5] Popularly known as Millennium City,[17] Gurgaon has the presence of about 250 or 50% of the Fortune 500 companies. Gurgaon's proximity to Delhi means easy access to political decision makers. Maruti Suzuki Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars.[7] Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997, and is regarded as the first foreign company in India that was established for outsourcing software work.[18] GE's setup in Gurgaon prompted other companies, both international as well as domestic, to follow suit. Today, Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most important offshoring centers in the world,[18] providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centers. However, due to the lack of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centers provide pooled-in cars to and from their offices.[18] Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialize in domain expertise. Siemens Industry Software, in Gurgaon Business Park, made a portfolio of design software that was used by NASA to digitally design, simulate and assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built.[18] Various international companies, including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, IBM, American Express, Agilent Technologies, Microsoft, and Bank of America, have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters.[18] All the major companies in the city depend on their own backup, given the fact that Gurgaon does not have reliable power and water supply, public transport and utilities. Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls.[19] Real estate is a major force in the city's economy. Gurgaon is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.

According to sociologist Mark Abrahamson writing in Urban Sociology: A Global Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2014),

"The investments made by MNCs located outside of India have enabled the best paid professionals in Gurgaon to enjoy numerous amenities, from commuting via private couriers to company-supported private medical clinics. Their neighborhoods offer very high-end housing in exclusive enclaves complete with manicured golf courses and well-supported schools. For those who can afford the best in modern shopping, several three-story malls are nearby containing stores from around the world, including LaCoste clothing (from Paris), Marks & Spencer Department stores (from London), and TGI Fridays restaurants (from Dallas). Life in other parts of Gurgaon is very different for the estimated 200,000 people who work sporadically, for low pay, on construction sites, as domestic help in the homes of the affluent, as security guards, and so on. Housing, schools, medical facilities, and recreation are very limited for these people because the MNCs that provide amenities for their professional staffs have not invested in public facilities that would benefit the low-end service workers. Many of them live in a slum just 1.5 miles from Cyber City’s high-rise offices. In their neighborhood, there is only occasional electricity, and pigs wallow in garbage and sewerage and along dirt-packed roads. Space in the local public schools is so limited relative to the number of children that only about half of them can attend, and these public schools are so underfunded they can not remain continuously open, even for those children to be fortunate enough to be allocated a space."[4]

Law and governance[edit]

Gurgaon is based on Municipal corporation form of government, where Mayor acts as the head of the city government. In June 2011, Vimal Yadav was the first person to hold this position[20] when the city became eligible to follow this kind of government due to population increase.

The crime graph is on a rise in Gurgaon. The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. Another rising concern is the increase in number of rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts including motor vehicle thefts. Gurgaon is experiencing high rates of homelessness, drug abuse, gang violence and prostitution. Several street gangs operate in the city.

Policing in Gurgaon is provided by Gurgaon Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police.[21] Gurgaon Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51.[22] Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.[23]

Culture[edit]

Several areas of the city participate in a weekly "Raahgiri Day" in which cars are prohibited from certain streets which are reserved for " exclusive use of people for running, cycling, skating, or other recreational activities ", an activity modeled after Bogota's Ciclovia. Initially instituted in November 2013, it is estimated that " two lakh people from the city and the National Capital Region " participate weekly as of March 2014.[24]

Education[edit]

The city's public school system, managed by the government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government schools. Schools like The Shri Ram School - Aravali (DLF City Phase 4), The Heritage School (Sector 62), and DAV Public School Sector 14 are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey[25]

There are seven universities located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district: Ansal Institute of Technology, ITM University, Sector 23A, GD Goenka University, Sohna Road, KR Mangalam University, Sohna Road, Amity University, Manasar, Apeejay Stya University, Palwal Road, Sohna and Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Budhera.[26] Gurgaon is also home to one of India's top ranked business school, Management Development Institute.

