Satsvarupa dasa Goswami

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His Holiness Satsvarūpa dāsa Goswāmī
Satsvarupa.jpg
Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
Religion Gaudiya Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism
Personal
Born (1939-12-06) December 6, 1939 (age 74)
New York
Senior posting
Based in USA
Title Goswami
Period in office
1972 - current
Predecessor A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Religious career
Initiation Diksa–1966, Sannyasa–1972
Post ISKCON Guru, Sannyasi
Website www.sdgonline.org

Satsvarupa das Goswami (IAST satsvarūpa dāsa gosvāmī, Devanagari: सत्स्वरूप दास गोस्वामी)[1] (born Stephen Guarino on December 6, 1939) is a senior disciple of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), better known in the West as the Hare Krishna movement. Serving as a writer, poet, and artist,[2][3] Satsvarupa dasa Goswami is the author of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's authorized biography,[4][5]Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta.[6][7] After Prabhupada's death, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was one of the eleven disciples selected to become an initiating guru in ISKCON.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, (Sanskrit: [ˈsaʈsʋɑɽʉːpa dɒːs ɡɔˈsʋæːmiː]), is one of the first few westerners ordained by Prabhupada in September 1966.[14][15] He has been since established as a prolific Vaishnava writer and poet. While traveling, lecturing on Krishna consciousness, and instructing disciples worldwide,[16] he published over hundred books including poems, memoirs, essays, novels, and studies based on the Vaishnava scriptures.[17] In his later years he created hundreds of paintings, drawings, and sculptures that attempt to capture and express his perspective on the culture of Krishna consciousness.[18]

Early years[edit]

He was born Stephen Guarino,[15] the elder of two children, to Italian Roman Catholic parents in Staten Island, New York. He was educated initially in a public high school nearby and then enrolled in the Brooklyn College, where he underwent an intellectual revolution putting in question his Catholic values. In the college he read Nietzsche and Dostoevsky and associated with students and professors who were religious skeptics.[19][20]

As soon as I went to college I underwent an intellectual revolution. Any religious sentiments I had gained from my mother were driven away by my college professors, who were dyed-in-the-wool Marxist intellectuals, Americans from the 1930s. They taught me their intellectual and atheistic views, and knocked aside my religious worship, saying it was sentimental. One of them said theology could never satisfactorily explain why evil was present in the world. I was attracted to their philosophy because my parents were not intellectual and had never aroused my intellectual capacity. But my professors opened up a whole new world for me. I became eager to study philosophy and literature. I came to see for myself that the church was hypocritical: in the foyer of our church the priests regularly raffled bottles of liquor (they called them “baskets of joy”). I became dissatisfied with the Catholic Church because it could not provide answers to my questions.

— Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, With Śrīla Prabhupāda in the Early Days, 1966-1969: A Memoir, Introduction[20]

In January 1962 he joined the Navy, where he served for two years on board of U.S.S. Saratoga, a super-carrier. In his introduction to With Śrīla Prabhupāda in the Early Days, 1966-1969 he writes: "A few months after the death of President Kennedy, I was honorably discharged, and without visiting my parents on Staten Island, I went directly to the Lower East Side. By then, the Lower East Side was, in my mind and in the minds of my friends, the most mystical place in the world."[20] "I certainly didn’t think some guru was suddenly going to appear and save me. I was too cynical. Yet I was regularly reading versions of the Bhagavad-gita and the Upanishads. Ironically, one week before the gift shop at 26 Second Avenue changed into Srila Prabhupada’s temple, I was standing in that very doorway with a Bhagavad-gita in my back pocket, waiting to meet a friend. Somehow we had chosen 26 Second Avenue as a meeting place. At that time, I had no idea what was about to happen."[20]

Satsvarupa dasa Goswami with A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in 1974

In July 1966 he met and accepted a spiritual instruction from A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami who registered ISKCON a month later. Prabhupada soon began assigning him typing tasks which Satsvarupa understood "to be yoga".[21] On September 23, 1966 he was ordained and shortly became one of the leading figures of the new Gaudiya Vaishnava movement.[19][22][23]

After Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's departure from this world he was one of eleven disciples selected to become an initiating guru in ISKCON. Prof. Larry Shinn in his overview of the contemporary state of the Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's movement confirms this while relating his first meeting with Satsvarupa dasa Goswami:

Thing that caused me to correct my initial prejudices about the Krishnas was that those who joined the movement came through several modes of conversion and from many different backgrounds. Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, who later was appointed as one of Prabhupada's guru successors, was one of the earliest devotees I met. He was in his late twenties when I met him in New York City. He had discovered the Krishnas as a result of a spiritual quest which was satisfied within this Indian tradition.

