Hong Bang dynasty
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
|Hong Bang Period → Hong Bang Dynasty
Map of Văn Lang in 500 BC.
|Capital||Phong Châu (modern Phú Thọ)|
|Government||Chiefdom, Monarchy, Feudalism|
|Historical era||Ancient history, Bronze Age, Iron Age|
|-||Establishing of the Xích Quỷ confederacy by Kinh Dương Vương||2879 BC|
|-||Conquered by Thục Phán||258 BC|
|History of Vietnam|
Hồng Bàng, also called the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dương Vương in 258 BC.
It began with Kinh Dương Vương and the title Hùng Vương is used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. The Hùng Vương was the absolute monarch of the country (then known as Xích Quỷ and later Văn Lang) and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. There are many legends surrounding it, but little verifiable historical information is known about this dynasty.
Predynastic stage 
Vietnam, a country situated along the eastern coast of mainland Southeast Asia, has had a long and turbulent history. The Vietnamese people represent a fusion of races, languages, and cultures, the elements of which are still being sorted out by ethnologists, linguists, and archaeologists. The Vietnamese language provides some clues to the cultural mixture of the Vietnamese people.
The area now known as Vietnam has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, with some archaeological sites in Thanh Hóa Province reportedly dating back several hundred thousand years. Around 3000 BC, northern Vietnam was a place with mountains, forests, and rivers. Most ancient peoples lived around the Hồng River and the Mã River.
Prior to the beginning of the Hồng Bàng period, the land was settled by autonomous villages. Vietnamese predynastic society was anarchic and did not have any management mechanism. They lived together in groups as tribes. Archaeologists have found many images on the wall of caves which showed the daily living of ancient people. In primitive age, people live in matriarchal society, similar to many others in Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands at the time.
First Hùng Vương 
According to the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, more than 1000 years after pre-historical inhabitants (Neolithic), tribal populations grew and spread throughout Vietnam. Near the Hồng River, Cả River and Mã rivers, were 15 Vietnamese tribes. The 15 Vietnamese tribes were the primary tribes at this time. Their territory included the Hồng River to the foot of the Ba Mountain to the foot of the Tam Bao Mountain. An early tribal leader consolidated the other tribes to became leader of the 15 tribes. He declared himself "king" and took the title Hùng Vương, creating the first Vietnamese dynasty known as Hồng Bàng. He is considered a Vietnamese cultural hero who is credited with teaching his people how to cultivate rice. Hùng Vương was the first king in Vietnam (2879 BC) and the founding father of the country. King Hùng has named his Kingdom "Văn Lang" (that means Vietnam in the present), and set up the capital at Phong Châu (Việt Trì, Phu Tho Province) on the cross-point of three rivers where the Red River Delta begins from the foot of mountains.
Rule was passed to Hùng Vương's male heirs which formed the Hùng Dynasty. The Hồng Bàng period consisted of 18 successive lines of kings (although only names of the first king of each line were recovered). Numerous wars were fought in the late period of the dynasty.
Early Hồng Bàng 
Middle Hồng Bàng 
Late Hồng Bàng 
Final moments 
The Hùng Dynasty was dethroned in the middle of the third century BC on the advent of the military leader Thục Phán's conquest of Văn Lang. Thục Phán (An Dương Vương), the ruler of the neighboring upland Âu Việt tribes, overthrew the last Hùng Vương in 258 BC. After conquered Văn Lang, Thục Phán united the Lạc Việt tribes with the Âu Việt ones to form a new kingdom of Âu Lạc, building his capital and citadel at Cổ Loa, thirty-five kilometers north of present-day Hanoi.
Government and economy 
The first Hùng Vương (English: Hùng King) established the first Vietnamese state in responding the needs of co-operation in constructing hydraulic systems, and in struggle against the enemies. This is a very primitive form of a State with the Hùng Vương on top, under him is a Court consisted of advisors - the Lạc Hầu. The country composes of 15 Bộ (region), each ruled by a Lạc Tướng, usually Lạc Tướng was a member of Hùng Vương's family. Bộ comprised the agricultural hamlets and villages based on a matriarchal clan relationship and headed by Bộ Chính (usually a male tribal elder).
The economy was based mainly on rice paddy cultivation, and in addition were handicrafts, hunting and gathering, husbandry and fishing. Especially, the skill of bronze casting was at high level. The famous relics are Đông Sơn Bronze Drums on which depicted house models, clothing, custom, habits, and cultural activities of the Hùng era.
The Hùng Vươngs ruled Văn Lang in feudal fashion with the aid of the Lạc Tướng, who controlled the communal settlements around each irrigated area, organized construction and maintenance of the dikes, and regulated the supply of water. Besides cultivating rice, the people of Văn Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens, and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo-working were highly developed crafts, as were basketry, leather-working, and the weaving of hemp, jute, and silk. Both transport and communication were provided by dugout canoes, which plied the network of rivers and canals.
