Piebald Gypsy mare
|Distinguishing features||Light draught horse build, often with pinto spotting pattern, though no coat colour standard, feather on lower legs|
|Alternative names||Cob, Coloured Cob, Gypsy Cob, Gypsy horse, irish Cob, Tinker Horse, Gypsy Vanner|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom and Ireland|
|Common nicknames||Gypsy (USA), Tinker (Europe), Cob (U.K.)|
|Gypsy Vanner Horse Society (USA)||Breed standards|
|Irish Cob Society (Ireland, UK)||Breed standards|
|Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association (USA)||Breed standards|
|Gypsy Horse Registry of America (USA)||Breed standards|
|Gypsy Horse Association (USA)||Breed standards|
|Australasian Gypsy Horse Society||Breed standards|
|Horse (Equus ferus caballus)|
The Gypsy Horse (USA, UK, AU), also known as the Gypsy Cob (UK, NZ), Coloured Cob (UK, Ireland, parts of Continental Europe), Gypsy Vanner (US, CAN), Irish Cob, and Tinker Horse (parts of Continental Europe), is a horse breed originally developed by Romanichal peoples native to the British Isles. As recently as 1996, the Gypsy horse had no stud book or breed registry. However, it is now considered a breed with multiple worldwide breed associations dedicated to it. [a] It is a small draught breed, popularly recognized for its abundant leg feathering and common black and white, or "piebald", coat colour, though it can be of any other colour as well. Breeders in the U.K. compliment a good example of the breed, which has powerful muscling, correct leg conformation of a pulling horse, and flashy action, with the term "proper cob". Around 1850, the Romanichal of Great Britain began to use a distinct type of horse to pull the vardoes, chimneyed living waggons, in which they had just begun to live and travel. The distinct colour and look of the modern breed were refined by the Romanichal in the period following World War II. American breeders began to import Gypsy horses and created its first registry in 1996. A related sub-type, the Drum Horse, is a larger animal of similar appearance. Today, the Gypsy horse is still bred in the UK by a number of established breeders, most of whom also exhibit and sell their horses at traditional fairs. In the United States, horse show competition for Gypsy horses is increasing each year, and several Gypsy breed registries have gained affiliate recognition with the United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) and United States Dressage Federation (USDF).
The Gypsy horse is widely known for its piebald, or black and white pinto coat colour, a common but not sole colouration for the breed. However, Gypsy horses may be of any coat colour; none of the breed registries incorporates a colour requirement into its breed standard. Since the breed's origin is British, colour names are typically given in British English in all English language registries, even in the United States, such as the piebald and skewbald colour descriptors added to the tobiano spotting patterns of the Gypsy. Another British word used to describe a particular colour pattern is blagdon, describing "a solid colour" with white "splashed up from underneath".
There are multiple breed registries for the Gypsy horse, with mostly minor variations in their respective breed standards. The range of desired heights is generally from 13 to 16 hands (52 to 64 inches, 132 to 163 cm) in the United States and Australiasia, but in Ireland and continental Europe, the desired height limit goes up to 16.2 hands (66 inches, 168 cm) for some types and they permit both lighter-boned as well as larger horses than typically desired by the American registries. [b] Some registries have different categories: The Gypsy Horse Registry of America (GHRA) has two height classifications: Section A for purebred horses under 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) and Section B for purebred horses 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) and over. Its Section C is for Gypsy Crossbred horses. The Netherlands studbook for Gypsy horses, the Nederlands Stamboek voor Tinkers NSvT, identified there as the "Tinker horse," classifies horses into three groups: "cob," "vanner," and "grai," based on height in meters and degree of refinement. The cob type is approximately 14.3 to 15.1 hands (59 to 61 inches, 150 to 155 cm), and the vanner 15.1 hands (61 inches, 155 cm). The more refined "grai" may be of any size, but usually within the range of 14.3 to 16.2 hands.
