Cover to The Spectacular Spider-Man Vol. 2 #23.
|First appearance||The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965)|
|Created by||Stan Lee
|Full name||Gwendolyn  Maxine Stacy|
|Supporting character of||Spider-Man
Gwendolyn Maxine "Gwen" Stacy is a fictional comic character who appears in books published by Marvel Comics, usually as a supporting character in those featuring Spider-Man. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko, she first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965).
A college student, Gwen was originally the first true love  of Peter Parker (Spider-Man) before he developed deep feelings for her friend and rival, Mary Jane Watson. The Green Goblin (Norman Osborn) caused Spider-Man to accidentally kill Gwen in The Amazing Spider-Man #121 (June 1973). Both the decision to kill Gwen and the method in which Marvel implemented it remain controversial among fans, but the death became a pivotal point in both Spider-Man’s history and in American comic books in general. Many point to Gwen's death as the end of the Silver Age of Comics. Spider-Man writers and fans disagree about who is the character’s "one true love": Gwen or his subsequent love interest, Mary Jane. The character was ranked 89th in Comics Buyer's Guide's "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list.
Fictional character biography
Gwen first appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #31 (December 1965). Peter Parker meets Gwen while both study as undergraduates at Empire State University. Initially, with Aunt May in the hospital, Peter feels troubled and ignores her advances. Furious, she dates both Flash Thompson and Harry Osborn. Gradually, however, a romance develops; Gwen, a science major, seems to appreciate Peter's intellectual personality. In the comic books, their relationship begins almost immediately after Peter stops going out with Mary Jane, who he starts seeing as shallow and self-absorbed.[volume & issue needed]
Their relationship almost ends before it begins. A mind-controlled (police) Captain George Stacy, Gwen's father, gets into a fight with Peter, which Gwen observes. Thinking Peter attacked her father, she halts the relationship. Gwen eventually learns the truth. She and Peter reconcile. Their romance becomes more complicated when Gwen's father is killed by falling debris during a battle involving Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus. Gwen blames Spider-Man for his death, which sets their relationship back for a while. Gwen leaves for Europe to cope with her loss. She wants Peter to ask her to marry him and convince her to stay, but his guilt stops him from proposing.[volume & issue needed]
Peter goes to London to see Gwen, but is forced into action as Spider-Man and leaves without seeing Gwen, reasoning that it would be too easy for her to put the pieces together if Peter Parker and Spider-Man are both sighted in London. Gwen eventually realizes her error in trying to pressure Peter into marriage. She returns to New York and they get back together.
In The Amazing Spider-Man #121 (June 1973), by writer Gerry Conway and penciller Gil Kane, inked by John Romita Sr and Tony Mortellaro, the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, who has identified Peter Parker as Spider-Man) holds Gwen Stacy captive on a tower of the George Washington Bridge. Spider-Man arrives to fight the Green Goblin. When the Goblin throws Gwen Stacy off the bridge, Spider-Man catches her by her leg with a string of web. He initially thinks he has saved her. After he pulls her back onto the bridge, he realizes she has already died. In shock and anger, Spider-Man nearly kills the Green Goblin in retaliation, but in the end chooses not to do so. The Goblin still seemingly dies when he is impaled by his own goblin glider in an attempt to kill Spider-Man. Norman Osborn would not return for nearly three hundred issues. Peter is never sure if Gwen was dead before the fall or if his attempt to save her by breaking her fall snapped her neck.[volume & issue needed]
The death of Gwen Stacy had an enormous impact in the world of comic-book fandom. Before her, except possibly as part of an origin story, superheroes did not fail so catastrophically; nor did a loved one of the superhero die so suddenly without warning. Because of this, some fans and historians take the death of Gwen Stacy as one marker of the end of the period they refer to as the Silver Age of Comic Books.