— L.Shinn, The Maturation of the Hare Krishnas in America, 1994[12]

In a typical initiation ceremony as a guru of International Society for Krishna Consciousness he would begin with purification using achamana (holy water) and concludes with a sermon on the importance of chanting of the holy names in the life of a new initiate.[24]

Personal servant of Prabhupada[edit]

In addition to periods of being a GBC personal assistant, the brief period between January and July 1974 during which he had the opportunity to act as a personal servant and secretary to the founder of ISKCON, Prabhupada, is noted. During this time his duties included bringing Prabhupada his medicine and toothbrush in the morning, accompanying him on his morning walk, preparing his breakfast and lunch and providing his daily massage. In other words, the tasks were those of a menial servant, while Satsvarupa das Goswami was excited about it. Some note that the first time Satsvarupa gave Prabhupada a massage it was "an intense spiritual experience" for him:[25]

Massaging Prabhupada was like new initiation. From my side, it was completely spiritual, ecstatic exchange, the essence of the personal servant's worship of the spiritual master.

—Life With the Perfect Master

One may understand how the service given to one's guru can be of such a value by seeing it in the ritual religious context. The theme of status difference, enriched with the idea of intimacy, coalesce in this simple pattern of devotee massaging the spiritual master's legs and feet in the cultural models expressed in puja and innumerable other Vaishnava contexts. Satsvarupa took the posture of a menial servant with evident relish. It is also taken as an example of ideal typical model of the guru-disciple relationship as a disciple should always consider him- or herself a menial servant of the spiritual master.[25]

Literary contribution[edit]

As a writer he is following a line of teachers or gurus in his religious tradition. In his review Srivatsa Goswami suggests this view with a reference to the "path of Six Goswamis":[26] Satsvarupa dasa Goswami's writing[27] represents a contemporary variety from commentaries on scriptures to a free flowing poetry and prose.[28] His writings were translated to over forty languages by the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust and Gita Nagari Press. He was also requested by Bhaktivedanta Book Trust to complete a number of works,[12][29][30] started by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.[31]

Biographies[edit]

One of widely read and translated of all his books is Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta.[32] It’s a biography of the founder of the Hare Krishna movement, depicting him through different stages of his life.[33] It was written with the help of a large research team for a period of over six years. Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta is based on material given by interviewers and researchers and is based on a system of ascertaining whether a reported biographical story is authentic. By researching tape recordings of Prabhupada author provided accurate quotes of his statements wherever possible.[34] In this biographical work he would always look for several reliable witnesses, in addition to the one who is recalling a particular event.

In striking contrast to doldrums Edward Dimock reported in 1966 the volumes remind us that religious tradition can harbor a deceptive vitality and have a remarkable capacity for renewal and regeneration. ..Srila Prabhupada lilamrita clearly follows Caitanya Caritamrita and concentrated on the "nectar of his life" (i.e. caritamrta). This is completely valid in the case of a saint who has conveyed his spiritual and theological message directly to his life.

— Srivatsa Goswami, Journal of Asian Studies, 1983[35]

Other biographical works include He Lives Forever (1978) (lectures on the significance of Prabhupada’s death) and five volumes of Prabhupada Nectar (1983–86) (collection of anecdotes told by Prabhupäda’s disciples and compiled by Satsvarupa dasa Goswami) and a number of other titles.[36][37][38] His memoir With Sréla Prabhupada in the Early Days (1991) covers the early years of 1966–1969, his book Life With the Perfect Master (1983) describes the seven-month period in 1974, when he served as Prabhupada’s personal servant.[39]

Scriptural writings[edit]

Books included in this category include titles published by Bhaktivedanta Book Trust such as Narada Bhakti Sutra[40] and Mukunda Mala Strotra,[41] both unfinished works of his preceptor, as well as the multi-volume A Poor Man Reads the Bhagavatam – elaboration on Bhaktivedanta Purports of the Bhagavata Purana. From 1966 to recent years Satsvarupa has been contributing to Back to Godhead magazine. His articles in the Back to Godhead often demonstrate variety of legitimate perspectives on different issues and perspectives in spiritual understanding of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[42]

Academic presentation[edit]

