Gyeongui Line

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Gyeongui Line
Gyeongui-Line KORAIL.PNG
Overview
Native name 경의선(京義線)
Type Heavy rail, Passenger/Freight
Regional rail, Rapid transit
Locale Seoul
Goyang
Paju
Termini Seoul
Dorasan
Stations 23
Operation
Opening 1905 (The first opening)
1 April 1908 (Open for passengers)
Owner Korea Rail Network Authority
Operator(s) Korail
Technical
Line length 56.1 km (34.9 mi)
No. of tracks Double track (Seoul - Munsan)
Single track
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 25 kV/60 Hz AC Catenary
Route map
Gyeongbu Line
AREX
0.0 Seoul Line 4
Line 1
Seosomun Closed in 1944
Ahyeonri Closed in 1944
3.1 Sinchon
Sinchon Connection Line
Yongsan Line
AREX
5.8 Gajwa
7.5 Digital Media City Line 6
8.1 Suseak
Susaek Rail Yard
Seoul/Goyang
AREX
11.5 Hwajeon
Gangmae Reopening
14.9 Haengsin
Goyang Rail Yard
16.4 Neunggok
18.2 Daegok Line 3
Gyooe Line
Seoul Ring Expressway
19.9 Goksan
21.5 Baengma
23.2 Pungsan
25.1 Ilsan
26.8 Tanhyeon
Goyang/Paju
30.4 Unjeong
33.5 Geumneung
35.6 Geumchon
39.7 Wollong
41.9 Paju
Munsan Rail Yard
46.3 Munsan
50.0 Uncheon
52.3 Imjingang
Imjin river
56.1 Dorasan
57.8 Jangdan Closed in 1950
ROK-DPRK border
63.4 Panmun
Pyongbu Line
Gyeongui Line
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Gyeonguiseon
McCune–Reischauer Kyŏngŭisŏn

The Gyeongui Line is a rail line of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway from Munsan Station to Seoul Station and Gongdeok Station, officially defined by Korail as "subway".[1] This is despite the line being substantially overground because the term "subway" in Korean is synonymous with metro.[2] When opened in 1906 originally as a railway, it linked Seoul in what is now South Korea to P'yŏngyang and Sinŭiju in what is now North Korea. At Seoul, the line connected with the Gyeongbu Line to Busan, while at Sinŭiju, the line connected with the South Manchuria Railway, linking the Korean railway system to the rest of Asia and Europe.

History[edit]

Korea intended to build the Gyeongui Line with its own resources at the end of the 19th century, but the project stalled due to lack of funds.[3] Imperial Japan, which gained to concession to build the Gyeongbu Line from Busan to Seoul, also sought to gain control of the Gyeongui Line project as its continuation further north, recognising the trunk route as a means to keep Korea under its influence.[3] The line was also advanced for military considerations in expectation of a confrontation with Russia, which came in 1904 as the Russo-Japanese War.[3] At the start of the war, Japan ignored Korea's declaration of neutrality and transported troops to Incheon, and forced the Korean government to sign an agreement that gave Japan's military control of railway projects if deemed necessary for military operations.[3] Japan's military began to build the Gyeongui Line, while troop bases were established in connection with the railway, the biggest of them next to the terminus of the line, Yongsan Station in Seoul.[3]

The first section of the Gyeongui Line opened from Yongsan in Seoul to Munsan on April 3, 1906.[4]

Inter-Korea border[edit]

After the division of Korea in 1945, trains stopped operating between the north and south halves of the country, meaning that southern trains probably terminated at Kaesŏng, which is now in North Korea but was at the time part of the US-administered southern zone. Northern trains would have terminated north of Kaesŏng.

After the end of the Korean War in 1953, southern trains were cut back to around Munsan (north of Seoul), with northern trains terminating at Kaesŏng. Around the same time, North Korea renamed the P'yŏngyang-Kaesŏng section of the line as the P'yŏngbu (P'yŏngyang + Busan) Line and the P'yŏngyang-Sinŭiju section as the P'yŏngŭi (P'yŏngyang + Sinŭiju) Line. The DPRK sector is now 100% electrifed, although the double track section spans only from Pyongyang to Sunan Airport.

