|Traded as||OMX: HM B|
|Founded||Västerås, Sweden (1947 )|
|Key people||Stefan Persson (Chairman)
Karl-Johan Persson (President and CEO)
|Revenue||SEK 141 billion (2012)|
|Operating income||SEK 20 billion (2012)|
|Net income||SEK 15 billion (2012)|
|Employees||116 000 - August 2013|
|Subsidiaries||Monki, Weekday, Cheap Monday, COS|
H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈhɛnˈnɛs ɔ ma.ʊˈrɪts]) is a Swedish multinational retail-clothing company, known for its fast-fashion clothing for men, women, teenagers and children.
H&M exists in 53 countries and as of 2013 employed around 116,000 people. The first store was opened on the high street of Västerås, Sweden in 1947. It had 2,325 stores at the end of 2011 and 2,629 stores at the end of August 2012. It is ranked the second largest global clothing retailer, just behind Spain-based Inditex (parent company of ZARA), and leads over third largest global clothing retailer, United States based GAP Inc.
The design team in the company’s Sweden office controls the steps of production, from merchandise planning to establishing specifications, and production is outsourced to approximately 800 factories in Europe and Asia. These facilities are used for horizontal division of labour, rather than being integrated.
- 1 History
- 2 Locations
- 2.1 Asia
- 2.2 Europe
- 2.3 The Americas
- 2.4 Oceania
- 3 Marketing
- 4 Guest-designer collaborations
- 5 Brand
- 6 Home furnishing
- 7 Labor practices
- 8 Controversies
- 9 Philanthropy
- 10 The company worldwide
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
In 1946 the company's founder Erling Persson was on a trip to the United States and came up with the business idea of offering fashionable clothing at attractive prices. In 1947 he opened his first shop Västerås, Sweden "Hennes", which exclusively sold women's clothing. "Hennes" is Swedish and means "for her" and/or "hers". In 1968 the hunting apparel retailer Mauritz Widforss was acquired, which led to the inclusion of a menswear collection in the product range and the name change to "Hennes & Mauritz" (H&M). In 1998, the company successfully gained control over the initials "HM" for its Internet domain HM.com.
The company opened its first Asian store (also the company's first franchise) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2006. It followed with a store in the Salmiya district of Kuwait City, Kuwait. In 2008, it opened its doors in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. The first Israeli store opened in Tel Aviv in 2010, followed by five more stores across the country, including a branch at the Malha Mall in Jerusalem.
The first location of H&M in China was at Shanghai between 2007. And since then there has been around 114 stores as of 2012 (excluding Hong Kong).
H&M expanded into East Asia in March 2007, with its first store opening in Hong Kong on 10 March 2007. As a special Chinese territory, Hong Kong maintains its own currency (Hong Kong dollar) with different legal and tax system from China. As such, H&M Hong Kong maintains a separate website & operation from H&M China, with all the products priced in Hong Kong dollar, not Chinese Yuan, as indicated on the company's official website. Australian pop singer Kylie Minogue opened H&M's first store in Hong Kong where she also exclusively launched her range of swimwear, "H&M loves Kylie".
H&M received final approval from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) to open stores in India, according to a government statement on 2 December 2013. The statement also added that the government approval permits the company to set up a wholly owned subsidiary in India. H&M plans to invest 7.2 billion (US$115.5 million; £70.2 million) and open 50 stores across the country.
The first store in Indonesia has opened on 5 October 2013 at Gandaria City in Jakarta. The store will be approximately 2,400 square metre. Shortly after the first opening, a 1,700 square metre store has opened at Pondok Indah Mall. In March 2014, a 4,000 square metre flagship store will open at Grand Indonesia Shopping Town.
The first Japanese store was opened in Ginza on 13 September 2008, while a second store was opened in Harajuku in November 2008. Another store was opened in the Shibuya shopping district on 19 September 2009.
The first store in Malaysia opened on 22 September 2012, and is located at Lot 10, Kuala Lumpur  and spans three levels. The second store at Setia City Mall in Shah Alam, has been opened since 4 October 2012. Another store is located at Paradigm Mall in Petaling Jaya. On 6 August 2013, H&M has opened its fourth store and its first store in the northern region which is at Gurney Paragon Mall, Penang while on 24 October, H&M has an opened a store at 1 Utama Shopping Centre, Petaling Jaya. On the following week, H&M has opened a store located at Avenue K, Jalan Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. H&M has also announced on 18 September that they will open a new store at Sunway Pyramid, Petaling Jaya. H&M to open a second store in Penang at 1st Avenue on 5 December 2013.