His book published in 1975 during A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's lifetime was Readings in Vedic Literature: the Tradition Speaks for Itself.[43] Prabhupada was appreciative of reviews of the book by the academic circles.[44] In the years to follow Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was supportive of the foundation of Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and some of his works were published in the ISKCON Communications Journal[45] (ICJ) and reviewed by the academia in ICJ academic journal.[46][47] Despite initial anti-cult controversies, the Hare Krishna movement today is viewed by the academics as "the most genuinely Hindu of all the many Indian movements in the West".[48]

Personal writings[edit]

A number of his books are employing techniques of free-writing. Diaries and the letters collection from Prabhupada are spanning from the very beginning of the movement in 1966 in the West and provide an account of the ISKCON movement from the very first years to present days. Martin Palmer, Director of the International Consultancy on Religion, Education and Culture and Religious Adviser to World Wide Fund for Nature wrote of his book Entering the Life of Prayer 'I recommend this book to any who are genuinely wrestling with the implications of faith and with the path of prayer. It deserves to become a spiritual classic.'[49]

Art and poetry[edit]

Number of his poetical works were published in modern American idiom. He was also published in prominent Haiku magazines, the poetry dedicated to Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada glorification received positive reviews. His paintings and sculpture have also been reviewed by the Washington Times.[50] His works as the self-taught artist are reflective of dedication of his life to the "study of Vedic literature and the teachings of the spiritual tradition".[51]

Other services within ISKCON[edit]

Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was a pioneer in the early days of the movement, and is the most senior member of the movement at present. He was appointed as a guru by his perceptor.[23] Satvarupa was also one of the original members appointed as (GBC) Governing Body Commission created by Prabhupada in 1970 to gradually take on the responsibility of the spiritual management duties in ISKCON. Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was selected a trusty in the will of A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada for the management of ISKCON.[52]

Brief history in ISKCON[edit]

Early days[edit]

Since ISKCON incorporation in July 1966 at 26 Second Avenue Satsvarupa dasa was engaged as A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's personal typist and ISKCON secretary for the first year.[21][53] He was one of few devotees who were maintaining outside jobs to support the ISKCON temple at the beginning.[54] Later he was managing ISKCON Boston and ISKCON Press, that grew to be later be registered as Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Upon assuming duties of a GBC (Governing Body Commissioner) in 1970, Satsvarupa was asked by Prabhupada to accept order of sannyasa in 1972. He accepted sannyasa along with other GBC members, all of whom were originally married man, such as Tamal Krishna Goswami and Hridayananda dasa Goswami. At the time A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada awarded him and other followers the title Goswami with the single line instruction: Preach, preach, preach![55] He is sometimes listed among active promoters of ahimsa among other eastern religious teachers.[55]

During diksa ceremony in 1979

Preaching and traveling[edit]

Main preaching activities by the means of traveling sankirtana parties were centered in United States. BBT (Bhaktivedanta Book Trust) Library Party headed by him in mid-1970s was active in establishing distribution network mainly to the Universities of the United States, with some members of the team such as Bhakti Tirtha Swami and Suhotra Dasa traveling as far as Eastern Europe.

In 1974, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was requested by Prabhupada to join him as traveling GBC servant, replacing previous servant Srutakirti Dasa and travelled as a menial servant around the globe.[56]

Managing BTG[edit]

From the early days of ISKCON, the Back to Godhead[57] was project required a lot of both contribution and supervision.[58] Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was editor in chief and one of the main contributors to this magazine till 1991, when assisted editor Jayadvaita Swami took over as the editor in chief.[59]

Dealing with early "zonal acarya" days[edit]

In accordance with ISKCON GBC Governing Body Commission resolutions March 1978 Satsvarupa dasa Goswami along with other eleven Governing Body Commissioners assumed duties and services of initiating disciples in assigned zones after the departure of Prabhupada from the planet.[60][61] Initial preaching areas in the United States and Caribbean were expanded with an addition of Ireland in 1982 where he became a zonal acharya.[62][63] The assumption of equal status to Srila Prabhupada and the title of acharya are still surrounded in a controversy. While following the direction of Governing Body Commission, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami was one of the pioneers who attempted to reform the system, by assuming more humble and appropriate role of a guru as per recorded instructions of the founder-acharya.[64] While imitation of Prabhupada was criticised, despite these warnings, specifically by Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, such imitation sometimes resulted in curious side-effects and many devotees adopted Prabhupada’s mannerisms. This remained evident especially among the older American devotees who even now speak with an Indian accent and display many of Prabhupada’s gestures like turning one's head or moving one's hand in a certain way.[65]