Feathering or "Feather", long hair starting below the knee of the front legs and the hock of the hind legs and running down the leg to flow over the front and back of the hooves, is a highly valued attribute of the Gypsy Horse. Silky straight hair and feather are desirable, though somewhat coarser and even wavy hair and feather are permitted. Kinky hair, however, is considered to be a fault. Profuse feather is an integral part of the definition of a Gypsy Horse and most registries require it, except for the Irish Cob Society, which will register horses with less feather than allowed under other registries' breed standards. However, the ICS also does consider feather as a "characteristic and decorative feature of the Irish Cob breed." Their standard states, "[l]eg hair/feathering, should at the very least, fall from the back of the knees and hocks, down to a thick covering of hair/feathers on the heels. Leg hair/feathering should also fall over the front of the hoof, from at least the coronet."[c]
A Gypsy Horse's facial profile should be straight, neither overly dished nor roman nosed. A "sweet" head, more refined than that of most draft horses, is desired. The GHA's breed standard states that the head may be "sweet", "a small, tidy pony type head", meaning without coarseness and in proportion with the body, But the AGHS calls unequivocally for a sweet head, "more refined than a Shire might have . . . with broad forehead, generous jaw, square muzzle, and even bite". According to GVHS, the "forehead must be flat and broad . . . with [t]he frontal facial bone . . . flat to slightly convex".
The neck is strong, muscular, and of medium length "with a throat latch slightly deeper than lighter breeds". The chest should be broad, deep, and well muscled. Withers are "well rounded, not high and fine, i.e., hardly noticeable". Most registries call for a "well-sloped" shoulder  But the GVHS's standard is more precise, specifying a shoulder angle ranging from 45 degrees to 60 degrees. The back is to be short coupled with well sprung ribs and a deep heart girth. The length of line of the belly should be twice that of the topline of the back and the horse should not appear 'wasp waisted'. The Netherlands studbook registry rules for vanner and cob types have breed standards desiring strong, well-muscled builds with abundant feathering similar to that of the registries in English-speaking nations. The "grai" is classified as a lighter and more refined riding type.
Strong hindquarters define the breed as a small draft horse, "designed for strength and power, but with class, presence and style." They are sometimes described as having an "apple butt" as the croup is well rounded and "very generous, smooth and broad". Poorly-muscled hindquarters or a too-sloping rump are unacceptable. According to GVHS, the length of the hip from the point of the hip to the tailhead, should be slightly longer than the total length of the topline. The line measuring the length of the hip should also be horizontal; if the tailhead falls below the horizontal line intersecting the point of the hip, the horse's "hip/croup will be approaching too steep an angle for the Gypsy Vanner".
Bone in the legs should be heavy, clean, and flat. GVHS's standard calls for a length of forearm to cannon ratio of 55% to 45%. The front legs should be clean and flat in joints as well as bone; front pasterns should slope at the same angle as the shoulder and should not be short. A line drawn from the point of the buttock should touch the back of the hock, run "parallel" to the cannon bone, and touch the ground directly behind "the center of the heel". Pastern and hoof angles of the hindlegs are more vertical than the forelegs, usually over 50 degrees. Hooves have strong walls and a well shaped frog, round and with wide heels.
The hind legs of the Gypsy Horse should display proper angulation for a pulling horse, though generally not to the degree found in larger feathered draught breeds such as the modern Shire and Clydesdale. The cannon bones of a Gypsy Horse's hind legs, when viewed from behind with the horse set up squarely, appear parallel, and the entire leg is turned outward  This conformation is not to be confused with legs which are cow-hocked, where only the lower leg is turned outward.
The Gypsy horse has distinct gaits. According to GHA's standard, "The stride should be correct, supple, and powerful. Showing good impulsion from behind, demonstrating powerful drive. Flowing, effortless in appearance". The horse's movement should be "natural, not artificial . . . . Some have higher knee action than others, it's[sic] way of going can vary from short and economical to longer, reaching strides."  GHRA's standard requires "[a] steady forward walk with impulsion. Ground covering trot with a slight flick of feather at the point of extension."
The Gypsy horse should be a "strong, kind, (very) intelligent partner that works willingly and harmoniously with its handler. They are also described as mannerly and manageable, eager to please, confident, courageous, alert, and loyal with a genuine sociable outlook. The Gypsy Horse is renowned for its gentle, tractable nature and sensible disposition."
The Gypsy Horse is prone to health issues common to feathered draughts. The most serious of these is chronic progressive lymphedema. This condition may have a genetic component, as is a similar condition in humans. However, studies to date have not identified a causative gene. Of lesser concern is scratches. The moist environment under the feathering is an ideal environment for the combination of fungus and mites which are believed to cause it.