The time between the end of the third millennium and the middle of the first millennium BC contained the increasingly sophisticated pottery of the pre-Dong Son cultures of northern Viet Nam and the pre-Sa Huỳnh cultures of southern Viet Nam. This period saw the appearance of wheel-made pottery, although the use of the paddle and anvil remained significant in manufacture. Vessel surfaces are usually smooth, often polished, and red slipping is common. Cord-marking is present in all cultures and forms a fairly high percentage of sherdage. Complex incised decoration also developed with rich ornamental designs, and it is on the basis of incised decoration that Vietnamese archaeologists distinguish the different cultures and phases one from another.
The pottery from the successive cultural developments in the Red River Valley is the most well known. Vietnamese archaeologists here discern three pre-Dong Son cultures: Phùng Nguyên, Đồng Đậu, and Gò Mun. The pottery of these three cultures, despite the use of different decorative styles, has features that suggest a continuity of cultural development in the Red River Valley. In the Ma River Valley in Thanh Hóa Province, Vietnamese archaeologists also recognize three pre-Dong Son periods of cultural development: Con Chan Tien, Dong Khoi (Bai Man) and Quy Chu. In the areas stretching from the Red to the Lam river valleys, all the local cultures eventually developed into the Đông Sơn culture, which expanded over an area much larger than that of any previous culture and Vietnamese archaeologists believe that it had multiple regional sources. For instance, while Đông Sơn bronzes are much the same in different regions of northern Viet Nam, the regional characters of the pottery are fairly marked. On the whole, Đông Sơn pottery has a high firing temperature and is varied in form, but decorative patterns are much reduced in comparison with preceding periods, and consist mainly of impressions from cord-wrapped or carved paddles. Incised decoration is virtually absent.
Late ancient Vietnamese pottery bears many features akin to those of other pottery complexes in Mainland and Maritime Southeast Asia. For instance, the decorative style peculiar to the Phung Nguyen pottery (small regular punctations impressed by combs or roulettes within incised lines) also occurs at the site of Gua Cha in West Malaysia and at Samrong Sen in Cambodia. A number of vessels from Non Nok Tha in Thailand are also close to the Phung Nguyen pottery in decorative style and motif. The patterns which occur in other pottery complexes in Viet Nam, such as Go Mun, Hoa Loc, and early Dong Nai, are also paralleled in other Southeast Asian sites including Samrong Sen, Mlu Prei and Laang Spean in Cambodia, Kalumpang in Sulawesi, and Tres Reyes and Batungan in the Philippines. In terms of vessel shape there are also similarities between late ancient Vietnamese wares and other pottery complexes in Southeast Asia.
Ethnic minorities 
Contemporary Vietnamese historians have accredited the existence of various ethnic minorities now living in the highlands of North and Central Vietnam during the early phase of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty.
Bronze tools 
By about 1200 BC., the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Mã River and Red River plains led to the development of the Đông Sơn culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. The bronze weapons, tools, and drums of Đông Sơn sites show a Southeast Asian influence that indicates an indigenous origin for the bronze-casting technology. Many small, ancient copper mine sites have been found in northern Vietnam. Some of the similarities between the Đông Sơn sites and other Southeast Asian sites include the presence of boat-shaped coffins and burial jars, stilt dwellings, and evidence of the customs of betel-nut-chewing and teeth-blackening.
Canals and dikes 
An important advancement occurred by the 6th century BC: the irrigation of rice fields (lac dien) through an elaborate system of canals and dikes. This type of sophisticated farming system would come to define Vietnamese society. It required tight-knit village communities to collectively manage their irrigation systems. These systems in turn produced crop yields that could sustain much higher population densities than competing methods of food production.
