Gustav III of Sweden
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2011)|
|Gustav III painted in 1777 by Alexander Roslin|
|Reign||12 February 1771 – 29 March 1792|
|Coronation||29 May 1772|
|Successor||Gustav IV Adolf|
|Spouse||Sophia Magdalena of Denmark|
|Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden
Prince Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland
|House||House of Holstein-Gottorp|
|Father||Adolf Frederick of Sweden|
|Mother||Louisa Ulrika of Prussia|
|Born||24 January 1746
|Died||29 March 1792
Stockholm Palace, Stockholm
|Burial||13 April 1792
Riddarholmen Church, Stockholm
Gustav III (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1746 – 29 March 1792 Note on dates) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Adolph Frederick and Queen Louise Ulrica who was a sister of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
He was a vocal opponent of what he saw as abuses by the nobility of a permissiveness established by parliamentarian reforms that had been worked out since the death of Charles XII. He seized power from the government in a coup d'état in 1772, ending the Age of Liberty and venturing into a campaign to restore royal autocracy. This was completed by the Union and Security Act in 1789, sweeping away most of the last pretences of Riksdag rule. As a bulwark of enlightened despotism, he spent considerable public funds on cultural ventures: this contributed among his critics to controversy about his reign. Attempts to seize Norway with Russian assistance, and then to recapture the Baltic provinces by a war against Russia, were unsuccessful, although much of Sweden's former military might was restored. An admirer of Voltaire, Gustav legalized Catholic and Jewish presence in the realm and enacted wide-ranging reforms aimed at economic liberalism, social reform and the abolition, in many cases, of torture and capital punishment, although the much-praised 1766 Freedom of Press Act was severely curtailed by amendments in 1774 and 1792, which effectively extinguished all independent media.
Following the French Revolution, Gustav pursued an alliance of monarchs aimed at crushing the insurrection and reinstating his French counterpart, Louis XVI, offering Swedish assistance to the royal cause in France under his leadership. He was mortally wounded by a gunshot in the lower back during a masquerade ball, as part of a noblist-parliamentary coup attempt, but managed to assume command and quell the uprising before succumbing to septicemia 13 days later, a period during which he received apologies from many of his political enemies. Only Anckarström, the actual gunman, suffered death as result: and, according to the King's criminal policy, was only tortured after confessing voluntarily and being duly convicted. Gustav's immense powers were placed in the hands of a regency under his brother, Duke Carl until his son Gustav IV Adolf assumed the throne in 1796. The Gustavian autocracy hence survived until 1809, when it perished in another coup.
A patron of the arts and benefactor of arts and literature, Gustav founded several academies, among them the Swedish Academy, created a national costume and had the Royal Swedish Opera built. In 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture, mining and commerce.
- 1 Royal title
- 2 Education
- 3 Marriage and sons
- 4 Politics of an heir apparent
- 5 Coup d'état
- 6 Between constitutionalism and absolutism
- 7 Absolute monarchy
- 8 Russo–Swedish War (1788–1790)
- 9 Assassination
- 10 Contributions to culture
- 11 Saint-Barthélemy and Gustavia
- 12 Ancestors
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Gustav III was known in Sweden and abroad by his Royal Titles, or styles:
- Gustav, by the Grace of God, of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends King, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, Heir to Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn and Dithmarschen, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc. etc.
Gustav was born in Stockholm, and was educated under the care of two governors who were amongst the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day, Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer; but he owed most perhaps to the poet and historian Olof von Dalin.
The interference of the state with his education as a young child was doubly harmful, as his parents taught him to despise the preceptors[clarification needed] imposed upon him by the Estates of the Realm, and the atmosphere of intrigue and duplicity in which he grew up made him precociously experienced in the art of dissimulation.
Even his most hostile teachers were amazed by his combination of natural gifts; and, while still a boy, he possessed that charm of manner which was to make him so fascinating and so dangerous in later life, coupled with the strong dramatic instinct which won his honourable place in Swedish literature.
On the whole, Gustav cannot be said to have been well educated, but he read widely; there was scarcely a French author of his day with whose works he was not intimately acquainted; while his enthusiasm for the new French ideas of enlightenment was as sincere as, if more critical than, his mother's.
