Gwichʼin family outside home, c.1899
|Regions with significant populations|
(Northwest Territories, Yukon)
|Gwich’in language, English|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Alaskan Athabaskans and other Athabaskan peoples|
The Gwich’in (sometimes rendered as Kutchin or Gwitchin), literally "one who dwells" or "resident of [a region]", are a First Nations of Canada and an Alaskan Native Athabaskan people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group who live in the northwestern part of North America, mostly above the Arctic Circle. The Gwichʼin were also known by the French name of Loucheux ("squinters") in historical documents, as well as the Tukudh, a term used by Anglican missionaries. Gwich’in often refer to themselves by the term Dinjii Zhuu instead of Gwich’in. Dinjii Zhuu literally translates as "Small People," but figuratively it refers to 'Indians', not just Gwich’in.
The Gwich’in men are well known for their crafting of snowshoes, birchbark canoes, and the two-way sled. The women are renowned for their intricate and ornate beadwork. They also continue to make traditional caribou-skin clothing and porcupine sewing using porcupine quills, both of which are highly regarded among Gwich'in. Today the economy is mostly a mix of hunting, fishing, and seasonal wage-paying employment.
Few Gwichʼin speak their indigenous Gwich’in language, which is in the Athabaskan language family. There are two main dialects of Gwich’in, eastern and western, which are delineated roughly at the United States and Canadian border. Each village has unique dialect differences, idioms, and expressions. The Old Crow people in the northern Yukon have approximately the same dialect as those bands living in Venetie and Arctic Village, Alaska. According to the UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, Gwich’in is now a "severely endangered" language, with fewer than 150 fluent speakers in Alaska and another 250 in northwest Canada.
Gwich’in tribes and clans
The many different bands or tribes of Gwich’in include but are not limited to: Deenduu, Draanjik, Di'haii, Gwichyaa, K'iitl'it, Neetsaii or Neets’it, Ehdiitat, Danzhit Hanlaii, Teetl'it, and Vuntut or Vantee.
Three major clans survive from antiquity across Gwich’in lands. Two are primary clans and the third has a lower/secondary status. The first clan are the Nantsaii, which literally translates as "First on the land", the second clan are the Chits'yaa which translates as "The helpers" (second on the land). The last clan is called the Tenjeraatsaii, which translates as "In the middle" or "independents". This last clan is reserved for people who marry within their own clan, which is considered incestual To a lesser degree it is for children of people who are outside of the clan system.
In ancient times this would also refer to the children of Naa'in, people who were expelled from the tribe due to committing a crime. It also applied to the children of mothers who simply fell outside of the clan system. Prior to 1900, being a Tenjeraatsaii automatically placed a Gwich’in at the third-lowest rung of the social ladder. They were to some degree ostracized. The second-lowest rung was reserved for war-captured slaves. The lowest social status was that of a banished Naa'in or bushman. The clan system is no longer well known or used among the Gwich'in.
Location and Population
- Northwest Territories
- Aklavik (Ehdiitat Gwich’in)
- Fort McPherson (traditional name, Tetlit Zheh, Tetlit Gwich’in)
- Inuvik (largest of the four Gwich'in communities in the Gwich'in Settlement Area (GSA), English is the main language spoken, though schools teach and a handful of local people still speak Gwich’in.)
- Tsiigehtchic (formerly Arctic Red River) (Gwichyaa Gwich’in)
The Gwich’in have a strong oral tradition of storytelling that has only recently begun to be written in the modern orthography. Gwich’in folk stories include the "Vazaagiitsak cycle" (literally, "His Younger Brother Became Snagged"), which focuses on the comical adventures of a Gwich’in misfit who, among other things, battles lice on a giant's head, plays the fool to the cunning fox, and eats the scab from his own anus unknowingly. Gwich’in comedies often contain bawdy humor. Other major characters from the Gwich’in oral tradition include: Googhwaii, Ool Ti', Tł'oo Thal, K'aiheenjik, K'iizhazhal, and Shaanyaati'.
Numerous folk tales about prehistoric times all begin with the phrase Deenaadai' , which translates roughly as "In the ancient days". This is usually followed with the admission that this was "when all of the people could talk to the animals, and all of the animals could speak with the people". These stories are often parables, which suggest a proper protocol, or code of behavior for Gwich’in. Equality, generosity, hard work, kindness, mercy, cooperation for mutual success, and just revenge are often the themes of stories such as: "Tsyaa Too Oozhrii Gwizhit" (The Boy In The Moon), "Zhoh Ts'à Nahtryaa" (The Wolf and the Wolverine), "Vadzaih Luk Hàa" (The Caribou and the Fish).
The Gwich’in historically had a religious tradition similar to that described as animism. The way of viewing the world was strongly steeped in a natural mysticism. Magical, and mystical, knowledge to traditional Gwich’in is considered natural and not requiring belief by anyone for its inherent truth. Communication with animals for mutual benefit among the Gwich’in is widely acknowledged. Traditionally the Gwich’in had no concept of K'eegwaadhat, or God. Everything in the world: air, stone, water, fire, plant, or animal, possesses spirit or a life-force. Time, mortality, and space are often manipulated according to traditional Gwich’in religion.