List of Hùng Vương lines 
There were eighteen consecutive lines of Hùng Vươngs handing down from generation to generation. Eighteen titles of all Hùng Vươngs in each line are as the following:
|Line||Title||Real name||Year of birth||Reign|
|1||Càn line||Lục Dương Vương||Lộc Tục||2919 BC||2879-2794 BC|
|2||Khảm line||Hùng Hiền Vương||Sùng Lãm||2825 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Hiền Vương during the period from 2793-2525 BC|
|3||Cấn line||Hùng Quốc Vương||Lân Lang||2541 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Quốc Vương during the period from 2524-2253 BC|
|4||Chấn line||Hùng Diệp Vương||Bảo Lang||Many kings named themselves Hùng Diệp Vương during the period from 2254-1913 BC|
|5||Tốn line||Hùng Hy Vương||Viên Lang||1970 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Hy Vương during the period from 1912-1713 BC|
|6||Ly line||Hùng Huy Vương||Pháp Hải Lang||1740 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Huy Vương during the period from 1712-1632 BC|
|7||Khôn line||Hùng Chiêu Vương||Lang Liêu||1648 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Chiêu Vương during the period from 1631-1432 BC|
|8||Đoài line||Hùng Vi Vương||Thừa Vân Lang||1466 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Vi Vương during the period from 1431-1332 BC|
|9||Giáp line||Hùng Định Vương||Quân Lang||1375 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Định Vương during the period from 1331-1252 BC|
|10||Ất line||Hùng Nghi Vương||Hùng Hải Lang||1287 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Nghi Vương during the period from 1251-1162 BC|
|11||Bính line||Hùng Trinh Vương||Hưng Đức Lang||1211 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Trinh Vương during the period from 1161-1055 BC|
|12||Đinh line||Hùng Vũ Vương||Đức Hiền Lang||1105 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Vũ Vương during the period from 1054-969 BC|
|13||Mậu line||Hùng Việt Vương||Tuấn Lang||990 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Việt Vương during the period from 968-854 BC|
|14||Kỷ line||Hùng Anh Vương||Chân Nhân Lang||894 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Anh Vương during the period from 853-755 BC|
|15||Canh line||Hùng Triệu Vương||Cảnh Chiêu Lang||745 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Triệu Vương during the period from 754-661 BC|
|16||Tân line||Hùng Tạo Vương||Đúc Quân Lang||712 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Tạo Vương during the period from 660-569 BC|
|17||Nhâm line||Hùng Nghi Vương||Bảo Quang Lang||576 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Nghi Vương during the period from 568-409 BC|
|18||Quý line||Hùng Duệ Vương||Huệ Lang||421 BC||Many kings named themselves Hùng Duệ Vương during the period from 408-258 BC|
- Colonial Diasporas & Traditional Vietnamese Society
- Pelley, p. 151
- Vietnam - History and Culture
- Mission Atlas Project - VIETNAM - Basic Facts
- According to Book of Han: "In a year, they have two rice crops and eight silk crops".
- Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục, Vol. 1
- Hoang and Bui 1980
- Sieveking 1954
- Mourer 1977
- Solheim 1970a; Solheim 1970b
- Lévy 1943; Mourer 1977
- Heekeren 1972
- Solheim 1959, 1968
- Bayard 1977; Peacock 1959; Solheim 1964
- Phan Huy Lê, Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, Lương Ninh, p. 99
- Vietnam Foreign Policy and Government Guide. USA International Business Publications, February 7, 2007 - 284 pages.
- eHistory, Ohio State University. Guilmartin, John. “America and Vietnam: The Fifteen Year War.” 1991. New York: Military Press. http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/books/aiv/?page=0002
- Bayard, D. T. 1977. Phu Wiang pottery and the prehistory of Northeastern Thailand. MQRSEA 3:57-102.
- Heekeren, H. R. van. 1972. The Stone Age of Indonesia. The Hague: Nijhoff.
- Hoang Xuan Chinh and Bui Van Tien 1980. The Dongson Culture and Cultural Centers in the Metal Age in Vietnam
- Lévy, P. 1943. Recherches préhistoriques dans la région de Mlu Prei. PEFEO 30.
- Mourer, R. 1977. Laang Spean and the prehistory of Cambodia. MQRSEA 3:29-56.
- Peacock, B. A. V. 1959. A short description of Malayan prehistoric pottery. AP 3 (2): 121-156.
- Pelley, Patricia M. Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past 2002.
- Phan Huy Lê, Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, Lương Ninh (1991), Lịch sử Việt Nam, volume 1.
- Sieveking, G. de G. 1954. Excavations at Gua Cha, Kelantan, 1954 (Part 1). FMJ I and II:75-138.
- Solheim II, W. G.
- 1959. Further notes on the Kalanay pottery complex in the Philippines. AP 3 (2): 157-166.
- 1964. The Archaeology of Central Philippines: A Study Chiefly of the Iron Age and its Relationships. Manila: Monograph of the National Institute of Science and Technology No. 10.
- 1968. The Batungan Cave sites, Masbate, Philippines, in Anthropology at the Eight Pacific Science Congress: 21-62, ed. W. G. Solheim II. Honolulu: Asian and Pacific Archaeology Series No. 2, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii.
- 1970a. Prehistoric archaeology in eastern Mainland Southeast Asia and the Philippines. AP 13:47-58.
- 1970b. Northern Thailand, Southeast Asia, and world prehistory. AP 13:145-162.
- "Đồ đồng cổ Đông Sơn" [Đông Sơn ancient bronze tools] (in Vietnamese).
- "Ánh sáng mới trên một quá khứ lãng quên" [New Light on a Forgotten Past] (in Vietnamese).
|Dynasty of Vietnam
2879 – 258 BC