Marriage and sons
By proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766, Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark. The match was not a happy one, owing partly to an incompatibility of temperament; but still more to the interference of the jealous Queen Mother. The marriage produced two children: Crown Prince Gustav Adolf (1778–1837), and Prince Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland (Drottningholm, 25 August 1782 – Stockholm, 23 March 1783). For the consummation of the marriage, the king and queen requested actual physical instruction by Adolf Munck, reportedly because of anatomical problems of both spouses. Gustav's mother supported rumors that he was not the father of his first son and heir. It was rumored at the time that Gustav indulged in homosexuality. The close personal relationships which he formed with two of his courtiers, Count Axel von Fersen and Baron Gustav Armfelt, were alluded to in that regard. His sister-in-law Charlotte implied as much in her famous diary. Professor Erik Lönnroth of the Swedish Academy, who has described the assistance provided by Munck, has concluded that there is no factual basis for the assumption that Gustav III was homosexual. When his second son was born, there was no doubt in anyone as to his legitimacy, and the boy was strong and healthy. King Gustav was especially fond of him and suffered obvious and severe mental and physical reactions to the baby's illness and death. The spring of 1783 has been considered a turning point in the king's personality, after his controversial mother's death, then with the calming birth of the Duke of Småland followed by severe grief caused by that death.
Politics of an heir apparent
Gustav first intervened actively in politics in 1768, when he compelled the dominant Cap faction to summon an extraordinary diet from which he hoped for the reform of the constitution in a monarchical direction. But the victorious Hat party refused to redeem the pledges which they had given before the elections. "That we should have lost the constitutional battle does not distress us so much", wrote Gustav, in the bitterness of his heart; "but what does dismay me is to see my poor nation so sunk in corruption as to place its own felicity in absolute anarchy."
He was an enthusiast about Sweden's national history, and proudly remembered that he descended, through his paternal grandmother, from the House of Vasa: from King Gustav I of Sweden and from a sister of Charles X Gustav of Sweden.
From 4 February to 25 March 1771, Gustav was in Paris, where he carried both the court and the city by storm. The poets and the philosophers paid him enthusiastic homage, and distinguished women testified to his superlative merits. With many of them he maintained a lifelong correspondence. His visit to the French capital was, however, no mere pleasure trip; it was also a political mission. Confidential agents from the Swedish court had already prepared the way for him, and the Duke of Choiseul had resolved to discuss with him the best method of bringing about a revolution in France's ally, Sweden. Before he departed, the French government undertook to pay the outstanding subsidies to Sweden unconditionally, at the rate of one and a half million livres annually; and Count de Vergennes, one of the great names of French diplomacy, was transferred from Constantinople to Stockholm.
On his way home Gustav paid a short visit to his uncle, Frederick the Great, at Potsdam. Frederick bluntly informed his nephew that, in concert with Russia and Denmark, he had guaranteed the integrity of the existing Swedish constitution, and significantly advised the young monarch to play the part of mediator and abstain from violence.
On his return to Sweden, Gustav III tried to mediate between the bitterly divided Hat and Cap parties. On 21 June 1771, he opened his first Riksdag of the Estates (parliament) with a speech which aroused powerful emotions. It was the first time for more than a century that a Swedish king had addressed a Swedish Riksdag in its native tongue. He stressed the need for all parties to sacrifice their animosities for the common good, and volunteered, as "the first citizen of a free people," to be the mediator between the contending factions. A composition committee was actually formed, but it proved illusory from the first: the patriotism of neither faction was sufficient for the smallest act of self-denial. The subsequent attempts of the dominant Caps to reduce him to a roi fainéant (a powerless king), encouraged him to consider a coup.
Under the sway of the Cap faction, Sweden seemed threatened with falling prey to Russia. It appeared on the point of being absorbed in that "Northern System" which the Russian vice-chancellor, Count Nikita Panin, strove to bring about. It seemed that only a swift and sudden coup d'état could preserve Sweden's independence.
At this juncture Gustav III was approached by Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten, a Finnish nobleman, who had incurred the enmity of the Caps, with the project of a revolution. He undertook to seize the fortress of Sveaborg by a coup de main, and once Finland was secured, to embark for Sweden, join up with the king and his friends near Stockholm, and force the estates to accept a new constitution from the untrammelled king.