Common spiritual foes of the Gwich’in shaman in ancient times, and who were considered to be especially powerful as spiritual people, were the Inupiat of the Kobuk River valley, and the Cree of Canada. This division has since been mended, with little conflict in modern times. Great distance and isolation did not hinder their communication or mutual animosity, according to Gwich’in oral tradition. A common example of low level Gwich’in power is the Gwich’in hunter who has been known to dream of an animal in a specific place; when he goes to this place, the animal will be there waiting for the hunter. Among the Gwich’in, this is considered a somewhat common incident. In recent times, important figures in who have represented traditional belief structures are: Johnny and Sarah Frank, Sahneuti, and Ch'eegwalti'.
Traditionally the Gwich’in afterlife consisted of a country where the flora and fauna were plentiful. Even the flowers were thought to sing in the afterlife. The eternal life was reached by emptying oneself of all possessions: mental, emotional, physical, historical and spiritual. Failing to behave appropriately in a system similar to karma was commonly considered the main hindrance to people's attainment of an afterlife. Positive deeds could help a person become empty in preparation for death. When a person dies, the individual faces a series of tests to pass in order to attain admittance into the afterlife; otherwise he/she is stuck on earth, possibly to be reborn again. If a person has any attachment, possibly only negative attachment, to the qualities of their personal life, he or she will not pass the tests. Only individuals can determine if she is ready to move on. The Gwich’in did not believe in any spiritual intermediaries such as priests. Each person is responsible for their own spiritual enlightenment, and spiritual interpretation of experiences. Dinjii Dazhan (magical humans or shamans) were considered humans who were exceptionally gifted and thereby powerful in some aspect of life. They were held in high regard and, in some cases, were greatly feared. Contemporary belief structures have changed Gwich’in society, however.
The introduction of Christianity in the 1840s throughout Gwich’in territory produced spiritual changes that are still widely in effect today. Widespread conversion to Christianity, as influenced by Anglican and Catholic missionaries, led to these as the two dominant Christian sects among the Gwich’in. Notable figures in the missionary movement among the Gwich’in are Archdeacon Hudson Stuck, William West Kirkby, Robert McDonald, Deacon William Loola, and Deacon Albert Tritt. The Traditional Chief, an honorary and lifetime title, of one Gwich’in village is also an Episcopal priest: the Rev. Traditional Chief Trimble Gilbert of Arctic Village. Chief Gilbert is recognized as the Second Traditional Chief of all of the Athabascan tribes in Interior Alaska through the non-profit Tanana Chiefs Conference.
The Takudh Bible is a translation of the entire King James Bible into Gwich’in. The Takudh Bible is in a century-old orthography that is not very accurate, and thus hard to read. In the 1960s Richard Mueller designed a new orthography for Gwich’in, which has now become standard.
On 4 April 1975, Canada Post issued two stamps in the Indians of Canada, Indians of the Subarctic series both designed by Georges Beaupré. One was Ceremonial Dress based on a painting by Lewis Parker of a ceremonial costume of the Kutchin tribe /Gwich'in people. The other, Dance of the Kutcha-Kutchin was based on a painting by Alexander Hunter Murray The 8¢ stamps are perforated 12.5 and 13.5 and were printed by Ashton-Potter Limited and the Canadian Bank Note Company.
Caribou is traditionally a major component of their diet. Many Gwichʼin people are dependent on the Porcupine caribou which herd calves on the coastal plain in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Gwichʼin people have been very active in protesting and lobbying against the possibility of oil drilling in ANWR, due to fears that oil drilling will deplete the population of the Porcupine Caribou herd.
For similar reasons, Gwich’in have also actively protested the development of oil in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, and a proposed land trade from the United States Wildlife Refuge system and Doyon, Limited.
- "Gwich'in Council International." 2010. Retrieved 10 Oct 2012.
- Alaska Native Language Archive | Resource Details [Katherine Peter, Vasaagihdzak and Eagle, Bushman]
- Alaska Native Language Archive | Resource Details Adventures of Vasaagihdzak.
- Alaska Native Language Archive | Resource Details [Tleevii t'i, Shaanyaa t'i, Cheegwal t'i ([Elijah John, Abraham Peter, Neil Henry, Johnny Ross, Stories])
- Alaska Native Language Archive | Resource Details Sapir John Haa Googwandak 3. (Sapir-Fredson Stories 3.)