30th May 2014 - 1 Mont Kiara Mall
6th June 2014 - Hatten Square, Melaka
The company opened its first store in Singapore on 3 September 2011. The store, located on Grange Road, is 28,000 square meters and spans four levels. A second store, with 20,000 square feet and spanning two levels, was opened at ION Orchard on 28 November 2012.
A third store occupying 19,000 square feet of retail area opened at JEM on 11 June 2013. A fourth and fifth store opened shortly after on 20 June 2013 and 21 June 2013 at Vivo City Mall and Suntec City Mall respectively. The two new stores occupy 20,000 square feet and 15,000 square feet respectively, both spanning across one level. This brings the total number of stores in Singapore to five, with its first flagship store remaining the largest.
On 25 February 2009, the company announced that it had signed an agreement to open its first store in South Korea, located in the Myeongdong district of Seoul, and that it was scheduled to open during Spring 2010.
The first store in Thailand, a duplex flagship store with an area of 3,300 m2, was opened on 29 September 2012. It is located in Siam Paragon in Bangkok. Another 2 stores, located at The Mall Bangkapi and Terminal 21 also in Bangkok. On 31 August 2013, The second largest H&M store in the world has opened at CentralWorld, Bangkok. Current Store Locations are
- Siam Paragon, Bangkok
- The Mall Shopping Center Bangkapi, Bangkok
- Terminal 21, Bangkok
- CentralWorld, Bangkok
- Fashion Island (Thailand), Bangkok
- CentralFestival Chiangmai, Chiang Mai
- CentralFestival Phuket, Phuket
- CentralPlaza Bangna, Bangkok
- CentralFestival Pattaya Beach, Pattaya (August 2014)
- CentralFestival Hatyai, Hat Yai (Soon)
- Promenada Resort Mall, Chiang Mai (Soon)
Its first non-Swedish store was opened in Norway in 1964, and from then onwards, the company embarked upon a major expansion program opening many further stores in Europe, including Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the United Kingdom. The first H&M store to open outside of Scandinavia was in the United Kingdom, in 1976. In January 2012 H&M announced the opening of two new stores in Riga in the autumn (fall).
In the 1990s, its first stores opened in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands and Spain. In Portugal the first store opened in 2003, in Chiado, Lisboa. The company has continued to expand its business and the company has an extensive network throughout much of Europe. Germany is the company's largest market (with 377 stores as of 2011), followed by the United Kingdom (with 192 stores as of 2011) and then Sweden (with 168 stores as of 2011).
The first German H&M store was opened in 1980 in Hamburg. There are stores in over 200 German cities. A quarter of all volume of sales is made in Germany.
In 1976, H&M opened their first store in the United Kingdom.
In 2004, H&M opened its first store in the Republic of Ireland. As of 2013 there a 12 individual H&M stores in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
In 2013, H&M opened its first two Lithuanian stores, including the 3.500 m2 store in Vilnius, which is the biggest in the Baltic states. It is confirmed that, throughout the year 2014, additional 5 stores will be opened in various Lithuanian cities (3 in Vilnius, 1 in Šiauliai and 1 in Panevėžys). At the end of the year 2014, there will be 7 H&M stores operating in 4 Lithuanian cities (Vilnius, Klaipėda, Šiauliai and Panevėžys).
H&M opened in Serbia on August 29, 2013. The first store opened in Belgrade in Delta City. The second store opened in Belgrade in Stadion Shopping Center on 12 September 2013. Also, a store will open in Novi Sad, in the spring of 2014, in the BIG Shopping Centre.
On 7 and 14 April 2011, first two stores were opened in Croatia in the exclusive Cvjetni shopping center in Zagreb and in the Arena Centar, near the Zagreb Arena. On 25 August 2011 store was opened in City Center One, Split, on 8 September 2011 store was opened in Supernova, Zadar and on 15 September 2011 store was opened in City Center One, Zagreb. On 20 October 2011 store was opened in Westgate Shopping City. On 14 April 2012, first H&M store opened in Osijek, largest city in the eastern Croatia in Portanova. In the same year, other two stores opened in coastal city of Rijeka in ZTC Shopping Center and in Dalmare Shopping Center in Šibenik. On 11 April 2013, newest H&M store opened in City Colosseum, Slavonski Brod, second largest city in eastern part of Croatia. Future development is also expected in some other larger towns in country. Next H&M store is announced to be opened in Varaždin.
In March 2014, H&M opened its online store in France which is the tenth market for the Swedish retailer to have an online presence. The retailer now has an online store in France, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Germany, Austria, The United Kingdom, The Netherlands and the United States.