Since the summit between the two Koreas in 2000, an effort has slowly been underway to reconnect the Gyeongui Line.[5] Southern passenger service has been extended to Dorasan on the edge of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and tracks have been built across the DMZ itself. In October 2004, the Northern connection from the DMZ to Kaesŏng was finally completed. Simultaneous test runs along the rebuilt cross-border sections of both the Gyeongui Line and the Donghae Bukbu Line were set for May 25, 2006, but North Korean military authorities cancelled the plans a day ahead of the scheduled event.[5] However, at a meeting held in Pyongyang, North Korea, on April 22, 2007, North and South Korea agreed to restart the project.[5] On May 17, 2007, the first train, carrying North and South Korean delegations, travelled from Munsan Station in the South to Kaesong in the North.[6] The first test run on the Donghae Bukbu Line took place at the same time.[5] According to South Korean representatives, the North has agreed in principle to regular passenger and freight service along the two train lines.[7]

Upgrade[edit]

Meanwhile, work began to upgrade the South Korean section for high-capacity commuter services. Between Seoul and Munsan, the line is converted into an electrified, double-tracked railway in a new, straighter, 48.6 km long alignment.[8] Work began in November 1999, with a budget originally estimated at 1,970 billion won.[9] The section from Digital Media City (DMC) to Munsan was finished on July 1, 2009.[8] The remaining section will be mostly underground between Gajwa Station in northwestern Seoul to Yongsan Station in downtown Seoul.[8] As of 2009, construction progress on the entire Seoul–Munsan section reached 74% of a total budget then estimated at 2,153.271 billion won.[8] The section is to be finished by 2014[10] and the freed area on the surface is to be turned into a park.[11]

The line is to be further upgraded for 230 kilometres per hour (140 mph), as part of a government strategic plan to reduce travel times for 95% of Korea to under 2 hours by 2020, which was announced on September 1, 2010.[12]

Services[edit]

Seoul Metropolitan Subway[edit]

Gyeongui Line / Line K3
경의선(京義線)
Gyeonguiseon
South Korea subway logo.svg
KORAIL EMU331000.jpg
Statistics
Type Rapid transit
System Seoul Metropolitan Subway
Status Operational
Termini Seoul
Munsan
No. of stations 20
Operation
Opened 1 July 2009
Operator(s) Korail
Technical
Line length 46.3 km (28.8 mi)
No. of tracks 2

The South Korean section of the Gyeongui Line was integrated with the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system with the opening of the DMC-Munsan upgrade on July 1, 2009.[8] The northernmost subway station is Munsan, and the subway runs through Paju and Ilsan, then all the way into Seoul Station.

It's included as part of Seoul Metropolitan Subway's metro system — It is newly electrified and double tracked, uses subway cars, is shown on subway maps in Seoul, and has free transfers with Seoul Subway Line 2, Seoul Subway Line 3, Seoul Subway Line 5, Line 6, AREX and (off-platform) Line 1.

The current section from Seoul Station to Digital Media City Station is a branch line, not the main line. Most trains go from Munsan to Digital Media City and stop, while only one or two trains per hour go all the way to Seoul Station.

When the full extension to Yongsan Station is completed in December 2014, trains will run to Yongsan Station, and then continue eastward on what is currently the Jungang Line all the way to Sinwonju Station, near Gangwon-do. It is known that the two lines will directly link with each other to form one (very long) subway line, but it is not clear as to what the line will be called.

