These short, atmospheric pieces are written in 3/4 time, with each sharing a common theme and structure. Collectively, the Gymnopédies are regarded as an important precursor to modern ambient music — gentle yet somewhat eccentric pieces which, when composed, defied the classical tradition. For instance, the first few bars of Gymnopédie No. 1 consist of an alternating progression of two major seventh chords, the first on the subdominant, G, and the second on the tonic, D.
The melodies of the pieces use deliberate, but mild, dissonances against the harmony, producing a piquant, melancholy effect that matches the performance instructions, which are to play each piece "painfully", "sadly" or "gravely".
- dance – probably, as he mentions it alongside another dance, the saraband(e);
- antiquity – supposedly, given the title of the poem. This however does not yet give a clear picture of how antiquity was perceived in late 19th-century France (see below);
- nudity – maybe, although words like "gymnastique" (gymnastics) and "gymnase" (gymnasium) based on the same Greek word for nudity (γυμνός – "gymnos") were common in those days, but had lost any reference to nudity; in Sparta, when much of schoolwork was physical training, the youths were typically nude. It seems clear that -ped refers to children (paed). As suggested below, a dance or parade by children from the gymnasium seems a reasonable interpretation.
- warfare (as in Ancient Greece the word indicated a war dance) – probably not; little war-like intent is apparent in the poem;
- religious ceremony/festivity (which was the context of the Ancient gymnopaedia) – probably neither; there seems to be no allusion made to them in the poem.
Gymnopédie also appears as an infrequently used word in 19th century France, to the point it might have been perceived as a neologism by many. It was, however, already mentioned in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Dictionnaire de Musique (Paris: Duchesne, 1775), where Gymnopédie is described as “Air ou Nome sur lequel dansoient à nu les jeunes Lacédémoniennes” (vol 1, p. 376).
All this might indicate that Satie and Contamine chose the word gymnopédie perhaps rather for its intangible exoticism, than for connotations of which they were probably hardly aware themselves.
The Gymnopédies are the first compositions with which Erik Satie tried to cut himself loose from the conventional 19th century "salon music" environment of his father and stepmother. In September 1887 Satie composed three "sarabands" (Trois Sarabandes), taking a quote from Contamine's La Perdition by way of introduction. By this time, Satie knew Contamine personally.
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Satie apparently used the word "gymnopédiste" (gymnopaedist), before having written a note of his later famous gymnopédies.
The anecdote of Satie introducing himself as a "gymnopaedist" in December 1887 runs as follows: the first time Satie visited the Chat Noir cabaret, he was introduced to its director, Rodolphe Salis, famous for serving sharp comments. Being coerced to mention his profession, Satie, lacking any recognisable professional occupation, presented himself as a "gymnopaedist", supposedly in an attempt to outwit the director.
The composition of the three Gymnopédies started only two months later, and was completed in April 1888.
In August 1888, the "First Gymnopédie" was published, accompanied by the verse of Contamine quoted above. However, it remains uncertain whether the poem was composed before the music, or whether Contamine intended the verse as a tribute to his friend, who had now completed both a set of sarabands and gymnopédies.
Later the same year the "Third Gymnopédie" was published. There was, however, no publication of the "Second Gymnopédie" until 7 years later, with several announcements of an impending publication of this gymnopédie being made in the Chat Noir and Auberge du Clou periodicals.
Orchestrations by Claude Debussy
By the end of 1896, Satie's popularity and financial situation were ebbing. Claude Debussy, whose popularity was rising at the time, helped draw public attention to the work of his friend.
Debussy expressed his belief that the "Second Gymnopédie" did not lend itself to orchestration. (Orchestrations of this gymnopédie were only realised many decades later, by other composers, and without being frequently performed). Thus, in February 1897, Debussy orchestrated the Third and First only, reversing the numbering:
- "First Gymnopédie" (original piano setting by Satie) → "Third Gymnopédie" (orchestration by Debussy)
- "Third Gymnopédie" (original piano setting by Satie) → "First Gymnopédie" (orchestration by Debussy)
The score was then published in 1898.
Twentieth century arrangements
The first and second Gymnopédies were arranged by Dick Halligan for the Jazz Fusion group Blood, Sweat & Tears under the title "Variations on a Theme by Erik Satie" on the group's eponymous album, released in 1968. The recording received a Grammy Award the following year for "Best Contemporary Instrumental Performance."
In 2007 Wilhelm Kaiser-Lindemann (de) arranged the first and the third Gymnopédie for the 12 cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. No. 1 was produced by EMI Classics 6085012 "Fleur de Paris".