At the Houston Book Fair, 2005

Later years[edit]

In years 1978-1985 he took part in a controversial zonal acarya system in a position of an Acharya while initiating reform of a high standard of worship. In 1986-1987 a number of senior members and newly appointed GBC members with the support of Satsvarupa dasa Goswami reformed ISKCON guru system, lowering unprecedented level of worship reserved to initiating gurus in ISKCON. He was called as the "most vocal in the cause of reform" in ISKCON.[66] Satsvarupa dasa Goswami recorded this period in his book Guru Reform Notebook (1987). Throughout the years that followed, up until the end of the century, new ISKCON guru system was further developed.[64]

In 1999 Governing Body Commission confirmed GBC Emeritus status of his membership of the Governing Body of ISKCON.[67]

Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (left) with his disciple Yadunandana Swami, summer 2009

His extensive traveling in Europe in 1990s included areas of Scandinavia, Eastern, Central Europe and Italy, but mainly centered in preaching in Ireland and UK.[68] In following years, his devotional life has included the creation of hundreds of paintings, drawings, and sculptures[69] that capture and express the artist's vision of Krishna consciousness. His latest literary work is centered on his commentary on Bhagavata Purana known as A Poor Man Reads the Bhagavatam.[70]

In 2002, he suffered a physical and emotional collapse from chronic migraine headaches, a condition that required immediate medical intervention and treatment. In consultation with the official governing body of the Krishna consciousness society, he agreed to cease initiating disciples.[71] With the GBC consultation, he retained his Goswami title and continued in the sannyasa order and as an ISKCON guru.[72][73]

Following a period of health recovery, at the age of 68, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami took residence in the East Coast United States where he is engaging in a number of preaching activities, such as regular lecturing and traveling to the holy dhamas. All of the associated preaching and traveling is complementing his main service of commenting and answering disciples' questions on the Bhaktivedanta Purports being published as the volumes of A Poor Man Reads the Bhagavatam and daily online journal.[74]