In the real world, physicist James Kakalios shows in his book The Physics of Superheroes that, consistent with Newton's laws of motion, the sudden stop would have killed Gwen Stacy. The comic book Civil War: Casualties of War: Captain America/Iron Man (2007) concurred that the proximate cause of death was the sudden stop during a high-speed fall. An issue of Peter Parker/Spider-Man revisits the issue, and further confirms Gwen died of a broken neck due to the use of the webbing.[volume & issue needed]
Gwen Stacy's death has enormous repercussions. Mary Jane Watson feels the loss of Gwen deeply and becomes a more mature, compassionate person. Gwen's death also draws Peter and Mary Jane into a closer friendship, and eventually to romance.[volume & issue needed]
The Green Goblin's murder of Gwen Stacy greatly elevates his status in Spider-Man's rogues' gallery. Before her death, Doctor Octopus had rivaled the Goblin as Spider-Man's primary nemesis, but Gwen's death solidified the Green Goblin in that role, even though he himself was "killed off" in the following issue.[volume & issue needed]
The Jackal, Miles Warren in disguise, a former professor of Gwen's, was secretly in love with her. Following her death, Warren had grown increasingly insane and adopted the persona of the Jackal.[volume & issue needed]
In the fourth and final issue of the miniseries Marvels (April 1994), photographer Phil Sheldon befriends Gwen Stacy, who has absolved Spider-Man of any blame for her father's death. Gwen's simple faith in heroes convinces Sheldon of the purpose of the "Marvels" (superheroes) - to protect innocents such as Gwen. He resolves to write a book to praise the heroes and what they should mean to humanity. The Green Goblin kidnaps Gwen and holds her hostage to ensure Spider-Man will challenge him. Sheldon, frantically following the resulting chase in a taxi, arrives at the George Washington Bridge in time to see Spider-Man fight the Goblin and to see Gwen accidentally knocked off the bridge and killed, despite (and tragically because of) Spider-Man's desperate attempt to save her. Sheldon's faith in the Marvels is shattered. He retires, but not before passing on the body of his work to his assistant Marcie.[volume & issue needed]
Approximately two years after her death, Gwen Stacy reappears in Amazing Spider-Man #144 (May 1975), perfectly healthy but with no memory of the time since her death. The Jackal has managed to create a clone of Gwen, and uses her as part of a plot against Spider-Man in the original Clone Saga. At the end of that story, Gwen's clone leaves to find a new life for herself.[volume & issue needed]
In the 1988 crossover "The Evolutionary War", the High Evolutionary, who had once been Miles Warren's teacher, captures Gwen's clone. He is dismayed to learn that Miles Warren has perfected the art of cloning and thus lies to the new men that it was nothing more than a genetic construct created by a virus that he injected his apprentice, Joyce Delaney.[volume & issue needed]
During the second "Clone Saga", Gwen Stacy's clone, now married to a clone of Professor Warren named Warren Miles, sees a copy of Peter Parker's book of Spider-Man photos, Webs, and remembers (to an extent) her real history. She returns to New York City. During this storyline, she again disappears from Spider-Man's life. It was recently revealed the Gwen Stacy clone introduced in Amazing Spider-Man #144 was in fact the second Gwen clone Miles Warren created and has been living in London under the name Joyce Delaney. This clone was murdered by the Gwen Stacy clone known as Abby-L.