Influences and cover versions
- In the 1970 Canadian film Goin' Down the Road, Peter follows a woman into the Classical Music section of Sam the Record Man, where an orchestral arrangement of Gymnopédie No. 1 is playing. Despite having no knowledge of classical music, Peter orders a copy of the record.
- Sky - the English/Australian classical/progressive rock band covered Gymnopédie No. 1 on their debut album named "Sky" in 1979.
- Gary Numan covered the first Gymnopédie on the b-side of 1980 single, "We Are Glass", with an arrangement incorporating guitar, bass and synthesizers.
- Chris Freeman and John Shaw covered Gymnopédie on their album, Chris Freeman and John Shaw (May 1981).
- New Romantic band Japan based several songs on these pieces: "The Tenant", (from the 1978 album Obscure Alternatives) "Despair" and "The Other Side Of Life" (from the 1979 album Quiet Life) and "Nightporter" (from the 1980 album Gentlemen Take Polaroids).
- The Japanese guitar duo Depapepe made their own cover version of Gymnopédie No. 1.
- A pastiche of Erik Satie's style in Trois Gymnopédies and Gnossiennes, composed by Vladimir Cosma, was used in Jean-Jacques Beineix's 1981 film Diva. A similar pastiche was composed by Charles Fox for the soundtrack of the 1988 film, Short Circuit 2 for the scene following the attack on the robot, Johnny 5.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is covered in the 2012 Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps show, titled Cabaret Voltaire.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is heard over the closing scene and end credits of Louis Malle's film, My Dinner with Andre (1981). It's also heard in the soundtrack of The Fire Within, by the same director.
- In the last minute of the video for the song "Carmen", by American singer/songwriter Lana Del Rey, Gymnopédie No. 1 is played.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also playing in the background as Captain Jean-Luc Picard (played by Patrick Stewart) contemplates the imminent demise of his ship, the U.S.S. Enterprise in Season 2, Episode 2 of Star Trek: The Next Generation, "Where Silence Has Lease."
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also playing in the background as Robin and Lily float along the sidewalk of Ted and Robin's Brooklyn, New York apartment in Season 6, Episode 22 of How I Met Your Mother, "The Perfect Cocktail"
- Gymnopédie No. 1 also features prominently in a scene of The Royal Tenenbaums by Wes Anderson. The scene features two large paintings by Miguel Calderon and a non-exchange between Richie Tenenbaum (Luke Wilson) and Eli Cash (Owen Wilson), with Gymnopédie No. 1 playing instead of having dialogue.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also used as an interpolation in the song "Someone to Call My Lover" by Janet Jackson.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also part of the soundtrack for the documentary film Man on Wire.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also used in an important scene in the Japanese video game Mother 3, where the character Leder reveals important plot points about the background of the game.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also used in the Japanese video game Persona 2.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also used in the Grasshopper Manufacture video games, Killer7 and Flower, Sun, and Rain.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also heard in pieces in Pawan Kripalani's film, Ragini MMS (2011).
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is also sampled in the song Gymnopédie 1. by Lushlife featuring Shad
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is heard at the beginning of the 12th episode of the Japanese Animation Love Hina.
- Gymnopédie No. 1 is played by a robot on a piano in the video game Remember Me.
- Gymnopédie No. 2 is played as a part of the soundtrack in Jaco Van Dormael's 2009 film Mr. Nobody.
- The three Gymnopédies are part of the soundtrack for the feature film The Disappearance of Haruhi Suzumiya.
- Gymnopédie No. 3 is used as menu screen music in the video game Symphony.
- A remixed version of Gymnopédie No. 1 is also part of the soundtrack for the visual novel G Senjō no Maō under the title "Sora no Seki" (Evening Sky).
- A short cover of Gymnopédie No. 1 appears on the 2013 Anamanaguchi album Endless Fantasy.
- Mark Prendergast, The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Moby – The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age, London: Bloomsbury, 2000, p. 6 ISBN 0-7475-5732-2
- Lent et douloureux translates to "slow and painful" – http://www.scribd.com/doc/6207518/Gymnopedie-No-1-Sheet-Music
- See for example Cage’s Place In the Reception of Satie by Matthew Shlomowitz (1999) on Niclas Fogwall's Erik Satie website.
- Erik Satie, Ornella Volta (2000), Correspondance presque complète, Paris: Fayard/Imec, p. 936, ISBN 978-2-213-60674-3
- Gymnopédies: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Free sheet music of 3 Gymnopédies from Cantorion.org
- Public Domain Sheet Music of the Gymnopédies at the Mutopia Project