Gymnopilus luteofolius

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Gymnopilus luteofolius
Gymnopilus luteofolius.jpg
Gymnopilus luteofolius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Cortinariaceae
Genus: Gymnopilus
Species: G. luteofolius
Binomial name
Gymnopilus luteofolius
(Peck) Singer
Gymnopilus luteofolius
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex
hymenium is adnate
stipe has a ring
spore print is reddish-brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Gymnopilus luteofolius, also known as Yellow-Gilled Gymnopilus is a large and widely distributed mushroom which grows in dense clusters on dead hardwoods and conifers. It has a rusty orange spore print and a bitter taste. It contains the hallucinogen psilocybin.[1]

Systematics[edit]

Gymnopilus luteofolius was first described as Agaricus luteofolius by Charles Horton Peck in 1875. It was renamed Pholiota luteofolius by Pier Andrea Saccardo in 1887, and was given its current name by mycologist Rolf Singer in 1951.[2]

Description[edit]

The fruit bodies of Gymnopilus luteofolius have reddish to purplish to yellow caps 2 to 8 cm (0.8 to 3.1 in) in diameter, which often develop green stains. This cap surface is covered with fasciculate scales which start out purplish, soon fade to brick red, and finally fades to yellow as the mushroom matures. The context is reddish to light lavender, fading to yellowish as the mushroom matures. The gills have adnate attachment and start off yellow, turning rusty brown as the spores mature. The stipe is the same color as the cap, often dusted with rusty brown spores, fibrillose, measuring 3 - 9 by 3 - 10 mm thick, equal to enlarged near the base. The stipe often has greenish stains near the base. The taste is bitter.[3]

The spores are bright rusty brown in deposit, measuring (5.5) 6 - 8.5 x (3.5) 4 - 4.5 μm, ellipsoid to subellipsoid, inequilateral, roughened and dextrinoid, with no germ pore. The basidia measure 24 - 28 x 6 - 7 μm and are 4-spored. The basidioles are often brown. The pleurocystidia (cystidia on the gill face) measures 30 - 38 x 5 - 10 μm, hyaline, fusoid to subventricose. The cystidia on the gill edge (cheilocystidia) measures 23 - 28 x 4 - 7 μm, ventricose to flash shaped, often capitate. The lamellar trama is made up of parallel hyphae 5 - 18 μm across, frequently septate, with yellowish pigment which is dissolved by KOH. The pileus trama is interwoven, and the pileus cuticle has brown tufts of brown incrusted hyphae. The pileocystidia measures 44 - 53 (100) μm, and are clavate, cylindrical or ventricose terminal elements on the hyphae that forms the scales on the cap. Cystidia on the stem (caulocystidia) are 20 - 63 x 3 - 15 μm, clavate, ventricose or flask shaped. The gill trama and pileus trama are pale yellowish-brown in KOH and reddish brown in Melzer's_reagent. Clamp connections are present.[3]

Gymnopilus luteofolius spores


See also[edit]

List of Gymnopilus species

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0. 
  2. ^ Singer R. (1951). "The Agaricales in modern taxonomy". Lilloa 22: 560. 
  3. ^ a b Hesler, L. R. (1969). North American Species of Gymnopilus. Knoxville, Tennessee: Hafner Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]