Among the assorted registries, associations, and societies dedicated to the breed, there is some variety in services offered. The Gypsy Horse Registry of America includes size classifications in its studbook. The Gypsy Horse Association provides access to the identifying DNA markers, pedigrees (both anecdotal and DNA verified), and registration photos of most of its registered horses online and free of charge. The Gypsy Horse Association and the Gypsy Horse Registry of America provide online studbooks. The Gypsy Vanner Horse Society provides access to its studbook for a fee. The Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association offers inspections and some shows.
Since breed registries for the Gypsy Horse have only existed within the last 20 years, most mandate a genetic analysis as a requirement for a Gypsy's registration to verify identity and identify future offspring. All of the North American Gypsy Horse and Drum Horse registries employ the Animal Genetics Research Laboratory of the University of Kentucky to perform DNA analysis and maintain a database of registered horses' DNA markers. UKY currently tests markers at 17 loci of a horse's genetic makeup. The aim of this analysis is to either exclude or fail to exclude another horse as a parent. In a spirit of cooperation, all four American registries and the single Drum Horse one have granted the University of Kentucy permission to employ DNA markers in confirming parentage across registry lines. Since most horses were imported to North America without knowledge of their previous histories, many owners wish to reclaim the genetic roots of their animals, and services have sprung up to satisfy this desire.
Because many of the horses submitted for registration have never been registered, the American registries currently evaluate horses for registration by way of photos and provenance information such as import papers and bills of sale.
Beginning in 2014, GVHS will restrict registration to horses sired by GVHS-registered stallions and out of mares whose DNA markers are available and confirm parentage. Only horses falling between 13 and 16 hands in height will be registered, although their status can be appealed to GVHS's board of directors.
The Netherlands studbook registry rules only allow horses previously registered with the NSvT to have offspring registered, but allows horses identified as Irish Cob, Gypsy Cob, Gypsy Vanner, Coloured Horse, Traveller Pony, Black and White, or Traditional Cob to be evaluated as potential breeding stock and if suitable, recorded in its secondary registry, with their offspring eligible for full registration. Horses must pass an inspection to be registered. The Irish Cob Society (ICS) also requires an inspection process.
The Gypsy Horse was bred by the Romanichal of Great Britain to pull the vardoes in which they lived and traveled. The Romanichal had arrived in the British Isles by 1500 A.D., but they did not begin to live in vardoes until around 1850. Prior to that, they traveled in tilted carts or afoot and slept either under or in these carts or in small tents. The peak usage of the Gypsy caravan occurred in the latter part of the 19th century and the first two decades of the 20th.
Some aspects of training, management, and characteristics of a horse used to pull a vardo are unique. For example, the horse is trained not to stop until it reaches the top of a hill; otherwise it may not be able to get started again. Training begins at a very early age with the young horse tied "with a short rope from the head to the trace-ring on the collar of the shaft-horse", and led along on the off side. An old hat is sometimes placed on a fearful horse's head so as to keep him from seeing back over the top of his blinkers at the waggon looming at his back. A horse used to pull a vardo which was a permanent home was usually in very good condition due to a combination of exercise, grazing a variety of greens in the hedgerows, and good quality care; the horse was considered part of the family. Since the family's children lived in close proximity to the horse, one having "an unreliable temper could not be tolerated".
The Gypsy Horse was also used to pull the "tradesman's cart . . . used in conjunction with the caravan as a runabout and work vehicle and whilst on a journey". This is also known as a flatbed or a trolley, and examples appear in the annual London Harness Horse Parade.
The Gypsy Horse breed as it is today is thought to have begun to take shape shortly after World War II ended. When the British Romanichal had first begun to live in vardoes around 1850, they used mules and cast off horses of any suitable breed to pull them. These later included "coloured" horses, piebalds and skewbalds, which had become unfashionable in mainstream society and were typically culled. Among these were a significant number of coloured Shire horses. Many of these ended up with Romanichal breeders, and by the 1950s, they were considered valuable status symbols within that culture. Spotted (leopard complex) horses were very briefly in fashion around the time of World War II, and this coat pattern can be found in the breed to this day. However, the spotted horse quickly went out of fashion in favor of the coloured horse, which has retained its popularity until the present day. The initial greater height of the breed derived from the influence of both Clydesdales and Shires, both of which possess "feather", long hair starting at the knee or hock and growing down to cover the hooves. Feather became and still remains highly valued.
