Help:Wiki markup

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Wiki markup consists of the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki software to format a page. To learn how to see this markup and to save an edit, see: Help:Editing. There is a short list of markup and tips at Help:Cheatsheet.

Contents

Layout[edit]

Sections[edit]

Sections in page will follow the page's lead/introduction and (under certain conditions,) the Table of Contents.

Section headings[edit]

Further information: Help:Section and MOS:HEAD

The = through ====== markup are headings for the sections with which they are associated.

  • A single = is styled as the article title and should not be used within an article.
  • Headings are styled through CSS and add an [edit] link.
  • Four or more headings cause a table of contents to be generated automatically.
  • Do not use any markup after the final heading markup – this will either break the heading, or will cause the heading to not be included in an edit summary.
Markup Renders as
== Section ==
Section

=== Subsection ===
Subsection

==== Sub-subsection ====
Sub-subsection

And so on.

Wiki headings translate to HTML heading elements, <h1> through <h6>, styled as follows by default:


Wikimarkup HTML Style
= Heading = <h1> color: #000000; background: none; overflow: hidden; page-break-after: avoid; font-size: 1.8em; font-family: Georgia,Times,serif; margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 0.25em; line-height: 1.3; padding: 0; border-bottom: 1px solid #AAAAAA;
== Heading == <h2> color: #000000; background: none; overflow: hidden; page-break-after: avoid; font-size: 1.5em; font-family: Georgia,Times,serif; margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 0.25em; line-height: 1.3; padding: 0; border-bottom: 1px solid #AAAAAA;
=== Heading === <h3> color: #000000; background: none; overflow: hidden; page-break-after: avoid; font-size: 1.17em; font-weight: bold; margin-top: 0.3em; margin-bottom: 0; line-height: 1.6; padding-top: 0.5em; padding-bottom: 0;
==== Heading ==== <h4> color: #000000; background: none; overflow: hidden; page-break-after: avoid; font-size: 100%; font-weight: bold; margin-top: 0.3em; margin-bottom: 0; line-height: 1.6; padding-top: 0.5em; padding-bottom: 0;
===== Heading ===== <h5> color: #000000; background: none; overflow: hidden; page-break-after: avoid; font-size: 100%; font-weight: bold; margin-top: 0.3em; margin-bottom: 0; line-height: 1.6; padding-top: 0.5em; padding-bottom: 0;
====== Heading ====== <h6> color: #000000; background: none; overflow: hidden; page-break-after: avoid; font-size: 100%; font-weight: bold; margin-top: 0.3em; margin-bottom: 0; line-height: 1.6; padding-top: 0.5em; padding-bottom: 0;


Templates: {{fake heading}} for use in documentation.

Horizontal rule[edit]

Further information: WP:LINE

The horizontal rule represents a paragraph-level thematic break. Do not use in article content.

Markup Renders as
----

HTML: <hr />

Table of contents[edit]

Further information: WP:TOC

When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will automatically appear after the lead and before the first heading. The TOC can be controlled by magic words or templates:

  • __FORCETOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the normal location regardless of the number of headings.
  • __TOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the point where the magic word is inserted instead of the normal location.
  • __NOTOC__ disables the TOC entirely.
  • {{TOC limit}} can be used to control the depth of subsections included in the TOC. This is useful where the TOC is long and unwieldy.
  • Category:Wikipedia table of contents templates contains a number of specialized TOC templates.

Line breaks[edit]

Line breaks or newlines are used to add whitespace between lines, such as separating paragraphs.

  • A line break that is visible in the content is inserted by pressing Return twice.
  • Pressing Return once will place a line break in the markup, but it will not show in the rendered content, except when using list markup.
  • Markup such as bold or italics will be terminated at a line break.
Markup Renders as
A single newline has no
effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new
paragraph, or ends a list or
an indented part.

A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or an indented part.

HTML: <br> or <br />

Templates:

  • {{break}} adds multiple line breaks.
  • {{crlf2}} adds a true carriage return and line feed.
  • {{-}} adds a break with styling to clear floating elements.
  • {{plainlist}} creates an unbulleted list.