The plotters were at this juncture reinforced by Johan Christopher Toll, also a victim of Cap oppression. Toll proposed to raise a second revolt in the province of Scania, and to secure the southern fortress of Kristianstad. After some debate, it was arranged that Kristianstad should openly declare against the government, a few days after the Finnish revolt had begun. Duke Charles (Karl), the eldest of the king's brothers, would thereupon be forced to hastily mobilize the garrisons of all the southern fortresses, ostensibly to crush the revolt at Kristianstad; but on arriving before the fortress he was to make common cause with the rebels, and march upon the capital from the south, while Sprengtporten attacked it simultaneously from the east.
On 6 August 1772 Toll succeeded, by sheer bluff, in winning the fortress of Kristianstad. On 16 August Sprengtporten succeeded in surprising Sveaborg. But contrary winds prevented him from crossing to Stockholm, and meanwhile events had occurred which made his presence there unnecessary.
Gustav III of Sweden
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
|Alternative style||Ers Majestät|
On 16 August, the Cap leader, Ture Rudbeck, arrived at Stockholm with news of the insurrection in the south, and Gustav found himself isolated in the midst of enemies. Sprengtporten lay weather-bound in Finland, Toll was 500 miles away, the Hat leaders were in hiding. Gustav thereupon resolved to strike the decisive blow without waiting for Sprengtporten's arrival.
He acted promptly. On the evening of 18 August all the officers whom he thought he could trust received secret instructions to assemble in the great square facing the arsenal on the following morning. At ten o'clock on 19 August Gustav mounted his horse and rode to the arsenal. On the way his adherents joined him in little groups, as if by accident, so that by the time he reached his destination he had about 200 officers in his suite.
After parade he reconducted them to the guard-room, in the north western wing of the palace where the Guard of Honour had its headquarters, and unfolded his plans to them. He told the assembled officers that:
- "If you follow me, just like your ancestors followed Gustav Vasa and Gustavus Adolphus, then I will risk my life and blood for you and the salvation of the fatherland!"
A young ensign then spoke up:
- "We are willing to sacrifice both blood and life in Your Majesty's service!"
Gustav then dictated a new oath of allegiance, and everyone signed it without hesitation. It absolved them from their allegiance to the estates, and bound them solely to obey "their lawful king, Gustav III".
Meanwhile the Privy Council and its president, Rudbeck, had been arrested and the fleet secured. Then Gustav made a tour of the city and was everywhere received by enthusiastic crowds, who hailed him as a deliverer. A song was also composed by Carl Mikael Bellman called Toast to King Gustav!
On the evening of 20 August heralds roamed the streets proclaiming that the estates were to meet at the Palace on the following day; every deputy absenting himself would be regarded as the enemy of his country and his king, and on 21 August the king appeared in full regalia. Taking his seat on the throne, he delivered his famous philippic, viewed as one of the masterpieces of Swedish oratory, in which he reproached the estates for their unpatriotic venality and license in the past.
Part of the speech by Gustav III to the Estates:
- ...has given birth to hatred, hatred to revenge, revenge to persecution, persecution to new revolutions which finally have passed into a period of disease, which has wounded and degraded the whole nation. Ambition and lust for glory on the part of a few people have damaged the realm, and blood has been shed by both parties, and the result of this has been the suffering of the people. The establishment of their own power base has been the sole goal of those ruling, often at the cost of other citizens, and always at the cost of the nation. In times when the law was clear, the law was distorted, and when that was not possible, it was broken. Nothing has been sacred to a populace bent on hatred and revenge, and lunacy has finally reached so far, that it has been assumed that members of parliament are above the law, their not having any other guidance than their own consciences. By this Freedom, the most noble of human rights have been transformed by an unbearable aristocratic despotism in the hands of the ruling party, which in itself has been subdued by few...
A new Constitution was read to the estates and unanimously accepted by them. The diet was then dissolved.
Between constitutionalism and absolutism
Gustav worked towards reform in the same direction as other contemporary sovereigns of the Age of Enlightenment. Criminal justice became more lenient, the death penalty was restricted to a relatively short list of crimes (including murder), and torture was abolished in order to gain confessions, although "strict death penalty", with torture-like corporal punishment preceding the execution, was maintained.
He took an active part in every department of business, but relied heavily on extra-official counsellors of his own choosing rather than upon the senate. The effort to remedy the widespread corruption that had flourished under the Hats and Caps engaged a considerable share of his time and he even found it necessary to put on trial the entire Göta Hovrätt, the superior court of justice in Jönköping.