Select bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

Notable Disciples

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Library of Congress refers to two variants of Personal Name spelling: Goswami, Satsvarupa Das, 1939- and Goswāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa, 1939-; WorldCat refers to 3 different spellings including two variants of diacritical spelling.'Satsvarūpa Dāsa Goswami', 'Satsvarupa Dasa Gosvami', 'Satsvarūpa Dasa Goswāmī'
  2. ^ The American Humanities Index Humanities - 1991, Whitston Pub. Co, ISBN 0-87875-417-2, p. 1148
  3. ^ Report on painting exhibition. Georgetown. Washington Times, Nov 10, 2001. "check out whimsical, colorful paintings and sculpture by writer Satsvarupa dasa Goswami from 11 am to 6 pm today at the gallery"
  4. ^ George D. Chryssides, Margaret Z. Wilkins. A Reader in New Religious Movements, 2006, ISBN 0-8264-6168-9 p. 208
  5. ^ Gosvāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa (2002) [1983]. Srīla Prabhupāda-līlāmrta: a biography of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-357-0. 
  6. ^ "Srila Prabhupada Lilamrita". www.krishna.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  7. ^ "Britannica on A.C. Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada". References to authorised biography by Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (in engl). britannica.com. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  8. ^ Smith, Huston; Harry Oldmeadow (2004). Journeys East: 20th century Western encounters with Eastern religious traditions. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom. p. 272. ISBN 0-941532-57-7. "Before his death Prabhupada appointed eleven American devotees as gurus." 
  9. ^ Rochford, E. Burke (1985). Hare Krishna in America. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-8135-1114-3. "In the months preceding his death Srila Prabhupada appointed eleven of his closest disciples to act as initiating gurus for ISKCON" 
  10. ^ Ron Rhodes (2001). Challenge of the Cults and New Religions. Zondervan. p. 179. ISBN 0-310-23217-1. "Before Prabhupada died in 1977, he selected senior devotees who would continue to direct the organization." 
  11. ^ Rodney Stark (1985). Religious movements. Paragon House Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 0-913757-43-8. "Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, one of the eleven initiating gurus Bhaktivedanta appointed to succeed him..." 
  12. ^ a b c Shinn ISKCON Communications Journal-1994, 2.1
  13. ^ Hare Krishna leader visits local followers Daily Collegian, Penn State University, August 5, 1981
  14. ^ N. Suman Bhat, N. Suman. Torch: Bearers of the Krishna Cult. 2005, Sura Books. ISBN 81-7478-542-6 p. 81 "Steve became Satsvarupa, Bruce became Brahmananda..."
  15. ^ a b S. Rosen Holy Cow: The Hare Krishna Contribution to Vegetarianism and Animal Rights. 2004, Lantern Books. ISBN 1-59056-066-3 p. 116 "one of Prabhupada's earliest and most dedicated disciples"
  16. ^ "Questions and Answers with disciples and friends and lectures". Audio archive. MP3 (in engl). iskcondesiretree.com. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  17. ^ Rosen, Steven (2007). Krishna's Song: a new look at the Bhagavad Gita. New York: Praeger. p. 32. ISBN 0-313-34553-8. "Satsvarupa Dasa Gosvami, a contemporary devotee of Krishna and author of over a hundred books on Vaishnava traditions." 
  18. ^ "Washington Post". Nov 9, 2001 Paintings and sculpture by Satsvarupa dasa Goswami. (in engl). highbeam.com. 2001. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  19. ^ a b Shinn 1987, p. 44
  20. ^ a b c d Gosvāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa (1997). With Śrīla Prabhupāda in the early days: a memoir. Port Royal, Pa: GN Press. ISBN 0-911233-84-9. 
  21. ^ a b John P Reis, God is Not Dead; He Has Simply Changed Clothes: A Study of the International Society for Kṛṣṇa Consciousness University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1975, p.145
  22. ^ Letter by A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, 11 November 1967 to Brahmananda, "I do not want crowd of Kirtananandas but I want a single soul like Brahmananda, Mukunda, Rayarama, and Satsvarupa. The same example is always applicable that one moon is sufficient for the night as not thousands of stars...Without being empowered by Krishna, nobody can preach Krishna Consciousness. It is not academic qualification or financial strength which helps in these matters, but it is sincerity of purpose which helps us always. Therefore, I wish that you will remain in charge of New York, let Satsvarupa be in charge of Boston, Let Mukunda be in charge of San Francisco...Letters quote
  23. ^ a b Hare Krishna in America - Page 284, 295 E. Burke Rochford, 1985. 324 pages, ISBN 0-8135-1114-3
  24. ^ Shinn 1987, p. 104
  25. ^ a b Ketola 2008, pp. 113–117
  26. ^ Rosen & 1992 256
  27. ^ [[1]] Check |authorlink= value (help) (2003). "represents 30 digitally available volumes of transcripts of Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami books forming large portion of the collection" (in engl). Bhaktivedanta Vedabase. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  28. ^ Goswami,One Hundred Prabhupada Poems. 1995
  29. ^ Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami (1998). Narada-bhakti-sutra: The Secrets of Transcendental Love. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-273-6. 
  30. ^ Introduction by publishers.
  31. ^ BBT Official Authors Biography.
  32. ^ Audio book online Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta - Bhagavat-Asraya abridged audio rendition of "Prabhupada, Your Ever Well-wisher".
  33. ^ Phyllis G. Jestice,Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia 2004 ABC-CLIO p.122, ISBN 1-57607-355-6