- [dead link]
- Tanana Chiefs Conference
- Phyllis Ann Fast (2002). Northern Athabascan Survival: Women, Community, and the Future. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-8032-2017-1. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Alaska Native Language Center | Gwich'in
- Ceremonial Dress
- Dance of the Kutcha-Kutchin
- Gwich'in Human Rights Threatened by ANWR Drilling | Cultural Survival
- "Yukon Flats DEIS", IEN Earth, 15 January 2008. Archived at the Wayback Machine, Conservation, Native Groups Oppose Proposed Land Swap for Oil Development in Yukon Flats Refuge in Alaska
- Andre, Alestine, and Alan Fehr. Gwich’in Ethnobotany: Plants Used by the Gwich’in for Food, Medicine, Shelter and Tools. Tsiigehtchic, N.W.T.: Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute, 2001. ISBN 1-896337-04-X
- Balikci, Asen. Vunta Kutchin Social Change: A Study of the People of the Old Crow, Yukon Territory. Ottawa, Ont: Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre, Dept. of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 1963.
- Bass, Rick. Caribou Rising: Defending the Porcupine Herd, Gwich'in Culture, and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2004.
- Clarkson, Peter and Leigh, Tamara. Gwindoo Nanh Kak Geenjit Gwich’in Ginjik, More Gwich’in Words About the Land. Gwich’in Renewable Resource Board, 2001. ISBN 0-9682642-1-2
- Duncan, Kate C. and Carney, Eunice. A Special Gift: The Kutchin Beadwork Tradition, University of Alaska Press, 1991. ISBN 0912006889
- Firth, William G. Gwich’in Topical Dictionary: Gwichyah and Teetł’it Gwich’in Dialect. Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute, Teetł’it Zheh, NT, 2009.
- Gilbert, Matthew. 2007. "Farewell, Sweet Ice - Hunters Feel the Heat in Gwich’in Country". The Nation. 284, no. 18: 26.
- Herbert, Belle. Shandaa, In My Lifetime. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Press, 1982. ISBN 0-912006-30-7
- Heine, Michael K. Gwichya Gwich’in Googwandak: The History and Stories of the Gwichya Gwich’in ; As Told by the Elders of Tsiigehtchic. Tsiigehtchic, N.W.T.: Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute, 2001. ISBN 1-896337-05-8
- Kirkby, W. W. The Kutchin or Loucheux Indians. [London: Seeley], 1863.
- Leechman, Douglas. The Vanta Kutchin. 1954.
- McKennan, Robert A. The Chandalar Kutchin. Montreal and New York: Arctic Institute of North America, 1965.
- Mishler, Craig. The Crooked Stovepipe: Athapaskan Fiddle Music and Square Dancing in Northeast Alaska and Northwest Canada. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
- Mishler, Craig, ed. Neerihiinjìk: We Traveled from Place to Place: the Gwich’in Stories of Johnny and Sarah Frank. 2nd ed. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, 2001.
- Mishler, Craig, and William Simeone, eds. Tanana and Chandalar: the Alaska Field Journals of Robert A. McKennan. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2006.
- Morlan, Richard E. The Cadzow Lake Site (MjVi-1): A Multi-Component Historic Kutchin Camp. Mercury series. Ottawa: Archaeological Survey of Canada, National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada, 1972.
- Nelson, Richard K. Hunters of the Northern Forest: Designs for Survival Among the Alaskan Kutchin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
- O'Brien, Thomas A. Gwich'in Athabascan Implements: History, Manufacture, and Usage According to Reverend David Salmon, University of Alaska Press, Nov.1 2011. ISBN 978-1602231443
- Osgood, Cornelius. Contributions to the Ethnography of the Kutchin. New Haven: Yale University Publications in Anthropology No. 14, 1936. Reprinted by the Human Relations Area Files Press, 1970.
- Rogers, Thomas J. Physical Activities of the Kutchin Athabaskan Indians of Interior Alaska and Northern Canada. 1978.
- Slobodin, Richard. Band Organization of the Peel River Kutchin. Ottawa: Dept. of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 1962.
- Thompson, Judy, and Ingrid Kritsch. Yeenoo Dài' K'è'tr'ijilkai' Ganagwaandaii = Long Ago Sewing We Will Remember : the Story of the Gwich’in Traditional Caribou Skin Clothing Project. Mercury series. Gatineau, Québec: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2005. ISBN 0-660-19508-9
- Vyvyan, Clara. The Ladies, The Gwich'in, and the Rat: Travels on the Athabasca, Mackenzie, Rat, Porcupine, and Yukon Rivers in 1926, University of Alberta Press, May 1, 1998. ISBN 0888643020
- Wallis, Velma. Two Old Women. An Alaskan Legend Of Betrayal, Courage And Survival, [Harper Collins], 1993
- Wallis, Velma. Raising Ourselves: A Gwich'in Coming of Age Story from the Yukon River, [Epicenter Press], Oct.1 2002. ISBN 978-0970849304
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gwich'in.|
- Gwichʼin Council International
- Vuntut Gwitchin web site (Yukon)
- Gwichʼin Tribal Council web site (Northwest Territories)
- Gwichʼin Social and Cultural Institute
- Gwichʼin Renewable Resource Board
- Gwichyaa Zhee Gwich’in
- Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments
- Gwich’in Steering Committee
- "Loucheux". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.