Another Gwen clone appears in The Amazing Spider-Man #399 (March 1995). This clone believes she is the real Gwen.[volume & issue needed] She dies from clone degeneration in Spider-Man vol. 1, #56 (March 1995), the next issue of the story arc.[volume & issue needed]
Sins Past and Sins Remembered
The story arc "Sins Past" by J. Michael Straczynski in The Amazing Spider-Man #509-514 (August 2004 - January 2005) reveals Norman Osborn, the Green Goblin's alter ego, fathered twins, a boy and a girl, with Gwen Stacy, to whom she gave birth while in France shortly before her death. She vowed she would raise them with Peter (despite he was not aware of Gwen's infidelity) and refused to allow Norman access to them. Seeing her as a threat to his potential heirs, the Green Goblin killed Gwen. Norman Osborn then raised Gwen's two children, a boy and a girl named Gabriel and Sarah. Due to Norman's enhanced blood, the twins aged about 2 to 3 times faster than normal and became adults within the span of a few years. Osborn told them Peter was really their father and was responsible for their mother's death.[volume & issue needed]
The twins then attack Spider-Man, and he subsequently deduces their true identities. However, in seeking to confirm it, Peter goes to Gwen's grave and digs up a sample of her DNA to compare to the twins' DNA. Spider-Man tells Mary Jane about his initial encounter with Gabriel and Sarah, whereupon Mary Jane reveals she knew about Norman's involvement with Gwen. By the story's end, Peter has told the twins the truth. Sarah believes Peter and concludes he would never have dug up Gwen's grave to acquire a DNA sample if he thought there was even a chance he was their father — but Gabriel does not. Gabriel takes the Green Goblin formula and briefly becomes the Grey Goblin. His glider explodes when it is shot by Sarah. He washes up on a beach with no memory of what happened.[volume & issue needed]
"Sins Remembered," a follow-up story to "Sins Past" (published in The Spectacular Spider-Man (Vol. 2) issues #23-26, December 2004-March 2005 and written by Samm Barnes with art by Scot Eaton) spins directly out of the events of Amazing Spider-Man #509-514. Spider-Man locates Sarah in Paris, where Sarah has her brother (suffering from amnesia) restrained in her home. With the help of Spider-Man and Interpol, Sarah helps build a case against a criminal called Dupres in exchange for the government's help with her rapid-aging disease. However, during this time Gabriel escapes and has yet to be seen again. This story arc was later collected as a trade paperback in 2005 as The Spectacular Spider-Man Vol. 5: Sins Remembered (ISBN 0-7851-1628-1).
Straczynski later stated he originally wanted to make Peter Parker the father of Gwen's kids but the editors vetoed the idea. They felt it would age Peter Parker too much if he had two adult children. The whole creative and editorial team then decided Norman Osborn would be the father. In an e-mail to popular comic book website Newsarama, Straczynski claimed he regretted the version of Sins Past that went to press, and he had hoped to "retcon" it out of continuity during the events of the recent One More Day storyline: "I wanted to retcon the Gwen twins out of continuity, which was something I always assumed I could do at the end of my run. I wasn't allowed to do this, and yes, it pissed me off." In the original plans for One More Day, the story would have ended with Gwen Stacy being resurrected by Mephisto's reality-warping spell along with Harry Osborn, but it was eventually decided to let her remain dead. Her son, Gabriel, has since reappeared in post-One More Day stories, now using the 'American Son' armor and with a split personality where he commits crimes while his 'American Son' persona tries to undo them, but he is captured by Harry and Spider-Man,[volume & issue needed] and Sarah's present activities are unknown.
In the two-issue mini-series X-Universe which detailed what happened to the rest of the Marvel Universe during the Age of Apocalypse, the Green Goblin never killed Gwen Stacy; instead she became the bodyguard of Donald Blake, who, in this reality, had never become the Mighty Thor. Sometime later in the mainstream universe in X-Man #37, the Age of Apocalypse version of Gwen is pulled from her reality to the mainstream Earth's George Washington Bridge, much to Spider-Man's shock.
In the House of M storyline, in which the Scarlet Witch alters reality to make mutants the ruling class over humans, Gwen was never killed. Instead, she married Peter Parker, and the couple had a young son. She had become a scientist, a savvy businesswoman, and a peace activist – and had a decidedly hostile relationship with chemical weapon developer Norman Osborn. Mary Jane Watson, a popular actress in this reality, played Gwen Stacy in the film adaptation of Spider-Man's life story. Gwen and her father read textual accounts of their deaths in the main universe, though they believe this simply to be the morbid imaginings of Peter Parker, who is suffering from mental health issues.