In the formative years of the Gypsy Horse, the Romanichal bred not only for specific colour, profuse feather, and greater bone, but also for increased action and smaller size. To increase action at the trot, they first tried Hackney Pony breeding, but this blood reduced both feather and bone. The Romanichal therefore turned to the Section D Welsh Cob to add a more animated trot to the breed without loss of other desired traits. Another trend in breeding was a steady decrease in height, a trend still present among many Romanichal breeders. In the 1990s, the breed's average height still was in excess of 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm), but horses of 14.3 to 15 hands (59 to 60 inches, 150 to 152 cm) were beginning to be viewed as more desirable, primarily for economic reasons. John Shaw, a carriage painter from Milnrow, Rochdale, Lancaster, was quoted in 1993 as saying, "Very big, hairy coloureds are now in vogue. They are status symbols . . . but they are not really an economical animal. They cost too much to feed, harness and shoe. . . and they don't stand up to the work. For that you want the vanner type of 14.3 to 15 hands (59 to 60 inches, 150 to 152 cm)"; larger horses require more fodder than smaller ones, as well as larger harnesses and horseshoes.
The breed most used by the Romanichal breeders to set not only the size but also the type of the future Gypsy Horse was the Dales Pony, described as "thick, strong, . . . active yet a great puller". The Dales, a draught pony, preserved the bone, feather, and pulling capabilities derived from the Shire and Clydesdale breeds but in a smaller and therefore more economical package. The Dales and, to a lesser extent, the Fell Pony interbred with the Shire and Clydesdale provided the basis of today's Gypsy Horse.
Since the Romanichal people who developed the Gypsy Horse communicated pedigree and breed information orally, information on foundation bloodstock and significant horses within the breed is mostly anecdotal. The two foundation sires of the breed are reportedly known as The Old Coal Horse and Sonny Mays' Horse. A tentative pedigree of the Coal Horse, who supposedly earned his name by pulling a coal wagon in Dublin, Ireland, at some time in his life, has been pieced together from oral tradition. It is said that The Coal Horse goes back to a grey Shire stallion known as Shaw's Grey Horse of Scotland. The Coal Horse sired, among many others, a stallion named The Roadsweeper from whom many notable contemporary horses descended, including Robert Watson's Old Horse and The Lion King.
The Irish cob can be traced to the 18th century but also was long considered a type, not a breed, and varied somewhat in characteristics, though generally was bred for light draft and farm work but was also capable of being ridden. It originated from crossing Thoroughbred, Connemara pony and Irish Draught horses.
Beginning in 1996, a series of registries, associations, and societies was formed in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Some of these with their foundation dates are as follows: Gypsy Vanner Horse Society (1996), The Irish Cob Society Ltd. (1998), Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association (2002), Gypsy Cob Society of America, later the Gypsy Horse Registry of America (2003), Australasian Gypsy Horse Society (2007), and the NZ Gypsy Cob Association (2012).
The first known Gypsy Horses to come to America arrived in 1997 and were imported by American discoverers of the breed Dennis and Cindy Thompson. Notable among early importers was Black Forest Shires & Gypsy Horses (2000-2012) which imported around 1700 horses, primarily Gypsy Horses. Since the Gypsy Horse had no registry prior to its entry into North America, horses' provenances, including importer, are of particular importance to their owners.
All American registries, including the International Drum Horse Association below, employ the Animal Genetics Research Laboratory of the University of Kentucky as the repository of their registered horses' DNA markers. Since the Gypsy Horse has had registries only recently, comparison of DNA markers is necessary to confirm parentage.
In its native Great Britain, the Gypsy is still being bred by a number of well-established Romanichal breeders, many of whose families have done so for several generations. And the trend of breeding down in size continues with 11- and 12-hand horses now common. Except for special occasions, these horses are typically not being used for their original purpose, pulling a living waggon, but are instead viewed in terms of heirloom bloodlines and are a source of great pride.
U.K. Romanichal breeders of the Gypsy Horse have typically called it simply "Cob" and "Coloured Cob" with a particularly good specimen being a "proper Cob". However, the term cob, defined as a short-legged, stout horse, is a body type rather than a breed. As part of several efforts to have the Gypsy Horse recognized as a breed outside the Romanichal community, a more descriptive name was sought for it, starting in the 1990s.
