H. H. Holmes
|H. H. Holmes|
Mudgett's mugshot, 1895
May 16, 1861|
Gilmanton, New Hampshire, U.S.
|Died||May 7, 1896
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Cause of death||Execution by Hanging|
|Other names||Dr. Henry Howard Holmes|
|Motive||Life insurance money, profit from selling corpses to medical schools|
|Conviction(s)||4 counts of murder in the first degree
6 counts of attempted murder
|Number of victims||9–200 (9 confirmed; 27 confessed)|
|Span of killings||1888–1894|
|Date apprehended||November 17, 1894, in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.|
Herman Webster Mudgett (May 16, 1861 – May 7, 1896), better known under the name of Dr. Henry Howard Holmes, was one of the first documented American serial killers in the modern sense of the term. In Chicago at the time of the 1893 World's Fair, Holmes opened a hotel which he had designed and built for himself specifically with murder in mind, and which was the location of many of his murders. While he confessed to 27 murders, of which four were confirmed, his actual body count could be as high as 200. He took an unknown number of his victims from the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, which was less than two miles away, to his "World's Fair" hotel.
The case was notorious in its time and received wide publicity through a series of articles in William Randolph Hearst's newspapers. Interest in Holmes's crimes was revived in 2003 by Erik Larson's The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair That Changed America, a best-selling non-fiction book that juxtaposed an account of the planning and staging of the World's Fair with Holmes's story. His story had been previously chronicled in The Torture Doctor by David Franke (1975), Depraved: The Shocking True Story of America's First Serial Killer by Harold Schechter (1994), and chapter VI "The Monster of Sixty-Third Street" of Gem of the Prairie: An Informal History of the Chicago Underworld by Herbert Asbury (1940, republished 1986).
Mudgett was born in Gilmanton, New Hampshire, May 16, 1861, to Levi Horton Mudgett and Theodate Page Price, both of whom were descended from the first European settlers in the area. According to the 2007 Most Evil profile on Holmes, his father was a violent alcoholic, and his mother was a devout Methodist who read the Bible to Herman. He claimed that, as a child, classmates forced him to view and touch a human skeleton after discovering his fear of the local doctor. The bullies initially brought him there to scare him, but Erik Larson speculates that instead he was utterly fascinated, and he soon became obsessed with death.
On July 4, 1878, Mudgett married Clara Lovering in Alton, New Hampshire; their son, Robert Lovering Mudgett, was born on February 3, 1880 in Loudon, New Hampshire (as an adult, Robert was to become a Certified Public Accountant, and served as City Manager of Orlando, Florida).
Mudgett graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School in June 1884 after passing his examinations. While enrolled, he stole bodies from the laboratory, disfigured the bodies, and claimed that the people were killed accidentally in order to collect insurance money from policies he took out on each deceased person. He moved to Chicago to pursue a career in pharmaceuticals. It was also at this time that Mudgett began engaging in many shady businesses, real estate, and promotional deals under the name "H. H. Holmes".
On January 28, 1887, while he was still married to Clara, Holmes married Myrta Belknap in Minneapolis, Minnesota; their daughter, Lucy Theodate Holmes, was born on July 4, 1889 in Englewood, Illinois (in adult life, Lucy was to become a public schoolteacher).
Holmes lived with Myrta and Lucy in Wilmette, Illinois, and spent most of his time in Bakersfield tending to business. He filed for divorce from Clara after marrying Myrta, but the divorce was never finalized. He married Georgiana Yoke on January 9, 1894 in Denver, Colorado while still married to Clara and Myrta. He also had a relationship with Julia Smythe, the wife of one of his former employees; Julia later became one of Holmes's victims.
Chicago and the "Murder Castle"
While in Chicago during the summer of 1885, Mudgett came across Dr. E.S. Holton's drugstore at the corner of S. Wallace and W. 63rd Street, in the Englewood neighborhood. With Holton suffering from cancer, his wife minded the store. Overwhelmed by personal sorrow and the responsibility of managing a business, Mrs. Holton gave Holmes a job. Holmes proved himself to be a hardworking employee. Mr. Holton died and Holmes used his well-practiced skills of charm and persuasion to comfort and reassure the grieving widow. He subsequently convinced Mrs. Holton that selling the drugstore to him would relieve the burdened woman's responsibilities. It was agreed that Mrs. Holton could remain residing in her upstairs apartment. Holmes's proposal seemed like a godsend to the elderly woman and she agreed. Holmes purchased the store mainly with funds obtained by mortgaging the store's fixtures and stock, the loan to be repaid in substantial monthly installments of one hundred dollars (worth $2,598 today). When he failed to pay his debt, Mrs. Holton sought legal action against him, but she mysteriously disappeared. Holmes told people that she was visiting relatives in California. As people started asking questions about her return, he told them that she was enjoying California so much that she had decided to live there. This version of the story of Holton's Pharmacy has been traced back to at least 1898, but recent research indicates that it has little basis in fact; though Holmes did come into possession of the pharmacy at 63rd and Wallace, the pharmacy was owned by Dr. Elizabeth S. Holton, not her husband (a railroad worker), and she was only slightly older than Holmes himself. She may have decided to give up the store after becoming pregnant; her daughter was born in 1887. She never seems to have disappeared; she remained in the general area around Englewood until at least 1910 before moving to California with her daughter, where she died in 1933.
