Gyeongjong of Joseon
|King of Joseon|
|Reign||12 July 1720 – October 1724|
|Born||20 November 1688|
|Birthplace||Changdeok Palace, Korea|
|Died||11 October 1724(aged 36)|
|Buried||Uireung. Seokgwan-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul|
|Predecessor||Sukjong of Joseon|
|Successor||Yeongjo of Joseon|
|Royal house||House of Yi|
|Father||King Sukjong of Joseon|
|Mother||Royal Noble Consort Hui of the Jang clan|
|Revised Romanization||I Yun|
In 1690, Gyeongjong's designation as heir to the throne precipitated a struggle between the Noron and the Soron political factions, which supported Gyeongjong of Joseon.
Following the death of King Sukjong in 1720, Royal Prince Successor Hwiso (Yi Yun, 이윤 왕세자) ascends the throne at age 33 as King Gyeongjong. When Sukjong died in 1720, he supposedly told Yi Yi-myoung to name Yeoning-geum as Kyungjong's heir, but suspicions arose between Soron, Noron enemies, from the absence of a histriographer or recorder.
Gyeongjong suffered from ill health during his reign, and the Noron political faction pressured Gyeongjong to step down in favor of his half-brother, Prince Yeoning. In 1720, two months after his enthronement, his half brother, Prince Yeoning (the future King Yeongjo) was installed as Royal Prince Successor Brother (wangseje, 왕세제, 王世弟) to handle state affairs, since the king weak health made impossible for him to manage politics.
Gyeongjong's mother, Lady Jang, is to blamed for his illnesses. She was sentenced to death by poison, in 1701, following the ruling, Lady Jang begged to see her son, the Crown Prince (later Gyeongjong). As she dashed towards him to greet him, she inflicted a severe injury to the Crown Prince's lower abdomen that left him sterile and unable to produce an heir. Due to King Gyeongjong’s fragile health, he had no energy or time to do anything significant in the four years of his reign.
This aggravated the power struggle and led to a big massacre, namely the Shinimsahwa (辛壬士禍). The Norons sent memorials to the king to no effect while the Sorons used this to their advantage—claiming the Noron faction were trying to usurp power and subsequently getting their rival faction removed from several offices. Members of the Soron faction then came up with an idea to assassinate the heir (Yeoning-geum) under the cover of hunting for a white fox said to be haunting the palace, but Queen dowager Inwon protected him and he was able to keep living, after this he said to the king he rather would go and live as a commoner.
During his four years reign, there were two major incidents of massacre; one is Sinchuk-oksa in which the ruling political party, Soron, swept the opposition Noron, a group that insisted that Gyeongjong's half-brother, Prince Yeoning, handle national affairs on behalf of the weak and ailing king during the first year of Gyeongjongreign 1720 and the other one is Imin-oksa which took place in the 2nd year of his reign, circa 1722. History calls both incidents as Sinim-sahwa. During his reign, he made small guns in imitation of the western weapons and reformed the land measurement system in the southern parts of the country.
King Gyeongjong died in 1724 and was entombed in the Cheonjangsan Mountain of Yangju. The title of the tomb was granted as the Uireung.
There was some speculation from Soron party members that his half-brother, Prince Yeoning, had something to do with his death due to the earlier attempt by the Noron faction to have him replace Gyeongjong on the throne, but several historiographers now conclude that he could have died of eating spoiled seafood, as described in Homer's book, The History of Korea. “But we may well doubt the truth of the rumour, for nothing that is told of that brother indicates that he would commit such an act, and in the second place a man who will eat shrimps in mid-summer, that have been brought thirty miles from the sea without ice might expect to die.”
|Monarchs of Korea
- Father: King Sukjong (숙종)
- Mother: Royal Noble Consort Hui of the Jang clan (희빈 장씨)
- Consorts and their Respective Issues:
- Queen Danui of the Shim clan (단의왕후 심씨, 1686–1718)
- No issue
- No issue
- Royal Palaces and tomb http://jikimi.cha.go.kr/english/royal_palaces_new/Uireung.jsp?mc=EN_05_02_08
- Uireng, Royal tomb of Queen Seonui http://www.seongbuk.go.kr/pms/contents/contents.do?contseqn=508&sitecdv=S0000200&menucdv=04010600&decorator=user02En
- Uireung - A Story of King Sukjong and King Gyeongjong http://samedi.livejournal.com/359996.html
- His consorts were entitled, at their respective marriages, as "Princess Consort to the Prince Successor" (세자빈) before being given the title "Queen" (왕후)
- Daughter of Shim Ho (심호)
- Daughter of Eo Yu-gu (어유구)
His full posthumous name
- King Gyeongjong Gakgong Deokmun Ikmu Sunin Seonhyo the Great of Korea
- List of Korean monarchs
- Joseon Dynasty
- Joseon Dynasty politics
- List of Korea-related topics
- Dong Yi (TV series)
|Rulers of Korea