The first known importers of the Gypsy Horse to North America, Dennis and Cindy Thompson, viewed the breed as unnamed and wanted it to be given what they viewed as a proper name. For this, they selected "Vanner", which they had seen used in reference to a Gypsy Horse in Edward Hart's 1993 book, and they incorporated it into the name of the American registry they founded in 1996, the Gypsy Vanner Horse Society.
The term "vanner", prior to the Thompsons' adoption of it for the GVHS, refers to a type of horse and dates to at least 1888. According to the OED, a "vanner" is "a light horse suitable for drawing a small van", where "van", appearing in print with this meaning for the first time in the early 1800s, is "a covered vehicle chiefly employed for the conveyance of goods, usually resembling a large wood box with arched roof and opening from behind, but varying in size (and to some extent in form) according to the use intended". Writing in 1897, M. Horace Hayes describes the "light vanner", a horse of indeterminate breed "which we meet in vans, 'buses and tram-cars", to be "active, light cart horses that can trot freely and at fair speed" and are in "a class intermediate between the light harness horse and the heavy draught horse". Although "van" was derived from "caravan", the first known occurrence of this word to reference "a chimneyed house on wheels", or vardo, was not until 1872. Therefore "vanner" does not directly derive from "caravan" and so has no inherent connection to the Romanichal.
Prior to the formation of the American registry in 1996, the term "vanner" was applied to the Romanichal's horse in two printed sources to identify the Gypsy Horse as a particular type of horse irrespective of breed. Publishing in 1993, Hart employs the term three times in reference to a Gypsy Horse, clearly identifying "vanner" to be a type as opposed to a breed. Harvey, publishing in 1979, describes a horse as "[a] fair-sized vanner, about 15.2hh (15 1/2 hands) high, . . . [c]ross-shire, with a touch of Clydesdale? Lineage is often hard to trace."  This horse is defined as a crossbreed, a "[c]ross-shire, with a touch of Clydesdale" perhaps, and so "vanner" is clearly not being used here to identify a breed.
Founded in 1998, 2002, and 2003, respectively, The Irish Cob Society Ltd. (ICS). the Gypsy Cob and Drum Horse Association (GCDHA), and Gypsy Cob Society of America (GCSA), referred to the breed as "Cob", the name used by its Romanichal breeders. The Gypsy Horse Association (GHA), incorporated in 2008, employed the name "Gypsy Horse" and states on its website that the organization recognizes all breed names currently in use. Also in 2008, the GCSA renamed itself the Gypsy Horse Registry of America (GHRA).
Aside from Gypsy Cob, Gypsy Vanner, Gypsy Horse, and Irish Cob, the other name for the breed used by some registries is Tinker Horse. In Europe, the registries in Belgium, Sweden and the Netherlands are in the Universal Equine Life Number (UELN) database under the breed names "Tinker Horse" and "Tinker Pony."
The Drum Horse
The Drum Horse in America is patterned after and named for the Drum Horse traditionally attached to a British cavalry regiment. This horse's purpose is to carry the large silver drums which are beaten to mark march time. The rider guides the horse with reins attached to his stirrups since his hands are needed to beat time on the drums. The horse selected for this position is usually a Clydesdale cross and has frequently been tobiano or sabino.
The American Drum Horse is treated as a breed in its own right or as a specific Gypsy cross, depending on registry. GCDHA treats the Drum as a breed and maintains a studbook for it. GCDHA's Drum Horse breed standard specifies a Gypsy Horse cross with Clydesdale, Shire, and/or Friesian making up the other bloodlines. Solid and blagdon patterned horses are registered but only as foundation stock. Formed in 2006, the American Drum Horse Association, now the International Drum Horse Association, also treats the Drum as a breed. It excludes Friesian bloodlines from the mix, allowing only Gypsy and Shire and/or Clydesdale, and allows solid and blagdon horses into its Drum Horse stud book. In 2010, the Gypsy Horse Association opened a Gypsy Heritage Division for horses of Gypsy heritage (i.e., non-purebred horses having some Gypsy blood). It maintains stud books for Drum Horses, which it treats as a specific Gypsy Horse crossbreed having no less than 25% Gypsy with Clydesdale, Shire, and/or Friesian constituting the rest, and for Gypsy crossbreeds other than Drum Horses.