Gwen Stacy first appeared in Marvel Adventures Spider-Man #53 as a new student of Midtown High. She had transferred from her previous school after the Torino Gang, a powerful New York mob, began harassing her in an attempt to keep her father, police captain George Stacy, from arresting members of their gang. However, the Torinos continued to harass Gwen at Midtown, prompting Spider-Man to help the police take down the gang. Like her father, Gwen believes Spider-Man is a hero. She subsequently began participating in a "Spider-Man Appreciation Society" designed to foster better public opinion of Spider-Man. Gwen is also attracted to Spider-Man's alter ego Peter Parker; although she openly flirted with him, Peter began dating a different girl, Sophia "Chat" Sanduval, which made Gwen very unhappy. Later, Gwen was brainwashed by Emma Frost into believing she was dating Peter. Gwen's brainwashing wore off (or was undone by Emma), but Gwen now believes her relationship with Peter ended when he chose Chat over her, causing her to treat Chat very coldly. She has since warmed to Chat, however. Recently, Gwen began a close friendship with Carter Torino who is the grandson of the head of the Torino Gang. Their relationship is complicated by the fact Gwen's father is still trying to take down Carter's criminal family.
In the limited series, Marvel Zombies Return, Gwen of 'Earth Z' is still a college student out with her friends Mary Jane and Harry Osborn. The zombiefied Spider-Man travels to this earth and, despite his best intentions, turns the Sinister Six. They then slay and partly consume Gwen and her friends. To stop the spread of the virus, zombified Spider-Man obliterates the bodies.
Issue #1 of Spider-Man: Fairy Tales follows the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood, reimagined with Mary Jane Watson as the titular character. Gwen Stacy has been previously killed by the wolf. Issue #4 is an adaption of Cinderella with Gwen as Princess Gwendolyn. She falls in love with the masked "Prince of Arachne," who is revealed to be Peter Parker, servant to Sir Osborn, but is killed during a fight between Osborn and Parker.
Gwen Stacy first appears at the end of Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane #5. She is the new girl at school and quickly becomes close friends with Peter Parker. In Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane #9, Peter and Gwen take their relationship to the next level by sharing a tender kiss, much to the dismay of Mary Jane. They date for a time, though Gwen breaks up with Peter when she learns Mary Jane is the girl he truly loves. MJ, attempting to fix this, breaks up with Peter and reunites with Harry. Peter cannot commit to Gwen. She is unwilling to accept him as a friend and not a boyfriend.
In the fourth issue of the comic book based on the Spider-Man Unlimited animated series, Spidey encounters a Counter-Earth version of Gwen Stacy. She helps him escape a hidden paradise known as "The Haven".
In this mini-series, Gwen Stacy again appears as the girlfriend of Peter Parker. Norman Osborn again kidnaps and attempts to kill her as a part of a plan to intimidate Peter. In a twist, the powerless Peter (with a limb crippled from a spider bite) manages to save Gwen from falling to her death.
Ultimate Gwen Stacy
In the Ultimate Marvel continuity, Gwen Stacy first appears in Ultimate Spider-Man #14 (December 2001) as a teenage girl at Peter's high school. In this continuity, she has amber eyes, wears punk-style clothing, and is rebellious. In her first appearance she gives a rousing speech on 'super powers'; in the next issue she pulls a knife on Kong, a classmate who was bullying Peter. She is suspended from school temporarily. Gwen becomes friends with Peter, which leads Mary Jane Watson to believe Gwen is vying for his affections.
Gwen is later taken in by Aunt May after her father, police captain John Stacy, is killed by a burglar wearing a Spider-Man costume. Her estranged mother does not want to take her in. Her living in the Parker house creates more tension between Peter and Mary Jane, and leads to their temporary break-up. Peter's relationship with Gwen is further complicated by her hatred of Spider-Man, whom she blames for her father's death. When Peter finds his friend Eddie Brock, Gwen confides in him about her feelings of isolation. Eddie then tries to kiss her. Gwen is shocked.
