Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann

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Not to be confused with Gustav Andreas Tammann.
Gustav Tammann
Voit 221 Gustav Tammann.jpg
Gustav Tammann, 1913
Born (1861-06-09)9 June 1861
Yamburg, Russian Empire
Died 17 December 1938(1938-12-17) (aged 77)
Göttingen, Germany
Nationality Baltic-German
Fields Physical chemistry
Alma mater University of Dorpat
Academic advisors Carl Schmidt
Doctoral students Iris Runge
Notable awards Liebig Medal, Eagle Shield of the German Empire

Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann (9 June [O.S. 28 May] 1861 – 17 December 1938)[1] was a prominent chemist-physicist of Baltic-German descent who made important contributions in the fields of glassy and solid solutions, heterogeneous equilibria, crystallization, and metallurgy.[2]

Biography[edit]

Tamman was born in Yamburg (now Kingisepp, Leningrad Oblast). His father, Heinrich Tammann (1833–1864) was of Estonian peasant origin and his mother, Matilda Schünmann, was of German origin.[2] Tamman graduated from University of Dorpat in chemistry.[3] He came to Göttingen University in 1903 where he established the first Institute of Inorganic Chemistry in Germany. In 1908 he was appointed director of the Physico-Chemical Institute. His interests focused on the physics and physical chemistry of metals and alloys (metallurgy). In 1925 Tammann was awarded Liebig Medal. On 28 May 1936, Tammann was awarded the shield of nobility of the German Empire (Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches),[4] with dedication "The Doyen of German Metallurgy".[5] Tammann died in Göttingen at age 77.

Bibliography[edit]

  • (1890) On Metamerism of Metaphosphates[6][7]
  • (1903) Crystallization and melting: a contribution to the teaching of the change in the physical state (Kristallisieren und Schmelzen: ein Beitrag zur Lehre der Ånderungen des Aggregatzustandes)
  • (1907) About the relations between internal forces and properties of the solution: a contribution to the theory of homogeneous systems (Uber die Beziehungen zwischen den inneren Kräften und Eigenschaften der Lösung: ein Beitrag zur Theorie homogener Systeme)
  • (1914) Textbook of Metallography: chemistry and physics of metals and their alloys (Lehrbuch der metallographie: chemie und physik der metalle und ihrer legierungen)
  • (1922) State of Matter (Aggregatzustände)
  • (1923) Textbook of Metallography (Lehrbuch der Metallographie)
  • (1925) The states of aggregation: the changes in the state of matter in their dependence upon pressure and temperature
  • (1925) Textbook of metallography: chemistry and physics of the metals and their alloys
  • (1932) Textbook on Metals: chemistry and physics of metals and their alloys (Lehrbuch der metallkunde: chemie und physik der metalle und ihrer legierungen)
  • Tammann, Gustav; Bandel, Gerhard (1934). Die Schmelz- und Umwandlungskurven der Eisarten aus schwerem Wasser (in German). Berlin: Weidmann. 
  • Tammann, Gustav; Bandel, Gerhard (1933). Wärmeinhalt und spezifisches Volumen der Eisen-Kohlenstoff-Legierungen [Specific heat capacity and volume of the iron-carbon alloys] (in German). Düsseldorf: Verl. Stahleisen. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gustav Tammann". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Morachevskii, A.G (2001). "Professor Gustav Tammann (To 140th Birthday Anniversary)". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry (MAIK Nauka) 74 (9): 1610–1615. doi:10.1023/A:1017420113016. ISSN 1070-4272. 
  3. ^ R. A. Vikhalemm (2001). Estonian studies in the history and philosophy of science. Springer. p. 44. ISBN 0-7923-7189-5. 
  4. ^ "Scientific Notes and News" (PDF). Science. New Series (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 84 (2170): 115–116. Jul 31, 1936. Bibcode:1936Sci....84..115.. doi:10.1126/science.84.2170.115. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1661607. 
  5. ^ Forschung als Waffe: Rüstungsforschung in der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Metallforschung 1900-1945/48 (in German). Wallstein Verlag. 2007. p. 466. ISBN 3-8353-0109-8. 
  6. ^ On Metamerism of Metaphosphates
  7. ^ Gustav Tammann (1890). "Ueber die Metamerie der Metaphosphate" (PDF) (in German). Tartu University Library: Dorpat. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06.