Hallow

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"Hallows" redirects here. For the surname, see Hallows (surname).
For the Worcestershire village, see Hallow, Worcestershire.

To hallow is "to make holy or sacred, to sanctify or consecrate, to venerate".[1] The adjective form hallowed, as used in The Lord's Prayer, means holy, consecrated, sacred, or revered.[2] The noun form hallow, as used in Hallowtide, is a synonym of the word saint.[3][4][5]

Etymology[edit]

Further information: Weoh

The noun is from the Old English adjective hālig, nominalised as se hālga "the holy man". The Gothic word for "holy" is either hailags or weihaba, weihs. "To hold as holy" or "to become holy" is weihnan, "to make holy, to sanctify" is weihan. Holiness or sanctification is weihiþa. Old English, like Gothic, had a second term of similar meaning, wēoh "holy", with a substantive wīh or wīg, Old High German wīh or wīhi (Middle High German wîhe, Modern German Weihe). The Nordendorf fibula has wigiþonar, interpreted as wīgi-þonar "holy Donar" or "sacred to Donar". Old Norse is a type of shrine. The weihs group is cognate to Latin victima, an animal dedicated to the gods and destined to be sacrificed.

In current usage[edit]

Hallow, as a noun, is a synonym of the word saint.[3][4] In modern English usage, the noun "hallow" appears mostly in the compound Hallowtide, a liturgical season which includes the days of Halloween and Hallowmas.[5] Halloween (or Hallowe'en) is a shortened form of "All Hallow Even," meaning "All Hallows' Eve" or "All Saints' Eve."[6] Hallowmas, the day after Halloween, is shortened from "Hallows' Mass," and is also known as "All Hallows' Day" or "All Saints' Day."[7]

In legend[edit]

Some important and powerful objects in legends could be referred to as "hallows" because of their function and symbolism.[8] The Tuatha de Danaan in Ireland possessed the Four Treasures of Ireland which could be interpreted as "hallows": the Spear of Lugh, Stone of Fal, the Sword of Light of Nuada, and The Dagda's Cauldron.

In the modern period, some neo-pagans believe that the four suits in the Rider-Waite Tarot cards deck (swords, wands, pentacles and cups), which are also a representation of the four classical elements of air, fire, earth and water, are also hallows.

Coronation ceremonies for monarchs still invokes four ritual objects, now represented as the sceptre, sword, ampulla of oil, and crown. Similar objects also appear in Arthurian legends, where the Fisher King is the guardian of four "hallows" representing the four elements: a dish (earth), Arthur's sword Excalibur (air), the Holy Lance or spear, baton, or a magic wand (fire), and the Holy Grail (water).[9]

Earlier Welsh tradition, as recorded in Trioedd Ynys Prydain, also refers to Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain. Symbolically, these could also be interpreted as "hallows", although they are not actually described as such in the medieval Welsh texts.

In literature[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dictionary.com". Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007. 
  2. ^ Webster's Collegiate Dictionary entry for hallowed
  3. ^ a b Wilson, Douglas; Fischer, Ty (30 June 2005). Omnibus II: Church Fathers Through the Reformation. Veritas Press. p. 101. ISBN 9781932168440. The word "hallow" means "saint," in that "hallow" is just an alternative form of the word "holy" ("hallowed be Thy name"). 
  4. ^ a b Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark (1 May 2001). Medieval Celebrations: How to Plan Holidays, Weddings, and Feasts with Recipes, Customs, Costumes, Decorations, Songs, Dances, and Games. Stackpole Books. p. 13. ISBN 9780811728669. The word hallow was simply another word for saint. 
  5. ^ a b Leslie, Frank (1895). Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly. Allhallowtide (Frank Leslie Publishing House). p. 539. Just as the term "Eastertide" expresses for us the whole of the church services and ancient customs attached to the festival of Easter, from Palm Sunday until Easter Monday, so does All-hallowtide include for us all the various customs, obsolete and still observed, of Halloween, All Saints' and All Souls' Days. From the 31st of October until the morning of the 3d of November, this period of three days, known as All-hallowtide, is full of traditional and legendary lore. 
  6. ^ Webster's Collegiate Dictionary entry for Halloween
  7. ^ Webster's Collegiate Dictionary entry for Hallowmas
  8. ^ "Arthurian A-ZZ". Mystical WWW. Retrieved 16 February 2007. 
  9. ^ "The Fisher King". University of Idaho. April 1999. Retrieved 23 January 2007. 
  10. ^ Alastor Moody's magical eye and the homenum revelio spell could overcome the cloak's stealth.[HP4] Moreover, Dementors used people's emotions to perceive their location, so the cloak was useless against them.[HP3]