  34. ^ G. Harrison, "I had a copy of the Hare Krishna album with Prabhupada singing 'Hare Krishna' with the devotees," George Harrison told Satsvarupa Das Gosvami during the Lilamrita interview of George Harrison quoted from Dark Horse: The Life and Art of George Harrison, Geoffrey Giuliano, 1997 - Page 199
  35. ^ Goswami, Srivatsa.; Dasa Goswami, Satsvarupa; Cox, Harvey; Hopkins, Thomas J.; Judah, J. Stillson (1983). "Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta.". Journal of Asian Studies 42 (4): 986–988. doi:10.2307/2054828. JSTOR 2054828. 
  36. ^ Goswami 1983, preface
  37. ^ L.Shinn,Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta, Introduction, Vol.1, 1981
  38. ^ Ketola 2008, p. 10
  39. ^ Dr. Kimmo Ketola An Indian guru and his western disciples May 2002. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Department of Comparative Religion p. 13
  40. ^ Narada-Bhakti-Sutra: The Secrets of Transcendental Love, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Author), Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami (Author) ISBN 0-89213-273-6
  41. ^ Mukunda Mala Stotra: The Prayers of King Kulasekhara, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Author), Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami (Author) ISBN 0-89213-275-2
  42. ^ Nurit Zaidman The Integration of Indian Immigrants to Temples Run by North Americans, in 'Social Compass', Vol. 47, No. 2, p.205-219 (2000)
  43. ^ ISKCON Communications Journal Vol 3, No 1 - June 1995 The First Indologists. Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
  44. ^ An example of such review may be found in Thomas J. Hopkins's "Foreword" to this book. Smith, Wilfred Cantwell (1993). What is scripture?: a comparative approach. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. p. 303. ISBN 0-8006-2608-7. 
  45. ^ The Inner Life of a Preacher ICJ Vol 1, No 2 December 1994.
  46. ^ ICJ Authors page of Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
  47. ^ Review of the A Poor Man Reading the Bhagavatam, vol.1. by Dr. K. Klostermaier, ICJ 5.1
  48. ^ Klostermair 2000, Intro
  49. ^ Palmer, M. "ICJ, Vol. 4, No. 2 Contents". 
  50. ^ Today'S Best Bets The Washington Times, 10 November 2001
  51. ^ Raw vision (magazine) nos. 34-37 2001, By Outsider Archive
  52. ^ Reader in New Religious Movements George D. Chryssides, Margaret Wilkins. 2006, Continuum International Publishing Group ISBN 0-8264-6167-0
  53. ^ Passage from India: The Life and Times of His Divine Grace A.C Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Steven Rosen, Satsvarūpa Dāsa Goswāmī, 1992, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, Page 99
  54. ^ Burr, Angela (1984). I am Not My Body: A Study of the International Hare Krishna Sect. New Delhi: Vikas. p. 92. ISBN 0-7069-2296-4. 
  55. ^ a b Goswami (see:). Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 5. BBT. p. 95. 
  56. ^ Kimmo Ketola (2008). The Founder of the Hare Krishnas as Seen by Devotees: A Cognitive Study of Religious Charisma (Numen Book Series). Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 123. ISBN 90-04-16613-0. 
  57. ^ magazine Back to Godhead - official magazine of ISKCON[unreliable source?]
  58. ^ Popular Religious Magazines of the United States - Page 61 by Mark Fackler, Charles H. Lippy, 1995
  59. ^ "Biodata for Jayadvaita Swami". www.jswami.info. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  60. ^ See: Back to Godhead, Notes from the Editor, #1301/02 1978
  61. ^ Rawlinson, Andrew (1997). The book of enlightened masters: western teachers in eastern traditions. La Salle, Ill: Open Court. p. 186. ISBN 0-8126-9310-8. 
  62. ^ [[2]] Check |authorlink= value (help) (1983), "Irish times - Televised debate with Satsvarupa dasa Goswami", Irish Times, Fri 08 (April): 26 
  63. ^ [[3]] Check |authorlink= value (help) (1984), "ILate Late show - announcement - special guest Satsvarupa dasa Goswami", Irish Times, Fri 30 (April): 30 
  64. ^ a b Satsvarupa dasa Goswami (1992). "quote in Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America By J. Gordon Melton, Melton J. Gordon,". Guru Reform Notebook. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-1140-0. 
  65. ^ Ketola 2008, part seven
  66. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1989). The encyclopedia of American religions. Detroit: Gale Research. p. 868. ISBN 0-8103-2841-0. "Most vocal in the cause of reform was Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, who authored an official biorgraphy" 
  67. ^ "GBC Resolution 1999 by ISKCON - Governing Body Commission". gbc.iskcon.org. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  68. ^ "Audio - ISKCON desire tree: His Holiness Satsvarupa Das Goswami". audio.iskcondesiretree.info. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  69. ^ "SDG Video Ministry - The Talks & Artshows of Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami". www.sdgvm.com. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  70. ^ Klostermaier, K.K. "ISKCON Communications Journal - ICJ Vol. 5, No. 1". www.iskcon.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  71. ^ Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Visitors in About the Author, (2007)
  72. ^ Rochford, E. Burke (2007). Hare Krishna transformed. New York: New York University Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-8147-7579-9. "Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami still is an ISKCON guru, but as of 2005, he was not initiating new disciples" 
  73. ^ List of Sannyasis in ISKCON April 2008 ISKCON Sannyasa Ministry, Retrieved on 2008-05-05
  74. ^ "India Journal 7 - winter 2008 travel to the holy places in India by SDG". www.sdgonline.org. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 

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