When she eventually learns Peter is Spider-Man, the angry Gwen pulls her father's gun on him. Fortunately, he manages to convince her he is not to blame for her father's death. Gwen runs off but returns, explaining she is just really mad at everything at the moment. She wouldn't have really shot him, a fact Peter already knew because his spider sense didn't go off despite Gwen's wrath. Gwen then agrees to keep his secret.
Gwen Stacy dies in Ultimate Spider-Man #62. Before her death, she made peace with Mary Jane and assured her she never had romantic feelings for Peter. She considered him just as a friend. She is killed by Carnage, a vampiric monster made by the splicing of genetic material from Peter Parker, his father, and Dr. Curt Connors. Although Peter is not in the area when she dies, he still feels some responsibility for her death, as he allowed Dr. Connors to use his genetic material for experimentation. His guilt makes him decide to retire as Spider-Man for a while. Eventually, he takes up his hero identity when his responsibility for the innocent becomes too great to overlook.
At the end of the arc, there was an issue that dealt with Gwen's death. Flash makes an off-color remark about Gwen's passing. It infuriates MJ to the point where she physically attacks Flash. It is revealed Flash had a crush on Gwen all along.
A girl seeming to be Gwen Stacy appears in Ultimate Spider-Man #98. Says Ultimate artist Mark Bagley, "Gwen’s return is integral to the Clone storyline and is basically a way to rock Peter's world...again." In this issue "Gwen" appears to have no memory of her "death" and believes she was in a hospital, from which she has escaped. In issue #100, after a raft of revelations, the stress of the situation enrages "Gwen". She transforms into what appears to be Ultimate Carnage before leaping out the window.
In the next issue, "Richard Parker" claims "Gwen" should not have met Peter at all, and was merely an experiment in stem cell research. This Gwen/Carnage fights with the Fantastic Four, Nick Fury, and the Spider-Slayer drones, until she is knocked unconscious by a beam of light, and taken into custody. In issue #113, Norman Osborn as the Green Goblin causes a massive prison break from the Triskelion. An inmate appearing to be 'Gwen' walks out amidst the chaos, disappearing in the shadows. It has been revealed the creature posing as Gwen Stacy is still the original Ultimate Carnage Spider-man faced earlier in its run. After "devouring" Gwen, this incarnation of Carnage has gone on to mimic her "essence" and now believes itself to be Gwen Stacy.
During "War of the Symbiotes", Gwen/Carnage's back story in the Triskelion is revealed. It is shown Gwen has been taking some form of therapy with Tony Stark. However, when the Green Goblin broke out of the Triskelion, Gwen escaped and went to Peter Parker's house in a confused and terrified state, with Carnage's face on her body. During an exchange between Peter and Gwen, Eddie Brock attempts to attack Aunt May and retake his symbiote. In a rage, Spider-Man engages Venom on a nearby rooftop. During the fight, Gwen is shown to be able to use her symbiote to fight off Eddie but Eddie reabsorbs his symbiote along with the Carnage symbiote rendering Gwen Stacy an average girl. After SHIELD intervenes, SHIELD Director Danvers states Gwen will remain in S.H.I.E.L.D. custody. Peter and May argue for her to come back to live with them, with Tony Stark supporting the Parkers. In Ultimate Spider-Man #129, the Parkers are now helping to rebuild Gwen's life. Six months after "Ultimatum", in Ultimate Comics Spider-Man #1, Gwen is living with the Parkers again and seems to be dating Peter. However, circumstances involving the Chameleon made Gwen realize she made a mistake dating Peter. She breaks up with him, but still lives with the Parkers due to Gwen and Aunt May has become close in a surrogate mother-daughter fashion. After Peter's death, Gwen and May re-located in France, but returned to New York after hearing about the re-emergence of a new Spider-Man. Afterwards, they meet the Peter Parker of the Earth-616 continuity after he was accidentally and briefly sent to the Ultimate universe, with Gwen being intrigued to learn about her counterpart (Although she is not informed that her other self dead, Gwen also 'neglecting' to tell Peter that she is a clone), as she also attempts to tell Mary Jane about the other Peter's arrival in their world.