The company opened its first Canadian store in March 2004. There are currently[when?] fifty-six stores in Canada, including Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario. The fifty-seventh will open in Ottawa's Bayshore Shopping Centre in the fall of 2013. Speculation also states that they will open a second Ottawa location in an expanded Rideau Centre in the spring 2015.
As of August 2010, the company had nearly two hundred individual stores in the United States.
It had opened its first U.S. store in New York City, on Fifth Avenue (at 51st Street) in March 2000; as of January 2011, nine additional stores are planned in the borough of Manhattan alone.
In December 2010, H&M opened its largest store in the world at the Forum Shops at Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas. The store contains three floors, three checkout stations, an elevator, and a cut-open facade.
In January 2013, it was announced that a new store would be opened in Louisville, Kentucky in the Fall of the year along with a brand-new flagship store in Nashville, Tennessee. In May 2013, it was announced that a new store would be opened in Charleston, South Carolina in the historic S.H. Kress & Company building on King Street in downtown Charleston in Fall 2013. Also in May 2013, it was announced that a new store will open in Augusta, Georgia at the Augusta Mall, making it the first store in Georgia (U.S. state) outside of Atlanta. Construction is set to begin in fall of 2013. In mid 2013, it was announced H&M would open three new stores in North Carolina. Two stores will be built at Northlake Mall, and Carolina Place Mall in Charlotte, and a third store in Greensboro, North Carolina. North Carolina will have six stores once completed.
In early July 2013, H&M announced through its Twitter account that online shopping is available to USA customers. Shortly after, on the 1st of August, H&M officially launched online shopping for US customers, featuring all product lines including plus size offerings and home products, in addition to some "online exclusive" products.
In March 2014, a flagship store was opened in Waikiki, Hawaii. It is a 31,000-square-foot space in the Waikiki Business Plaza. H&M Honolulu offers collections for ladies, men, young ladies and young men, with separate “store within store” sections for accessories, lingerie and sports apparel. It features the work of renowned local surf photographers Mike Coots, Sarah Lee and Zak Noyle in a one-of-a-kind installation to commemorate Hawaii’s local culture and influencers.
The first H&M in Mexico was opened on November 1, 2012 in Santa Fe, one of the most distinguished malls in México. This H&M is the second largest store in the world with 13779 square feet on three floors. In March 2013, H&M Home was added to the store, making it the only H&M Home in all of North America. In November 2013 two new stores were opened, one in Guadalajara in Galerias Guadalajara Mall and the other one in Queretaro at the new Antea Lifestyle Center Mall, the largest mall in Latin America. H&M announced tree new stores in León. Morelia and Distrito Federal for this autumn, this will be the fourth, fifth and sixth store in Mexico.
There are no news about store opening in Brazil.
In 2008, the company used the song "Hang On" by British singer-songwriter Lettie as background music to its UK website. Their fashions have been featured in an interactive fashion art film by Imagine Fashion called Decadent Control. It premiered in March 2011 and stars Roberto Cavalli, Kirsty Hume, Eva Herzigová and Brad Kroenig.
In November 2004, selected company stores offered an exclusive collection by fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld. The press reported large crowds and that the initial inventories in the larger cities were sold out within an hour, although the clothes were still available in less-fashion-sensitive areas until the company redistributed them to meet with demand.
In March 2007, it launched another collaboration designed by the pop star Madonna. In June 2007 the company worked with game developers Maxis to create a stuff pack for the latter's The Sims 2 computer game, H&M Fashion Stuff.
In November 2007, the company launched a collection by Italian designer Roberto Cavalli. It was reported that the clothing sold out very quickly. Also in 2007, another design with Kylie Minogue was launched in Shanghai, China. In the spring of 2008 the Finnish company Marimekko was selected as guest designer and was followed by Japanese Comme des Garçons in the fall.
For spring and summer 2009, the British designer Matthew Williamson created two exclusive ranges for the company – the first being a collection of women's clothes released in selected stores. The second collection saw Williamson branch into menswear for the first time, only in selected stores. The second collection also featured swimwear for men and women and was available in every company store worldwide.
On 14 November 2009, the company released a limited-edition diffusion collection by Jimmy Choo featuring shoes and handbags, ranging from £30 to £170 including a range of men's shoes. The collection also included clothing designed by Choo for the first time, many garments made from suede and leather, and was available in 200 stores worldwide, including London's Oxford Circus store. Sonia Rykiel also collaborated with the company, by designing a ladies knitwear and lingerie range that was released in selected company stores on 5 December 2009.