One view of a Drum is as the return of colour (i.e., tobiano and skewbald coat patterns) to the Shire, from which it was culled when colour fell out of fashion in all U.K. breeds during the mid-1900s. This vision of the Drum implicitly excludes the Friesian as a constituent breed for the Drum.
In its native Great Britain, the Gypsy is shown and traded at traditional horse fairs, the best-known of which is Appleby Horse Fair. Some attendees of the fairs travel there in the traditional manner via horse-drawn vardos. American photographer John S. Hockensmith documented such a journey in 2004, traveling with and photographing the Harker family's 60-mile journey to Appleby in bow top living waggons. Accompanying the party was Jeff Bartko, one of the largest importers of Gypsy Horses to North America at that time. Capstick and Donogue also published photographs taken at Appleby Fair, some vintage, and Jones published photos taken at Yorkshire horse fairs, some from the early 1900s.
The first Gypsy breed show, the Ohio State Fair Gypsy Vanner Horse Show, was held in 2005 in Columbus, Ohio. The 2006 and 2007 Ohio State Fair Gypsy Vanner Horse Shows included the first classes for Drum Horses ever held in the U.S. Currently there are a number of breed shows for the Gypsy Horse.
In 2004, the United States Dressage Federation accepted the Gypsy Vanner Horse Society as an affiliate member in its All Breeds Program, allowing horses registered with GVHS to win registry-specific awards in USEF-sanctioned and USDF-recognized dressage and dressage-related events. The Gypsy Horse Association was also accepted into the USDF's All Breeds Program in 2008, and as of the beginning of 2011, four Gypsy and Drum Horse registries were participants in the program. In 2010, a Gypsy stallion earned a championship in the USDF's All Breeds Program for his achievements in third level dressage.
- This includes breed registries and societies in Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Sweden Czech Republic, New Zealand, four in the USA, and two in Australia
- The Gypsy Vanner Horse Society (GVHS) prefers height between 13.2 to 15.2 hands (54 to 62 inches, 137 to 157 cm), and will decline to register horses outside of the range 13 to 16 hands (52 to 64 inches, 132 to 163 cm) The Australian Gypsy Horse Society (AGHS) between 13 to 15.1 hands (52 to 61 inches, 132 to 155 cm) the Gypsy Horse Association and Western Australian Gypsy Horse Society prefers animals 13 to 15.2 hands (52 to 62 inches, 132 to 157 cm)
- With respect to feather, note that the plural (i.e., "feathers") is never used in reference to a horse's feather. Instead this is always referred to as "feather" or "feathering".
- "Gypsy Cob : Horse Breeds & Info". Horseshowcentral.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Hart 2008 p. 58
- "Irish Cob Society, Ltd.". Irish Cob Society. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Vereniging NSvT - Het Nederlands Stamboek voor Tinkers". Nsvt.eu. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "ish And Traditional Cobs Europe". Irishcob-germany.de. 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Dansk Tinker Forening". Dansktinkerforening.dk. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Svenska Tinkerhästsällskapet". Svenskatinker.se. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Index". Irishcob.cz. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "New Zealand". Nzgca.co.nz. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- these are Gypsy Cob Society of America, Gypsy Horse Association, Gypsy Horse Registry of America, and Gypsy Vanner Horse Society
- These are the Gypsy Horse Australasian Society and Western Australian Gypsy Horse Society.
- Johnson 2008, p. 314
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- "Registration rules and Stud Rules". Nederlands Stamboek voor Tinkers NSvT. Retrieved 2013=03=12.
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- Hockensmith, p.
- Lynghaug 2009, p. 393-394
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- Hart p. 62
- Ward-Jackson p. 22
- Ward-Jackson p. 29
- Ward-Jackson p. 51
- Ward-Jackson p. 59
- Ward-Jackson p. 61
- Hart p. 63
- Jones p. 23
- London Harness Horse Parade "London Harness Horse Parade". Lhhp.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
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- Hart 1993 pp. 62-63
- Hart 1993 p. 43
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- Hart 1993 p. 64
- Lynghaug 2009, p. 387
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- the+lion+king "Lion King Pedigree". allbreedpedigree.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Hendricks 2007, p. 234
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- Hart 1993 p. 59
- OED, p. 3588
- Hayes 1897 p. 252
- Hayes 1897 p. 125
- Hart p. 126
- Harvey p. 56
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