Measures were also taken to reform the administration and judicial procedures. In 1774 an ordinance was proclaimed providing for the liberty of the press, though "within certain limits". The national defences were raised to a "Great Power" scale, and the navy was so enlarged as to become one of the most formidable in Europe. The dilapidated finances were set in good order by the "currency realization ordinance" of 1776.
Gustav also introduced new national economic policies. In 1775 free trade in grain was promoted and several oppressive export tolls were abolished. The poor law was amended, limited religious liberty was proclaimed for both Roman Catholics and Jews, and Gustav even designed and popularized a national costume, which was in general use among the upper classes from 1778, until his death. (It is still worn by the ladies of the court on state occasions.) The king's one great economic blunder was the attempt to make the sale of alcohol a government monopoly, which clearly infringed upon the privileges of the estates.
His foreign policy, on the other hand, was at first both restrained and cautious. Thus, when the king summoned the estates to assemble at Stockholm on 3 September 1778, he could give a highly positive account of his six years' stewardship. The parliament was quite obsequious towards the king. "There was no room for a single question during the whole session."
Short as the session was, it was long enough for the deputies to realize that their political supremacy had departed. They had changed places with the king. He was now indeed their sovereign lord; and, for all his gentleness, the jealousy with which he guarded, the vigour with which he enforced the prerogative, plainly showed that he meant to remain so.
Even those who were prepared to acquiesce in the change by no means liked it. If the diet of 1778 had been docile, the diet of 1786 was mutinous. The consequence was that nearly all the royal propositions were either rejected outright or so modified that Gustav himself withdrew them.
Earlier in foreign affairs, however, and privately, Gustav had shown considerable interest in the American Revolution and had this to say about it in October 1776:
- It is such an interesting drama to see a nation create itself, that I – if I now had not been who I am – would go to America to follow up close every phase in the emergence of this new republic. – This perhaps is America's century. The new republic, which hardly has a population put together better than Rome had to begin with, may perhaps take advantage of Europe some day, in the same manner as Europe has taken advantage of America for two centuries. No matter what, I cannot help but admire their courage and enthusiastically appreciate their daring.
The Riksdag of 1786 marks a turning-point in Gustav's history. Henceforth he showed a growing determination to rule without a parliament; a passage, cautious and gradual, yet unflinching, from semi-constitutionalism to semi-absolutism.
At the same time, his foreign policy became more adventurous. At first he sought to gain Russian support to acquire Norway from Denmark. When Catherine II refused to abandon her ally Denmark, Gustav declared war on Russia in June 1788, while it was deeply engaged in a war with the Ottoman Empire to the south. In embarking on a war of aggression without the consent of the estates, Gustav violated his own constitution of 1772 – which led to a serious mutiny, the Anjala Conspiracy, among his aristocratic officers in Finland. Denmark declared war in support of its Russian ally, but was soon neutralized through British and Prussian diplomacy.
Returning to Sweden, Gustav aroused popular indignation against the mutinous, aristocratic officers, ultimately quelled their rebellion, and arrested its leaders. Capitalizing on the powerful anti-aristocratic passions thus aroused, Gustav summoned a Riksdag early in 1789, at which he put through an Act of Union and Security on 17 February 1789 with the backing of the three lower estates. This powerfully reinforced monarchical authority, although the estates retained the power of the purse. In return, Gustav abolished most of the old privileges of the nobility.
Russo–Swedish War (1788–1790)
Throughout 1789 and 1790 Gustav conducted the war with Russia, at first leaning towards disaster before successfully breaking a blockade by the Russian fleet in the Battle of Svensksund on 9 July, regarded as the greatest naval victory ever gained by the Swedish Navy. The Russians lost one-third of their fleet and 7,000 men. A month later, on 14 August 1790, a peace treaty was signed between Russia and Sweden at Värälä. Only eight months before, Catherine had declared that "the odious and revolting aggression" of the King of Sweden would be "forgiven" only if he "testified his repentance" by agreeing to a peace granting a general and unlimited amnesty to all his rebels, and consenting to a guarantee by the Swedish diet ("as it would be imprudent to confide in his good faith alone") for the observance of peace in the future. The Treaty of Värälä saved Sweden from any such humiliating concession, and in October 1791 Gustav concluded an eight years' defensive alliance with the empress, who thereby bound herself to pay her new ally an annual subsidy of 300,000 rubles.
