Punjabi Braille

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Punjabi Braille
Gurmukhi Braille
Type
Languages Punjabi language
Parent systems
Print basis
Gurmukhi alphabet

Punjabi Braille is the braille alphabet used in India for Punjabi. It is one of the Bharati braille alphabets, and largely conforms to the letter values of the other Bharati alphabets.[1]

Alphabet[edit]

The alphabet is as follows.[2] Vowel letters are used rather than diacritics, and they occur after consonants in their spoken order. For orthographic conventions, see Bharati Braille.

Gurmukhi
ISO a ā i ī u ū ē e ō o
Braille ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
Gurmukhi
ISO k kh g gh
Braille ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
Gurmukhi
ISO c ch j jh ñ
Braille ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
Gurmukhi
ISO ṭh ḍh
Braille ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) ⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
Gurmukhi
ISO t th d dh n
Braille ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
Gurmukhi
ISO p ph b bh m
Braille ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12) ⠘ (braille pattern dots-45) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
Gurmukhi
ISO y r l v
Braille ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Gurmukhi
ISO s h [3]
Braille ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)

Pointing[edit]

The Bharati point, , is only used to derive one consonant, ਗ਼ ġa /ɣə/, from the base consonant letter ਗ ga /ɡə/. This system also operates in Hindi Braille and Indian Urdu Braille, but the Punjabi Braille alphabet is closer to Indian Urdu, as all other consonants that are pointed in print, such as ਖ਼ xa, are rendered with dedicated letters in braille based on international values. The six pointed letters in the Gurmukhi script have the following equivalents in braille:

Gurmukhi ਖ਼ ਗ਼ ਜ਼ ਫ਼ ਲ਼ ਸ਼
ISO x ġ z f ś
Braille ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)

Codas[edit]

Points are used for syllable codas.

Gurmukhi ਕ੍ ਕਂ ਕਃ ਕਁ
Diacritics Halant Anusvara Visarga Candrabindu
Braille ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)

Punctuation[edit]

See Bharati Braille#Punctuation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Braille Usage, UNESCO, 2013
  2. ^ UNESCO (2013) World Braille Usage, 3rd edition.
  3. ^ Unesco (2013) also has for ੜ੍ਹ ṛh, but this is an apparent copy error: ੜ੍ਹ is a sequence ṛ-h, not the equivalent of the single letter ṛh in other Indic scripts.