Holmes purchased a lot across from the drugstore, where he built his three-story, block-long "Castle"—as it was dubbed by those in the neighborhood. It was opened as a hotel for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, with part of the structure used as commercial space. The ground floor of the Castle contained Holmes's own relocated drugstore and various shops, while the upper two floors contained his personal office and a maze of over 100 windowless rooms with doorways opening to brick walls, oddly-angled hallways, stairways to nowhere, doors openable only from the outside, and a host of other strange and labyrinthine constructions. Holmes repeatedly changed builders during the construction of the Castle, so only he fully understood the design of the house.
During the period of building construction in 1889, Holmes met Benjamin Pitezel, a carpenter with a past of lawbreaking, whom Holmes exploited as a stooge for his criminal schemes. A district attorney later described Pitezel as Holmes's "tool... his creature."
After the completion of the hotel, Holmes selected mostly female victims from among his employees (many of whom were required as a condition of employment to take out life insurance policies, for which Holmes would pay the premiums but was also the beneficiary), as well as his lovers and hotel guests. He killed them. Some were locked in soundproof bedrooms fitted with gas lines that let him asphyxiate them at any time. Other victims were locked in a huge soundproof bank vault near his office, where they were left to suffocate. The victims' bodies were dropped by secret chute to the basement, where some were meticulously dissected, stripped of flesh, crafted into skeleton models, and then sold to medical schools. Holmes also cremated some of the bodies or placed them in lime pits for destruction. Holmes had two giant furnaces as well as pits of acid, bottles of various poisons, and even a stretching rack. Through the connections he had gained in medical school, he sold skeletons and organs with little difficulty.
Capture and arrest
Following the World's Fair, with creditors closing in and the economy in a general slump, Holmes left Chicago. He reappeared in Fort Worth, Texas, where he had inherited property from two railroad heiress sisters, to one of whom he had promised marriage and both of whom he murdered. There, he sought to construct another castle along the lines of his Chicago operation. However, he soon abandoned this project, finding the law enforcement climate in Texas inhospitable. He continued to move throughout the United States and Canada. The only murders verified during this period were those of his longtime associate Benjamin Pitezel and three of Pitezel's children.
In July 1894, Holmes was arrested and briefly incarcerated for the first time, for a horse swindle that ended in St. Louis. He was promptly bailed out, but while in jail, he struck up a conversation with a convicted train robber named Marion Hedgepeth, who was serving a 25-year sentence. Holmes had concocted a plan to swindle an insurance company out of $10,000 by taking out a policy on himself and then faking his death. Holmes promised Hedgepeth a $500 commission in exchange for the name of a lawyer who could be trusted. He was directed to Colonel Jeptha Howe, the brother of a public defender, who found Holmes's plan brilliant. Holmes's plan to fake his own death failed when the insurance company became suspicious and refused to pay. Holmes did not press his claim; instead he concocted a similar plan with his associate, Benjamin Pitezel.
Pitezel had agreed to fake his own death so that his wife could collect on the $10,000 policy, which she was to split with Holmes and the shady attorney, Howe. The scheme, which was to take place in Philadelphia, was that Pitezel should set himself up as an inventor, under the name B.F. Perry, and then be killed and disfigured in a lab explosion. Holmes was to find an appropriate cadaver to play the role of Pitezel. Holmes instead killed Pitezel. Forensic evidence presented at Holmes's later trial showed that chloroform was administered after Pitezel's death, presumably to fake suicide. (Pitezel had been an alcoholic and chronic depressive.) Holmes proceeded to collect on the policy on the basis of the genuine Pitezel corpse. He then went on to manipulate Pitezel's wife into allowing three of her five children (Alice, Nellie, and Howard) to stay in his custody. The eldest daughter and the baby remained with Mrs. Pitezel.
Holmes and the three Pitezel children traveled throughout the Northern United States and into Canada. Simultaneously, he escorted Mrs. Pitezel along a parallel route, all the while using various aliases and lying to Mrs. Pitezel concerning her husband's death (claiming that Pitezel was in hiding in London) as well as lying to her about the true whereabouts of her other children. In Detroit, just prior to entering Canada, they were only separated by a few blocks. In an even more audacious move, Holmes was staying at another location with his wife - who was ignorant of the whole affair. A Philadelphia detective, Frank P. Geyer, had tracked Holmes, finding the decomposed bodies of the two Pitezel girls in Toronto buried in the cellar of 16 St. Vincent Street. He then followed Holmes to Indianapolis, where Holmes had rented a cottage. Holmes was reported to have visited a local pharmacy to purchase the drugs which he used to kill Howard Pitezel, and a repair shop to sharpen the knives he used to chop up the body before he burned it. The boy's teeth and bits of bone were discovered in the home's chimney.