For Spring/Summer 2011, the company collaborated with fashion blogger Elin Kling, which was available at selected stores only.
In June 2011, H&M announced a collaboration plan with Versace, that was released on November 19. Versace also planned a Spring collaboration with H&M that was only be available in countries with online sales.
On 4 October 2012, Japanese Vogue editor Anna Dello Russo will launched an accessories collection at H&M as Paris Fashion Week drew to an end. The collection was stocked in 140 H&M stores worldwide and also sold through the H&M website
On June 12, 2012 H&M confirmed that it will launch a collaboration with avant-garde label Maison Martin Margiela for a fall rollout. The Maison Martin Margiela collection for H&M hit stores on November 15, 2012.
Isabel Marant was a collaboration designer for Fall 2013 and for the first time made a men's collection to accompany the women's collection. The collaboration was sold out very quickly in cities across the globe and was heavily anchored in sales online as well.
Alexander Wang was announced as a collaboration to be released November 6, 2014 across the world to a select 250 stores. The announcement came during the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in California and will be the first collaboration with an American designer.
Beyoncé was the face of H&M in summer 2013. Her campaign, which began in May 2013 was entitled "Mrs. Carter in H&M", and drew heavily on Knowles' personal style.
The branding consultancy Interbrand ranked the company as the twenty-first most-valuable global brand in 2009 and 2010, making it the highest-ranked retailer in the survey. Its worth is estimated at $12–16 billion.
The full company name Hennes & Mauritz was rebranded to H&M to simplify worldwide perception of the brand.[when?]
The company owns the two-letter domain hm.com. The domain was registered in the early 1990s, but data on the first registration is lost. In 1998 Hennes & Mauritz was able to buy the domain hm.com from a company called A1 in a non-published domain transaction.
COS (Collection of Style)
Launched with a catwalk show at the Royal Academy in 2007, COS is an up-market brand positioned at a slightly higher price point to that typically associated with H&M's fast fashion offerings. COS is currently operating across Europe and Asia with a total of 82 stores worldwide. COS will open its first store in the USA in spring 2014.
In a press release, the company announced that it would begin selling home furnishings. As of 2009, it was distributed exclusively by the company's internet catalog, so it is only available in countries where H&M is sold online, such as Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, and now the United States. The first and only H&M Home in all America opened in México in March 2013.
In August 2011, nearly 200 workers passed out in one week at a Cambodian factory supplying H&M. Fumes from chemicals, poor ventilation, malnutrition and even "mass hysteria" have all been blamed for making workers ill. The minimum wage in Cambodia is the equivalent of just $66 (£42) a month, a level that human rights groups say is not even half that required to meet basic needs.
On 2 January 2013, The Ecologist reported allegations by Anti-Slavery International that H&M is continuing its association with Daewoo in exploiting child and adult forced labour as cotton harvesters in Uzbekistan.
Bangladeshi and international labour groups in 2011 put forth a detailed safety proposal which entailed the establishment of independent inspections of garment factories. The plan called for inspectors to have the power to close unsafe factories. The proposal entailed a legally binding contract between suppliers, customers and unions. At a meeting in 2011 in Dhaka, major European and North American retailers, including H&M, rejected the proposal. Further efforts by unions to advance the proposal after numerous and deadly factory fires have been rejected. After the 2013 Savar building collapse H&M and other retailers signed on to the Accord on Factory and Building Safety in Bangladesh.
On 19 May 2013, a textile factory that produced apparel for H&M in Phnom Penh, Cambodia collapsed injuring several people. The incident has raised concerns regarding industrial safety regulations.
On 25 November 2013, H&M's global head of sustainability committed that H&M, as the world's second-largest clothing retailer, will aim to pay all textile workers "living wage" by 2018, stating that governments are responding too slowly to poor working conditions in Bangladesh among other Asian countries where many clothing retailers source a majority if not all of their garments.
Wages were increased in Bangladesh from 3,000 taka ($40) to 5,300 taka ($70) a month in late 2013.
On 6 January 2010, it was reported that unsold clothing and other items in one New York City store are cut up before being discarded, presumably to prevent resale or use.
On 24 January 2012, H&M was reported to have stolen an artist's work, using it on multiple items without compensating the artist.
Starting in February 2013, H&M will offer patrons a voucher in exchange for used garments. Donated garments will be processed by I:CO, a retailer that repurposes and recycles used clothing with the goal of creating a zero-waste economy. The initiative is similar to a clothes-collection voucher program launched in April 2012 by Marks & Spencer in partnership with Oxfam.
The company worldwide
Number of stores as of 2014
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to H&M.|
- hm.com, the company's official website