Early in the series, Ultimate Spider-Man #25 (October 2002) paid homage to Gwen Stacy's death in the Earth-616 continuity, although Gwen herself was not involved. The Green Goblin tossed Mary Jane off the Queensboro Bridge. Spider-Man caught her leg with his webbing, just as with Gwen. The issue ended with a cliffhanger: when Spider-Man pulled Mary Jane up, she appeared to be either unconscious or dead. The cliffhanger was resolved in the next issue when Mary Jane awoke in #26, uninjured.
In "What If" Volume 1 number 24, Peter manages to save Gwen by jumping after her rather than catching her with a web-line. In doing this, he was able to cushion her from the impact as they hit the water and subsequently give her CPR. In the aftermath of this rescue, Gwen sees him without his mask. After explaining himself to her, Peter proposes to Gwen. She accepts. In a subsequent confrontation with the Green Goblin in his apartment, Norman Osborn finally fights off his evil side for good upon seeing his son Harry move to protect him. Realizing he cannot kill his own son, Norman returns to normal.
During a battle in the warehouse, an escaping Goblin mails to "Spider-Man's second greatest enemy" (J. Jonah Jameson) proof of Spider-Man's real identity. On the day of Peter's wedding to Gwen, Jonah has published the expose and uses it to acquire a warrant for Peter's arrest, thus forcing Peter to escape from the police mere moments after his wedding to Gwen. The shock of her nephew "being that awful Spider-Man" causes Aunt May to have a heart attack as well. As the issue ends, Gwen departs with Joe 'Robbie' Robertson, who promises Gwen they will do whatever they can to help Peter and quits the Bugle.
In "What If Spider-Man Had Kept His Six Arms?," Spider-Man (whose six-arms mutation was permanent here) was able to prevent Gwen Stacy's death.
At the very end of Peter David's "What If: The Other" one-shot, Peter Parker, now calling himself "Poison", uses part of the Venom symbiote attached to him in a resurrection of Gwen Stacy. She takes the appearance of Carnage.
In other media
- Gwen Stacy was deliberately excluded from the 1990s animated series, as the creators felt they could neither allow her to live nor deliberately include a character who was going to die. As a result, a variant of the bridge scene occurs with Gwen replaced by Mary Jane. Both Mary Jane and Green Goblin are cast into a dimensional void in the forty-first episode of the series. Gwen Stacy did appear in the episode "Farewell Spider-Man" voiced by Mary Kay Bergman. She appears as the fiancée of the high-tech armored Spider-Man (resembling Iron Man) from another universe.
- Gwen Stacy appeared in almost every episode of The Spectacular Spider-Man, voiced by Lacey Chabert. In the series, she was portrayed as a shy girl who is one of Peter's best friends, and later, love interest, although the series is cancelled before they got into a relationship. It was stated by Greg Weisman that he wanted to do Direct to Video movies, continuing Peter's story into college and beyond. Gwen's death was presumably going to occur in one of the DTV's.
- Gwen Stacy is portrayed by Bryce Dallas Howard in Spider-Man 3. She is a potential new love interest for Peter Parker, serving as an unintended rival to Mary Jane Watson. Gwen is a classmate and lab partner of Peter, who (as Spider-Man) rescues her early in the film from a construction crane accident. She kisses an upside-down Spider-Man in similar fashion to how Mary Jane did in Spider-Man which causes MJ to become angry and hurt. As Peter is at the top of Dr. Connors's quantum mechanics class, he tutors her. She considers Peter a genius and is very fond of him. She is also friends with Eddie Brock, who took pictures of her so Gwen could be a model. His relationship is short-lived, as Peter Parker, under the influence of the symbiote, steals her from Eddie. He dances with her at the same jazz club where MJ works, but Gwen realizes Peter is doing this to make MJ jealous, Gwen was upset about this and walks up to Mary Jane and said "I'm so sorry", and storms out of the club, leaving Peter behind. Peter makes amends with Gwen since she is later present at Harry Osborn's funeral.