Indent text[edit]

Further information: WP:INDENT

Indentation is most commonly used on talk pages.

Markup Renders as
Indentation as used on talk pages:
:Each colon at the start of a line
::causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
:::(The indentation persists
so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)
:::Repeat the indentation at any line break.
::::Use an extra colon for each response.
:::::And so forth ...
::::::And so on ...
Indentation as used on talk pages:
Each colon at the start of a line
causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
(The indentation persists

so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)

Repeat the indentation at any line break.
Use an extra colon for each response.
And so forth ...
And so on ...

Templates: {{outdent}}, {{outdent2}}

Blockquote[edit]

When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

Markup Renders as
<blockquote>
The '''blockquote''' tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.
</blockquote>

The blockquote tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

Center text[edit]

Markup Renders as
<div class="center" style="width: auto; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">Centered text</div> 
Centered text

Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables. Please do not use <center>...</center>: it is obsolete.

Align text to right[edit]

Markup Renders as
<div style="text-align: right; direction: ltr; margin-left: 1em;">Text on the right</div>
Text on the right

Lists[edit]

Further information: Help:List and MOS:LIST

Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

Unordered lists[edit]

Markup Renders as
* Item1
* Item2
* Item3
* Item4
** Sub-item 4 a)
*** Sub-item 4 a) 1.
**** Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
**** Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
** Sub-item 4 b)
* Item5
  • Item1
  • Item2
  • Item3
  • Item4
    • Sub-item 4 a)
      • Sub-item 4 a) 1.
        • Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
        • Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
    • Sub-item 4 b)
  • Item5

Ordered lists[edit]

Markup Renders as
# Item1
# Item2
# Item3
# Item4
## Sub-item 1
### Sub-sub-item
#### Sub-sub-sub-item
## Sub-item 2
# Item5
  1. Item1
  2. Item2
  3. Item3
  4. Item4
    1. Sub-item 1
      1. Sub-sub-item
        1. Sub-sub-sub-item
    2. Sub-item 2
  5. Item5

Definition lists[edit]

Shortcut:

To list terms and definitions, start a new line with a semicolon (;) followed by the term. Then, type a colon (:) followed by a definition.

Definition lists consist of group names corresponding to values. Group names (terms) are in bold. Values (definitions) are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions. For a single or first value, the : can be placed on the same line after ; – but subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

Do not use a semicolon (;) simply to bold a line without defining a value using a colon (:). This usage renders invalid HTML5.
Markup Renders as
; Term : Definition1
Term 
Definition1
; Term
: Definition1
: Definition2
: Definition3
: Definition4
Term
Definition1
Definition2
Definition3
Definition4

HTML: <dl> <dt>...</dt>, <dd>...</dd> </dl>

Templates: {{defn}}

Retaining newlines and spaces[edit]

Shortcut:

The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like <poem>...</poem> tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as <blockquote>...</blockquote>. CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left: 2em;">.

Markup Renders as
<poem>
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
  With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
  Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
  Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
</poem>

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
  With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
  Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
  Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

Format[edit]

Text formatting[edit]

Description What you type What it looks like

Italics, bold, small capital letters

To ''italicize text'', just put
2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''

5 apostrophes for '''''bold italics'''''

'''''Italic and bold
formatting''''' only works properly
within a single line.

For text as {{Smallcaps|small caps}},
use a [[Help:Template|template]].

To italicize text, just put 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text

5 apostrophes for bold italics

Italic and bold formatting only works properly within a single line.

For text as small caps, use a template.

Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.

Code is displayed in a monospace font.

function <code>int m2()</code> is nice

function int m2() is nice

Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
  std::cout <<"Hello World!";
  return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
  std::cout <<"Hello World!";
  return 0;
}

Small text

Use <small>small text</small> if needed.

Use small text for contracts.

Small span

A span tag can set text font-size
to <span style="font-size: 87%">87%
of prior size</span>, to match an
image caption.

A span tag can set text font-size to 87% of prior size, to match an image caption.

Big text

Better not use <big>big text</big>,
unless <small> it's <big>within</big>
small</small> text.

Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.

You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h, using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h

Mr. Smith or 400 km/h

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template.

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

Mary   had a little lamb.

Typewriter text

(Also works beyond the end of a paragraph.)

<tt>right arrow    &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics'', '''bold'''</tt>

<tt>[[wikilink]]

New paragraph </tt>started here.

right arrow →

italics, bold

wikilink

New paragraph started here.

Special characters[edit]

Egyptian hieroglyphs[edit]

WikiHiero is a software extension that renders Egyptian hieroglyphs as PNG images using <hiero> tags.

Example:

Markup Renders as
<hiero>P2</hiero>
P2

Chess symbols[edit]

Diacritical marks[edit]

What you type What it looks like
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig;

&Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;

&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde;

&Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &OElig;

&Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yuml; &szlig;

&agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;

&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml;

&igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde;

&ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig;

&ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ

Ç È É Ê Ë

Ì Í Î Ï Ñ

Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Œ

Ù Ú Û Ü Ÿ ß

à á â ã ä å æ ç

è é ê ë

ì í î ï ñ

ò ó ô õ ö ø œ

ù ú û ü ÿ

Punctuation, special characters[edit]

What you type What it looks like
&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;

&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;

&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;

&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

&apos; &quot;

¿ ¡ § ¶

† ‡ • – —

‹ › « »

‘ ’ “ ”

' "

Other punctuation, escaping special characters[edit]

The <pre> and <nowiki> markup tags are also available. (For writing "[", "{", "&", "}", "]", for example.)

Commercial symbols[edit]

What you type What it looks like
&trade; &copy; &reg; 

&cent; &euro; &yen; &pound; &curren;

™ © ®

¢ € ¥ £ ¤

Subscripts and superscripts[edit]

  • The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
  • The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1, 2, 3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
Description What you type What it looks like

Subscripts

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or

x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;

x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x1 x2 x3 or

x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄

x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or

x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;

x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

x1 x2 x3 or

x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴

x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E+4 m&sup2;]]

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m

1 hectare = 1 E+4 m²

Greek characters[edit]

What you type What it looks like
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;

&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;

&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;

&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;

&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;

&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu;

&Nu; &Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma;

&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega;

α β γ δ ε ζ

η θ ι κ λ μ ν

ξ ο π ρ σ ς

τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ

Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ

Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ

Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Mathematical characters[edit]

What you type What it looks like
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic;

&minus; &plusmn; &infin;

&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne;

&le; &ge;

&times; &middot; &divide; &part;

&prime; &Prime;

&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym;

&oslash;

&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup;

&sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;

&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;

&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;

&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;

∫ ∑ ∏ √

− ± ∞

≈ ∝ ≡ ≠

≤ ≥

× · ÷ ∂

′ ″

∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ

ø

∈ ∉ ∩ ∪

⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇

¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔

→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

Mathematical formulae[edit]

  • Formulae that include mathematical letters, like x, and operators like × should not use the plain letter x. See math font formatting. For a comprehensive set of symbols, and comparison between <math> tags and the {{math}} template see section TeX vs HTML.
  • The <math> tag typesets using LaTeX markup, which may render as an image or as HTML, depending on environmental settings. The <math> tag is best for the complex formula on its own line in an image format. If you use this tag to put a formula in the line with text, put it in the {{nowrap}} template.
  • The {{math}} template uses HTML, and will size-match a serif font, and will also prevent line-wrap. All templates are sensitive to the = sign, so remember to replace = with {{=}} in template input. Use wikimarkup '' and ''' inside the {{math}} template, as well as other HTML entities. The {{math}} template is best for typeset formulas in line with the text.
Markup Renders as
<math>2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8
   - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0</math>
{{crlf|}}

{{math|2x &times; 4y &divide;
6z + 8 &minus; {{Fraction
  |y|z<sup>2</sup>}} {{=}} 0}}


<math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e\,\!</math>
<math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e</math>
{{math|sin 2&pi;''x'' + ln ''e''}}
2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8
   - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0


2x × 4y ÷ 6z + 8 − yz2 = 0


\sin 2\pi x + \ln e\,\!
\sin 2\pi x + \ln e
sin 2πx + ln e

Spacing in simple math formulae[edit]

  • Using &nbsp; to prevent line break is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br /> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
Markup Renders as
It follows that {{math
|''x''<sup>2</sup> &ge; 0}} is true when {{mvar|x}} is a real number.
It follows that x2 ≥ 0 is true when x is a real number.