Gustav next aimed at forming a league of princes against the revolutionary government in France, and subordinated every other consideration to this goal. His profound knowledge of popular assemblies enabled him, alone among contemporary sovereigns, accurately to gauge from the first the scope of the French Revolution. He was, however, hampered by financial restrictions and the lack of support from the other European Powers, and, after the brief Gävle diet 22 January – 24 February 1792, he fell victim to a widespread conspiracy among his aristocratic enemies.
A masked ball took place at the Royal Opera House in Stockholm at midnight on 16 March 1792. Gustav had arrived earlier that evening to enjoy a dinner in the company of friends. During dinner, he received an anonymous letter that contained a threat to his life, but, as the king had received numerous threatening letters in the past, he chose to ignore it, and, after dining, left his rooms to take part in the masquerade.
Soon upon entering, he was surrounded by Anckarström and his co-conspirators Count Claes Fredrik Horn and Count Adolf Ludvig Ribbing. The king was easily spotted, mainly due to the breast star of the Royal Order of the Seraphim which glowed in silver upon his cape. The conspirators were all wearing black masks and accosted him in French with the words:
- Bonjour, beau masque ("Good-day, fine mask")
Anckarström moved behind the King and fired a pistol-shot into the left side of his back. The King jumped aside, crying in French:
- Ah! Je suis blessé, tirez-moi d'ici et arrêtez-le ("Ah! I am wounded, take me away from here and arrest him!")
The King was carried back to his quarters, and the exits of the Opera were sealed. Anckarström was arrested the following morning, and immediately confessed to the murder, although he denied a conspiracy until informed that Horn and Ribbing had also been arrested and had confessed in full.
The king had not been shot dead, but was alive, and continued to function as head of state. The coup was a failure in the short run. However, the wound became infected and on 29 March he finally died, his last words being:
- Jag känner mig sömnig, några ögonblicks vila skulle göra mig gott ("I feel sleepy, a few moments rest would do me good")
Ulrica Arfvidsson, the famous medium of the Gustavian era, had told him something that could be interpreted as a prediction about it in 1786 when he visited her anonymously – a coincidence, but she was known to have a large network of informers all over town to help her with her predictions, and was in fact interrogated about the murder.
Contributions to culture
Although he may be charged with many foibles and extravagances, Gustav III is regarded one of the leading sovereigns of the 18th century being fond of performing and visual arts as well as literature.
His historical essays, notably the famous anonymous eulogy on Lennart Torstenson crowned by the Swedish Academy, which he established in 1786, are full of feeling and exquisite in style, his letters to his friends are delightful. Every branch of literature and the arts interested him, every poet and artist of his day found in him a liberal and sympathetic protector.
Gustav was also active as a playwright. He is largely credited with creating the Royal Theatre, (Kungliga Teatern), where his own historical dramas were performed, and he promoted the careers of many native singers and actors, among them the dramatic stars Fredrique Löwen and Lars Hjortsberg and the operatic stars Elisabeth Olin and Christoffer Christian Karsten, by letting them perform in his plays or in his commissioned operas, respectively. In 1773 he founded the Royal Swedish Opera and the Royal Swedish Ballet, under the umbrella of his Royal Theatre (Kungliga Teatern). A new opera house was built in 1775 and inaugurated in 1782, connected to the Stockholm Palace by the Norrbro bridge. Until 1788 also Drama was performed in the opera house; Gustav III then founded a separate entity for drama, the Royal Dramatic Theatre with a new building behind the Royal Swedish Opera house.
He became a Freemason in 1780, and introduced the Rite of Strict Observance into Sweden. That year, he named his brother, the Duke of Södermanland (later Charles XIII), to the office of Grand Master for the Grand Lodge of Sweden. The Grand Lodge conferred upon him the title "Vicarius Salomonis" (Vicar of Solomon).
Notable opera composers under Gustav's reign were the three originally German artists Johann Gottlieb Naumann and Georg Joseph Vogler as well as Joseph Martin Kraus. All of them succeeded in the attempt to combine their musical origin with the national dramatic style which, sometimes, was overseen by the king (notably in the layout of the libretto for the opera Gustav Wasa from 1786).
It was in the foyer of the opera house that King Gustav III met his fate: during a masquerade on 16 March 1792, he was shot by Jacob Johan Anckarström, and died 13 days later. The assassination of Gustav III became the basis of an opera libretto by Scribe, set by both Daniel Auber in 1833 under the title Gustave III, and, with the specifics changed by censorship, by Giuseppe Verdi in 1859 as Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball).