- Emma Stone portrays Gwen Stacy in The Amazing Spider-Man as Peter Parker's main love interest. She works as an assistant at Dr. Curt Connors's laboratory at Oscorp, where Peter gets bitten by the spider. She subsequently develops a crush on him, and he soon reveals to her that he is Spider-Man. One contrast to the comics as Gwen never knew Peter Parker's secrets. She also plays an important role in the Lizard's defeat; having helped Peter develop an antidote for Connor's serum for turning people into reptilian hybrids using her own scientific background. Unfortunately, her father is killed by the Lizard before Peter can defeat the villain. George made the superhero promise to keep Gwen out of his dangerous life. Peter honors that vow without telling Gwen immediately, which offends Gwen until she realizes what her father did and forgives Peter. However, when Peter later hints he is reconsidering keeping that vow, she quietly smiles at this development.
- Emma Stone is set to reprise her role as Peter/Spider-Man's love interest Gwen Stacy in The Amazing Spider-Man 2.
- Gwen Stacy, along with her dad is briefly mentioned in Spider-Man: Edge of Time. When the futuristic CEO Peter Parker reveals his plans to Spider-Man 2099, he mentions he can save the lives of Uncle Ben, Gwen Stacy, George Stacy, and countless others.
- Gwen Stacy appears in The Amazing Spider-Man based on the film, voiced by Kari Wahlgren.
- The Night Gwen Stacy Died
- Spider-Man supporting characters
- Portrayal of women in comics
- Women in Refrigerators
- Gwen Stacy's full first name was given in Amazing Spider-Man #62 as "Gwendolyn" and in #90 as "Gwendolyne." Both issues were written by Stan Lee.
- Gwen Stacy states her full name as "Gwen Maxine Stacy" in Ultimate Spider-Man #127.
- Gwen Stacy Bio
- Blumberg, Arnold T. (Fall 2003). "'The Night Gwen Stacy Died:' The End of Innocence and the Birth of the Bronze Age". Reconstruction 3 (4). Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- Frankenhoff, Brent (2011). Comics Buyer's Guide Presents: [[100 Sexiest Women in Comics|]] publisher = Krause Publications. p. 56. ISBN 1-4402-2988-0.
- Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 30–33. ISBN 1-4165-3141-6.
- Amazing Spider-Man #90
- Amazing Spider-Man #96
- Amazing Spider-Man #98
- Amazing Spider-Man #99
- The Night Gwen Stacy Died: The End of Innocence and the Birth of the Bronze Age
- Inventing Tomorrow (University of Minnesota Institute of Technology magazine), Spring 2002: "Jim Kakalios enlists the aid of costumed crimefighters to teach critical thinking in an imaginative freshman seminar" by Paul Sorenson
- SpiderFan.org - Comics : Giant-Size Spider-Man #5
- Spider-Island Deadly Foes #1
- SBC.com (no date): All the Rage (column) - "Don't Panic," by Blair Marnell & John Voulieris
- http://forum.newsarama.com/showthread.php?t=141756 J. Michael Straczynski rebuttal to OMD
- Spider-Man: House of M #1-3 (2005)
- Marvel Adventures Spider-Man #55
- Spider-Man Marvel Adventures #2
- Marvel Adventures Spider-Man #54
- Spider-Man Marvel Adventures #1
- Spider-Man Marvel Adventures #6
- Spider-Man Marvel Adventures #5
- "Marvel Zombies Return" #1 (2009)
- In an interview in Wizard Magazine #180 (2006), Mark Bagley remarked there were some "coloring issues" in Gwen's first appearances. He did not intend her eyes to be yellow.
- IGN: Ultimate Spider-Man Pictures Full Size 2610148
- Ultimate Comics: Spider-Man #11
- Ultimate Comics: Spider-Man #13
- Spider-Men #3
- Spider-Men #4
- The Grand Comics Database
- The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
- Physics of Superheroes 1 - Death of Gwen Stacy