|Born||Gustav Robert Kirchhoff
12 March 1824
Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia
|Died||17 October 1887
Berlin, Prussia, German Empire
|Institutions||University of Berlin
University of Breslau
University of Heidelberg
|Alma mater||University of Königsberg|
|Doctoral advisor||Franz Ernst Neumann|
|Doctoral students||Max Noether
|Known for||Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation
Kirchhoff's laws of spectroscopy
Kirchhoff's law of thermochemistry
|Notable awards||Rumford medal (1862)
Davy Medal (1877)
Janssen Medal (1887)
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
He coined the term "black body" radiation in 1862, and two different sets of concepts (one in circuit theory, and one in thermodynamics) are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him; there is also a Kirchhoff's Law in thermochemistry. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after him and his colleague, Robert Bunsen.
Life and work
Gustav Kirchhoff was born in Königsberg, East Prussia, the son of Friedrich Kirchhoff, a lawyer, and Johanna Henriette Wittke. He graduated from the Albertus University of Königsberg in 1847 where he attended the mathematico-physical seminar directed by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Franz Ernst Neumann and Friedrich Julius Richelot. He married Clara Richelot, the daughter of his mathematics professor Richelot. In the same year, they moved to Berlin, where he stayed until he received a professorship at Breslau.
Kirchhoff formulated his circuit laws, which are now ubiquitous in electrical engineering, in 1845, while still a student. He completed this study as a seminar exercise; it later became his doctoral dissertation. In 1857 he calculated that an electric signal in a resistanceless wire travels along the wire at the speed of light. He proposed his law of thermal radiation in 1859, and gave a proof in 1861. He was called to the University of Heidelberg in 1854, where he collaborated in spectroscopic work with Robert Bunsen. Together Kirchhoff and Bunsen discovered caesium and rubidium in 1861. At Heidelberg he ran a mathematico-physical seminar, modelled on Neumann's, with the mathematician Leo Koenigsberger. Among those who attended this seminar were Arthur Schuster and Sofia Kovalevskaya. In 1875 Kirchhoff accepted the first chair specifically dedicated to theoretical physics at Berlin.
In 1862 he was awarded the Rumford Medal for his researches on the fixed lines of the solar spectrum, and on the inversion of the bright lines in the spectra of artificial light.
He contributed greatly to the field of spectroscopy by formalizing three laws that describe the spectral composition of light emitted by incandescent objects, building substantially on the discoveries of David Alter and Anders Jonas Ångström (see also: spectrum analysis).
Leopold Kronecker is buried in the same cemetery.
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Kirchhoff's first law is that algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point (or node) is zero. The second law is that in closed circuit, the directed sums of the voltages in a closed system is 0.
Kirchhoff's three laws of spectroscopy
- A hot solid object produces light with a continuous spectrum. Kirchhoff coined the term black-body radiation.
- A hot tenuous gas produces light with spectral lines at discrete wavelengths (i.e. specific colors) which depend on the energy levels of the atoms in the gas. (See also: emission spectrum)
- A hot solid object surrounded by a cool tenuous gas (i.e. cooler than the hot object) produces light with an almost continuous spectrum which has gaps at discrete wavelengths depending on the energy levels of the atoms in the gas. (See also: absorption spectrum)
Kirchhoff did not know about the existence of energy levels in atoms. The existence of discrete spectral lines was later explained by the Bohr model of the atom, which helped lead to quantum mechanics.
Kirchhoff's law of thermochemistry
Kirchhoff showed in 1858 that the variation of the heat of a chemical reaction is given by the difference in heat capacity between products and reactants: dΔH / dT = ΔCp. Integration of this equation permits the evaluation of the heat of reaction at one temperature from measurements at another temperature.
- Kirchhoff's circuit laws
- Kirchhoff equations
- Kirchhoff–Love plate theory
- Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor
- Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation
- Kirchhoff's three laws of spectroscopy
- Kirchhoff Institute of Physics
- Kirchhoff's theorem
- Kirchhoff's diffraction formula
- List of German inventors and discoverers
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (July 2014)|
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- D. Miller, "Huygens’s wave propagation principle corrected", Opt. Lett. 16, 1370–1372 (1991)
- Laidler K.J. and Meiser J.H., "Physical Chemistry" (Benjamin/Cummings 1982), p.62
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- Warburg, E. (1925). "Zur Erinnerung an Gustav Kirchhoff". Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (11): 205. Bibcode:1925NW.....13..205W. doi:10.1007/BF01558883.
- Stepanov, B. I. (1977). "Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (on the ninetieth anniversary of his death)". Journal of Applied Spectroscopy 27 (3): 1099. Bibcode:1977JApSp..27.1099S. doi:10.1007/BF00625887.
- Everest, A S (1969). "Kirchhoff-Gustav Robert 1824–1887". Physics Education 4 (6): 341. Bibcode:1969PhyEd...4..341E. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/4/6/304.
- Kirchhoff, Gustav (1860). "Ueber die Fraunhoferschen Linien". Monatsberichte, Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 662–665. ISBN 978-1-113-39933-5. HathiTrust full text. Partial English translation available in Magie, William Francis, A Source Book in Physics (1963). Cambridge: Harvard UP. p. 354-360.
- Gustav Kirchhoff at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Gustav Kirchhoff", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Weisstein, Eric W., Kirchhoff, Gustav (1824–1887) from ScienceWorld.
- Klaus Hentschel: Gustav Robert Kirchhoff und seine Zusammenarbeit mit Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, in: Karl von Meyenn (Hrsg.) Die Grossen Physiker, Munich: Beck, vol. 1 (1997), pp. 416–430, 475-477, 532-534.
- Klaus Hentschel: Mapping the Spectrum. Techniques of Visual Representation in Research and Teaching, Oxford: OUP, 2002.
- Kirchhoff's 1857 paper on the speed of electrical signals in a wire
- Texts on Wikisource:
- "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
- "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- "Sketch of Gustav Robert Kirchhoff". Popular Science Monthly 33. May 1888.
- "Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- Quotations related to Gustav Kirchhoff at Wikiquote