Complicated formulae[edit]

  • See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use <math>.
  • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.
Markup Renders as
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}

Characters in the Private Use Area and invisible formatting characters[edit]

Invisible and PUA characters should be avoided where possible. When needed, they should both be substituted with their (hexa)decimal code values (as "&#(x)...;"). This renders invisible characters visible, for manual editing, and allows AWB to process pages with PUA characters. The latter should also be tagged with the {{PUA}} template for tracking and future maintenance.

Links and URLs[edit]

Main page: Help:Link

Free links[edit]

In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia – see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star State]] will produce Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.

Link to another wiki article[edit]

  • Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
  • Thus the link hereafter is to the Web address en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
  • A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
  • A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.
Markup Renders as
London has [[public transport]].
London has public transport.
Link to this article: "[[Help:Wiki markup]]" will appear only as bold text.
Link to this article: "Help:Wiki markup" will appear only as bold text.

Renamed link[edit]

  • Same target, different name.
  • The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What you type What it looks like

New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].

New York also has public transportation.

Automatically rename links[edit]

  • Simply typing the pipe character | after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
  • See Pipe trick for details.
Description What you type What it looks like

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses

[[kingdom (biology)|]]

kingdom

Automatically hide the comma and following text [[Seattle, Washington|]] Seattle

Automatically hide namespace

[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]]

Village pump

Or both

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

Manual of Style

But this doesn't work for section links

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

Blend link[edit]

  • Endings are blended into the link.
    • Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
  • Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
  • Blending can be suppressed by using the <nowiki /> tag, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What you type What it looks like

Blending active

San Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

Blending suppressed

A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.

A micro-second

Link to a section of a page[edit]

  • The part after the hash sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the beginning of the page.
  • Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
  • If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What you type What it looks like

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

Create page link[edit]

  • To create a new page:
    1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
    2. Save that page.
    3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
  • For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
  • Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What you type What it looks like

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

Redirects[edit]

Main page: Help:Redirect
  • Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
  • It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

Redirect to a section

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]

Link to another namespace[edit]

What you type What it looks like

See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

Link to the same article in another language (interlanguage links)[edit]

  • To link to a corresponding page in another language, use the form: [[language code:Foreign title]].
  • It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
  • Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article, but instead appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
Description What you type

Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article "Plancton".

"es" is the language code for "español" (the Spanish language).

[[es:Plancton]]

Other examples: French (fr for français), German (de for Deutsch), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).

[[fr:Plancton]]
[[de:Plankton]]
[[ru:Планктон]]
[[simple:Plankton]]

Interwiki link[edit]

Description What you type What it looks like

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello.

Simple link.

Without prefix.

Named link.

[[Wiktionary:Hello]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of "Hello"]]

Wiktionary:Hello

Hello

Wiktionary definition of "Hello"

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour.

Simple link.

Without prefix.

Named link.

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour

fr:bonjour

bonjour

Categories[edit]

  • To put an article in a category, place a link like [[Category:Example]] into the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the article is recommended.
  • To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What you type What it looks like

Categorize an article.

[[Category:Character sets]]

Link to a category.

[[:Category:Character sets]]

Category:Character sets

Without prefix.