In 1894, the police were tipped off by his former cellmate, Marion Hedgepeth, whom Holmes had neglected to pay off as promised for his help in providing Howe. Holmes's murder spree finally ended when he was arrested in Boston on November 17, 1894, after being tracked there from Philadelphia by the Pinkertons. He was held on an outstanding warrant for horse theft in Texas, as the authorities had little more than suspicions at this point and Holmes appeared poised to flee the country, in the company of his unsuspecting third wife.
After the custodian for "the Castle" informed police that he was never allowed to clean the upper floors, police began a thorough investigation over the course of the next month, uncovering Holmes's efficient methods of committing murders and then disposing of the corpses.
The number of his victims has typically been estimated between 20 and 100, and even as high as 200, based upon missing persons reports of the time as well as the testimony of Holmes's neighbors who reported seeing him accompany unidentified young women into his hotel—young women whom they never saw exit. The discrepancy in numbers can perhaps best be attributed to the fact that a great many people came to Chicago to see the World's Fair but, for one reason or another, never returned home. The only verified number is 27, although police had commented that some of the bodies in the basement were so badly dismembered and decomposed that it was difficult to tell how many bodies there actually were. Holmes's victims were mainly women (and primarily blonde), but included some men and children.
Trial and execution
While Holmes sat in prison in Philadelphia, the Chicago police started to investigate his operations in that city, as the Philadelphia police sought to unravel the Pitezel situation—in particular, the fate of the three missing children. Philadelphia detective Frank Geyer was tasked with finding answers. His quest for the children, like the search of Holmes's Castle, received wide publicity. His eventual discovery of their remains essentially sealed Holmes's fate, at least in the public mind.
Holmes was put on trial for the murder of the Pitezel children and confessed, following his conviction, to 30 murders in Chicago, Indianapolis and Toronto (though some he confessed to murdering were, in fact, still living), and six attempted murders. Holmes was paid US$7,500 (worth $210,450 today) by the Hearst Newspapers in exchange for this confession. He gave various contradictory accounts of his life, claiming initially innocence and later that he was possessed by Satan. His faculty for lying has made it difficult for researchers to ascertain any truth on the basis of his statements.
On May 7, 1896, Holmes was hanged at Moyamensing Prison, also known as the Philadelphia County Prison. Until the moment of his death, Holmes remained calm and amiable, showing very few signs of fear, anxiety or depression. Holmes's neck did not snap; he instead was strangled to death slowly, twitching over 15 minutes before being pronounced dead 20 minutes after the trap had been sprung.
On New Year's Eve, 1909, Marion Hedgepeth, who had been pardoned for informing on Holmes, was shot and killed by Edward Jaburek, a police officer, during a holdup at a Chicago saloon. Then, on March 7, 1914, the Chicago Tribune reported that, with the death of the former caretaker of the Murder Castle, Pat Quinlan, "the mysteries of Holmes's Castle" would remain unexplained. Quinlan had committed suicide by taking strychnine. Quinlan's surviving relatives claimed that he had been "haunted" for several months before his death and could not sleep.
- A documentary film on Holmes, H. H. Holmes: America's First Serial Killer, was released in 2005. The producer and director of the film, John Borowski, also wrote a book on Holmes titled The Strange Case of Dr. H.H. Holmes.
- A biography written by Jeff Mudgett, a descendant of Holmes, speculates that Holmes is Jack the Ripper, a serial killer who terrorized London in 1888. Jeff Mudgett submitted handwriting samples resulting in a 97.95% handwriting analysis match. However, the connection of the Jack the Ripper letters to the actual murders remains an open question; many, if not most, of the letters are known to have been written by members of the press at the time.
- George Chapman (murderer)
- Harold Shipman
- Jeffrey Dahmer
- Jeffrey R. MacDonald
- John Bodkin Adams
- Marcel Petiot
- Michael Swango
- Robert George Clements
- Thomas Neill Cream
- William Palmer (murderer)
- List of serial killers in the United States
- List of serial killers by country
- New Hampshire. Registrar of Vital Statistics. "Index to births, early to 1900", Registrar of Vital Statistics, Concord, New Hampshire. FHL Microfilms: film number 1001018
- Philadelphia (Pennsylvania). Board of Health. "Death registers, 1860–1903". Salt Lake City: Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1962.