Transportation[edit]

The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8, the road that runs from Delhi to Mumbai. While the 17.2 miles (27.7 km) Delhi-Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an expressway, the rest is expanded to six lanes.[27]

Public transit in Gurgaon is mostly provided by government buses and Delhi Metro. Private buses & vans, and shared auto rickshaws also ply in the city. There are ten subway or metro stations in Gurgaon, of which five - Huda City Centre, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya are managed by Delhi Metro and six stations operated by Rapid Metro: Sikanderpur, Phase 2, Vodafone Belvedere Towers, IndusInd Bank Cyber City, Micormax Moulsari Avenue and Phase 3. Two stations, Shankar Chowk and Gateway tower, are scheduled to become operational soon. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 mi.[28] Two more phases of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations in Gurgaon to 16.

Operated by Indian Railways, the city has a rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other important cities in India like Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Jaipur.

Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, is a busy bus station in the city that provides bus connectivity, both private and government, to other cities in Haryana and neighboring states like Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and other cities like Chandigarh.

Gurgaon is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport, though the airport is just outside the city limits and located within the jurisdiction of Delhi near National Highway 8. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.

The city lacks facilities for pedestrians with almost no proper sidewalks. There are no proper routes for bicycles, though a large part of the population in the city use bicycles for commuting. With no designated bicycle lanes in Gurgaon, riding a bicycle could be dangerous due to uncontrolled driving of cars and lack of infrastructure.[29] The number of bicycles in Gurgaon is 76,984, as compared to 83,757 cars and 98,983 motorcycles and scooters.[30]

Infrastructure[edit]

Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW.[31] There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer.

For cellular voice module, most of the mobile network operators in Gurgaon use GSM technology, though a few carriers employ the CDMA platform. The mobile data service is offered through GPRS, CDMA, EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. Eight mobile phone service providers operate in Gurgaon - Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Aircel, MTS and BSNL. All these carriers offer voice and data service in pay-as-you-go (prepaid) and on a monthly rental with plan (post paid) basis.

Fixed line phone service in Gurgaon is provided by Airtel, Reliance, Tata Walky and BSNL.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011". Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d Abrahamson 2013, pp. 138–140.
  5. ^ a b Julka, Harsimran (30 September 2011). "IT firms looking beyond Gurgaon, Noida to other cities in north India". The Economic Times. ET Bureau. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Crime graph up, Gurgaon police get act together". Hindustan Times. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Kumar, K.P. Narayana. "Gurgaon: How not to Build a City". Forbesindia.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "HISTORICAL BACKGROUND". District Administration, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  9. ^ "History of Gurgaon". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  10. ^ "Demographics". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. 
  11. ^ "GGN/Gurgaon(3)". India Rail Info. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "Travel Info". The Metropolitan Hotel and Spa New Delhi. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  13. ^ dabas, maninder (17 September 2013). "dna special: Gurgaon is booming with gun culture". dna. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Anand, Deevakar (10 May 2013). "Gurgaon’s better than Delhi, but way behind Shanghai". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Home is where the heart is". TNN. Mar 19, 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "How green was Gurgaon’s parks". The Times of India. TNN. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  17. ^ "UK minister inaugurates business centre in Gurgaon". The Times of India. TNN. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Kannan, Shilpa. "Gurgaon: From fields to global tech hub". BBC. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  19. ^ "Gurgaon as IT outsourcing hub". Amit Arun and Associates. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  20. ^ Joseph, Joel (22 June 2011). "Gurgaon gets first mayor after month's wait". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  21. ^ "Gurgaon Police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  22. ^ "Gurgaon police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. 
  23. ^ "Gurgaon’s fourth fire station opens in Udyog Vihar". Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. TNN. 16 Apr 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  24. ^ "New area in Gurgaon to have 'Raahgiri Day'". Business Standard. IANS. February 27, 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  25. ^ "Top Schools in Gurgaon". Hindustan Times. 3 Mar 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "Universities & Colleges". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  27. ^ Dash, Dipak Kumar (7 December 2012). "NH8 stretch on Delhi-Gurgaon border is India’s deadliest road". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  28. ^ Joseph, Joel (13 November 2013). "From tomorrow, Gurgaon will finally have its Rapid Metro". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  29. ^ Gill, Vineet (22 October 2013). "Why doesn't Gurgaon have cycling lanes?". TNN. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "Raahgiri Day: Let’s start a revolution 'on two wheels'". The Times of India. TNN. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  31. ^ "Essar withdraws application for distribution licence in Gurgaon". PTI. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]