Stations[edit]

Gyeongui Metro stations
Station # Station Hangeul Hanja Connecting lines Station type Doors open
K310 Yongsan
(2014)
용산 Line 1 Jungang
Shinbundang (2018), Honam KTX
Aboveground
K311 Hyochang
(2014)
효창 Underground
K312 Gongdeok 공덕 Line 5 Line 6 AREX Underground
K313 Sogang Univ. 서강대 西 Underground
K314 Hongik Univ. 홍대입구 Line 2 AREX Underground
via Gyeongui Line
K315 Gajwa 가좌 Underground/Aboveground Left
K316 Digital Media City 디지털미디어시티 Line 6 AREX Aboveground Left
K317 Susaek 수색 Aboveground Left
via Gyeongui Line, in Gyeonggi-do
K318 Hwajeon
(Korea Aerospace Univ.)
화전
(한국항공대)

()
Aboveground Left
K319 Gangmae
(2014)
강매 Aboveground
K320 Haengsin 행신 KTX Aboveground Left
K321 Neunggok 능곡 Aboveground Left
K322 Daegok 대곡 Line 3 Aboveground Left
K323 Goksan 곡산 Aboveground Left
K324 Baengma 백마 Aboveground Left
K325 Pungsan 풍산 Aboveground Left
K326 Ilsan 일산 Aboveground Right
K327 Tanhyeon 탄현 Aboveground Left
K328 Yadang 야당 Aboveground
K329 Unjeong 운정 Aboveground Left
K330 Geumneung 금릉 Aboveground Left
K331 Geumchon 금촌 Aboveground Left
K332 (planned) Aboveground
K333 Wollong 월롱 Aboveground Left
K334 Paju
(Doowon Technical College)
파주
(두원대학)

()
Aboveground Left
K335 Munsan 문산 Aboveground Random
Seoul Station branch stations
Station # Station Hangeul Hanja Connecting lines Station type Doors open
P313 Seoul 서울 Line 1 Line 4
AREX Gyeongbu KTX
Aboveground Random
P314 Sinchon 신촌 Aboveground Right
K315 Gajwa 가좌 Aboveground Left

Regular rail service[edit]

Before the integration with the subway system, the most common service on the line was a Tonggeun train service between Seoul and Imjingang, with one Saemaeul-ho train. Since the line was integrated with the Seoul Subway system, Tonggeun service has been restricted to a few stations in the north, from Munsan to Imjingang, with a few continuing on to Dorasan, near the North Korean border.

Stations after Munsan
Station # Station Hangeul Hanja Connecting lines Station type Doors open
Uncheon 운천 Aboveground
Imjingang 임진강 Aboveground
Dorasan 도라산 Aboveground

KTX[edit]

There is a depot for Korea Train Express (KTX) trains along the Gyeongui Line at Haensin.[13] Some KTX services thus continue beyond Seoul respective Yongsan Station and terminate at Haengsin Station.[14]

The line may see more KTX service after the upgrade for 230 km/h considered in the government's strategic plan for 2020.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Retainment condition and lines in service". Korail. 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  2. ^ http://dic.naver.com/search.nhn?dicQuery=%EC%A0%84%EC%B2%A0&x=0&y=0&query=%EC%A0%84%EC%B2%A0&target=dic&ie=utf8&query_utf=&isOnlyViewEE=
  3. ^ a b c d e "Korea’s Railway Network the Key to Imperial Japan’s Control". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  4. ^ "경영원칙 > 경영공시 > 영업현황 > 영업거리현황". Korail. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Trans-Korean Railway". Korean Rail Technology (English) 9: 09–11. September 2007. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  6. ^ Choe Sang-hun (2007-05-18). "North and South Send Trains Across the Korean Frontier". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  7. ^ "Freight Rail Link Between Two Koreas Seems Imminent". Forbes. 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "용산∼문산 복선전철". Korea Rail Network Authority. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  9. ^ "South Korea's growing network". Railway Gazette International. 2008-09-08. Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  10. ^ "[수도권II] 경의선 효창정거장 부지 220m 때문에" (in Korean). Chosun. August 25, 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  11. ^ "폐철로 위에 핀 '녹색문화공원'" (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  12. ^ a b "Bullet trains coming to a town near you by 2020". JoongAng Daily. 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 
  13. ^ Lee, Kyung Chul (August 2007). "Launch of Korean High-Speed Railway and Efforts to Innovate Future Korean Railway". Japan Railway & Transport Review (48): 30–35. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  14. ^ "Booking". Korail. Retrieved 2010-10-18.