- Did Dr. Henry Holmes kill 200 people at a bizarre "castle" in 1890s Chicago? from The Straight Dope
- New Hampshire Registrar of Vital Statistics. "Index to births, early to 1900", Registrar of Vital Statistics, Concord, New Hampshire. FHL Microfilms: film number 1001018
- Presenter: Michael Stone (2007-09-30). "Masterminds". Most Evil. Season 2. Episode 8. Investigation Discovery. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1226460/.
- Larson, Erik (2003). The Devil in the White City. Crown. ISBN 978-0-609-60844-9.
- Lucy Theodate Holmes, passport application, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906–March 31, 1925; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1490, 2740 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
- "The Strange Life of H.H. Holmes". by Debra Pawlak. The Mediadrome. 2002. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2011-01-03.
- Larson, Erik, The Devil in the White City, Crown Publishers, 2003, p. 46
- Larson, Erik, The Devil in the White City, Crown Publishers, 2003, p. 48
- Larson, Erik, "The Devil in the White City," Crown Publishers, 2003, p. 68, 70
- The Devil in the White City by Erik Larson
- Geyer, Detective Frank P. "The Holmes-Pitezel case; a history of the Greatest Crime of the Century", Publishers' Union (1896), pg. 212
- Geyer "The Holmes-Pitezel case", pg. 213
- Lloyd, Christopher (October 24, 2008). "Grisly Indy". The Indianapolis Star.
- Holmes was thus simultaneously moving three groups of people across the country—each ignorant of the other two.
- This number reached by Holmes' confession, for which The Philadelphia Enquirer paid him. Some of the names on the list turned out to be those of people still alive.
- Ramsland. "H. H. Holmes: Master of Illusion". Crime Library. Retrieved 2013-02-23. "On May 7, 1896, H. H. Holmes went to the hangman's noose. His last meal was boiled eggs, dry toast, and coffee. Even at the noose, he changed his story. He claimed to have killed only two people and tried to say more but at 10:13 the trapdoor opened and he was hanged. Blundell says that it took him 15 minutes to strangle to death on the gallows."
- Franke, D. (1975). The Torture Doctor. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-8015-7832-9.
- "Holmes Cool to the End.". The New York Times. 1896-05-09. "Under the Noose He Says He Only Killed Two Women. He denies the Murder of Pitezel. Slept Soundly Through His Last Night on Earth and Was Calm on the Scaffold. Priests with him on the Gallows. Prayed with Him Before the Trap Was Sprung. Dead in Fifteen Minutes, but Neck Was Not Broken. Murderer Herman Mudgett, alias H.H. Holmes, was hanged this morning in the County Prison for the killing of Pitezel. The drop fell at 10:12 o'clock, and twenty minutes later he was pronounced dead."
- Marion Hedgespeth death certificate, Cook County Coroner, #31295 dated January 11, 1910.
- Patrick B. Quinlan, death certificate, March 4, 1914, Portland, Ionia, Michigan. Digital image of death certificate
- Schechter, H. (1994). Depraved: The Shocking True Story of America's First Serial Killer. New York: Pocket Books
- Mike Mayo (1 February 2008). American Murder: Criminals, Crimes and the Media. Visible Ink Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-57859-256-2.
- "Was Chicago doctor serial killer London's Jack the Ripper? Descendant of American murderer investigates links between the notorious criminals | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2013-09-02.
- "Jack the Ripper - Ripper Letters". Casebook. Retrieved 2013-09-02.
- Borowski, John (November 2005). Estrada, Dimas, ed. The Strange Case of Dr. H. H. Holmes. West Hollywood, CA: Waterfront Productions. ISBN 0-9759185-1-6.
- Franke, David (1975). The Torture Doctor. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-00730-4.
- Geary, Rick (2003). The Beast of Chicago: An Account of the Life and Crimes of Herman W. Mudgett, Known to the World as H. H. Holmes. New York: NBM Publishing. ISBN 1-56163-365-8.
- Larson, Erik (February 2004). The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-72560-1.
- Mudgett, Jeff (April 2009). Bloodstains. USA: ECPrinting.com & Justin Kulinski. ISBN 978-0-615-40326-7.
- Schecter, Harold (August 2008). Depraved: The Definitive True Story of H. H. Holmes, Whose Grotesque Crimes Shattered Turn-of-the-Century Chicago (2nd ed.). New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-69030-2.
- Asbury, Hebert (1940, 1986). Gem of the Prairie: An Informal History of the Chicago Underworld. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-534-5.
- "Modern Bluebeard: H. H. Holmes' Castles (sic) Reveals His True Character." Chicago Tribune. 18 August 1895: 40.
- Pennsylvania State Reports Volume 174 on Mughett's trial in death of Benjamin Pitzel 1896
- "The Master of Murder Castle: A Classic of Chicago Crime." John Barlow Martin. Harper's Weekly. December 1943: 76-85.