It is widely agreed that the contribution and dedication of Gustav III to the performing arts in Sweden, notably the building of the theatre houses and the founding of a national theatre company, has been crucial to the Swedish culture. The era of opera during his time is referred to today as the Gustavian Opera.
Saint-Barthélemy and Gustavia
The island's capital bears up to the present the name Gustavia in honour of Gustav III. Though it was sold back to France in 1878, many streets and locations there still bear Swedish names. Also, the Swedish national arms, the three crowns along with the grey heron, still appear in the island's coat of arms.
- See also: Slave trade under King Gustav III.
Plan to colonise Australia 1786–1787
When the British were preparing to colonise Botany Bay, the Government of Gustav III agreed to sponsor William Bolts' proposal for an equivalent colonisation venture in Nuyts Land (the south-western coast of Australia). The war with Russia caused this venture to be abandoned.
- History of Sweden: Absolute Monarchy in Sweden, Swedish slave trade
- The Funeral of Gustav III
- Carl Michael Bellman: Gustafs skål
- Joseph Martin Kraus: Riksdagsmusiken
- Culture of Sweden
- List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country
- Gustav III of Sweden's coffee experiment
- Anno 1790 (Swedish 2011 television series set in Stockholm in 1790–92)
- ^A note on dates : Sweden changed from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar in 1753, when 17 February was followed by 1 March.
- Who's who in gay and lesbian history : from antiquity to World War II. Robert Aldrich Garry Wotherspoon, p. 194
- Cecilia af Klercker, ed., Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok / The Diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte, in Swedish, P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm, 1920
- Lönnroth, Erik (1986). Den stora rollen. p. 61. ISBN 91-1-863652-7.
- Oswald Kuylenstierna in Gustav III; Hans Liv, Person och Gärning, Stockholm 1921 p 138 (reference and page number is for the two preceding sentences)
- Leif Landén in Gustaf III en biografi ISBN 91-46-21000-8 p. 61
- Letter to Countess de Boufflers 18 October 1776 published in 1992 by Swedish Academy Prof. Gunnar von Proschwitz ISBN 91-7119-079-1 p. 149
- Denslow, Wm. R. (1958). 10,000 Famous Freemasons. St. Louis, Mo: Missouri Lodge of Research
- Kraus was present at the ball where Gustav was shot. Kraus wrote a funeral cantata and the Symphonie funèbre, which were played at the burial ceremony on 13 April.
- Sällström, Åke : Opera på Stockholmsoperan. Stockholm 1977
- Engländer, Richard : Joseph Martin Kraus und die Gustavianische Oper. Uppsala 1943
- "W. Bolts' forslag till kolonisation af en ö….1786–1790", Rigsarkivet, Handel och Sjöfart, 193; cited in Åke W. Essén, "Wilhelm Bolts und die schwedischen Kolonisierungspläne in Asien", Bijdragen voor vaderlandsche Geschiedenis en Oudheidkunde, Bd.7 (6), 1935, pp. 83–101. See also Clas Theodor Odhner, Sveriges Politiska Historia under Konung Gustaf III:s Regering, Stockholm, Norstedt, 1885–1905, Del. 2, pp. 492–8; ; cited in Carl Sprinchorn, "Sjuttonhundratalets och förslag till Svensk Kolonisation i främmande världsdelar", Historisk Tidskrift, årg.43, 1923, pp. 153–4; and Robert J. King, “Gustaf III’s Australian Colony”, The Great Circle, vol. 27, no. 2, 2005, pp. 3–20
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Bain, R. Nisbet (1894). Gustavus III and His Contemporaries, 2 vols.
- Barton, H. Arnold (Autumn 1972). "Gustav III of Sweden and the Enlightenment". Eighteenth-Century Studies (American Society for Eighteenth Century Studies (ASECS)) 6 (1): 1. doi:10.2307/3031560. JSTOR 3031560.
- Barton, H. Arnold (1986). Scandinavia in the Revolutionary Era, 1760–1815. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1392-3.
- Hennings, Beth (1957). Gustav III.
- Lönnroth, Erik (1986). Den stora rollen. Stockholm: Norstedt. ISBN 91-1-863652-7.
- Stavenow, Ludvig (1925). Den gustavianska tiden 1772–1809.
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Cadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 24 January 1746 Died: 29 March 1792
|King of Sweden
Gustav IV Adolf