[[:Category:Character sets|]]

Character sets

External links[edit]

  • Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a space (not a pipe |) to separate the URL from the link text in a named link. Square brackets may be used as normal punctuation when not linking to anything – [like this].
  • A URL must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news://, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application. IPv6 addresses in URLs are currently not supported.
  • A URL containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. Encoding can be achieved by:
  • Use the link button Vector toolbar insert link button.png on the enhanced editing toolbar to encode the link; this tool will add the bracket markup and the linked text, which may not always be desirable.
  • Or manually encode the URL by replacing these characters:
space " ' ,  ; < >  ? [ ]
 %20  %22  %27  %2c  %3b  %3c  %3e  %3f  %5b  %5d
  • Or use the {{urlencode:}} magic word. See Help:Magic words in the MediaWiki documentation for more details.
Description What you type What it looks like

Named link with an external link icon

[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]

Wikipedia

Unnamed link

(Only used within article body for footnotes)

[http://www.wikipedia.org]

[1]

Bare URL

(Bad style)

http://www.wikipedia.org

http://www.wikipedia.org

Link without arrow

(Not often used)

<span class="plainlinks">[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]</span>

Wikipedia

Miscellaneous[edit]

"As of" tag[edit]

  • "As of" tags generate phrases like "As of April 2009" or "as of April 2009", and categorize info that will need updating. For an explanation of the parameters see template documentation.
What you type What it looks like

{{As of|2009|4|df=us}}

As of April 2009

{{As of|2009|4|df=us|lc=y}}

as of April 2009

Media link[edit]

  • To include links to non image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.
  • Some uploaded sounds are listed at Commons:Sound.
What you type What it looks like

[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]

Sound

Links directly into edit mode[edit]

Description What you type What it looks like

Full URL

{{fullurl:Help:Wiki markup|action=edit}}

//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&action=edit

"Edit" label

{{edit}}

edit

Automatic links[edit]

Main page: Help:Magic links
Book sources[edit]
  • Link to books using their ISBN, which creates a link to Special:BookSources. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended. ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
  • To create a link to Special:BookSources using alternative text (e.g. the book's title), use the internal link style with the appropriate namespace.
What you type What it looks like

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

Link to a book using [[Special:BookSources/0670037818|alternative text, such as its title]]

Link to a book using alternative text, such as its title

RFC number[edit]
What you type What it looks like

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

Links partially italicized[edit]
What you type What it looks like

[[Hindenburg disaster|''Hindenburg'' disaster]]

Hindenburg disaster

Pronunciation aids[edit]

It is often desirable to provide an aid to pronunciation for a word. The IPAc-en and Respell templates can be of assistance.

What you type What it looks like

'''Konjac''' {{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}}

Konjac English pronunciation: /ˈknjæk/

'''Konjac''' ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} {{respell|KOHN|yak}})

Konjac (English pronunciation: /ˈknjæk/ KOHN-yak)

''Konjac'' is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} in English.

Konjac is pronounced /ˈknjæk/ in English.

Refer to Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation) for more information.

Musical notation[edit]

Main page: Help:Score

Musical notation is added by using the <score>...</score> extension tag. For example:

Markup Renders as
<score>\relative c' { fis d fis a d f e d c cis d e a g f ees }</score>
\relative c' { fis d fis a d f e d c cis d e a g f ees }

Images[edit]

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What you type What it looks like Notes
A picture: 
[[File:wiki.png]]
A picture:

Wiki.png

With alternative text: 
[[File:wiki.png|alt=Puzzle globe logo]]
With alternative text:

Puzzle globe logo

  • Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
With link: 
[[File:wiki.png|link=Wikipedia]]
With link:

Wiki.png

  • The link directs to a page, Wikipedia, instead of the file.
Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption: 
[[File:wiki.png|frame|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
Puzzle globe
Wikipedia logo

  • The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
  • The last parameter is the caption that appears below the image.
Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption: 
[[File:wiki.png|thumb|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
Puzzle globe
Wikipedia logo

  • The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
  • An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption: 
[[File:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Wikipedia encyclopedia
A picture resized to 30 pixels... 
[[File:wiki.png|30 px|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

Wikipedia encyclopedia

Linking directly to the description page of an image: 
[[:File:wiki.png]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:

File:wiki.png

  • Clicking on an image displayed normally on a page also leads to the description page.
Linking directly to an image without displaying it: 
[[Media:wiki.png|Image of jigsaw globe]]
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:

Image of jigsaw globe

  • To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
Example: 
<div style="display: inline; width: 220px; float: right;">
Place images here </div>

Example:

Place images here

Using the span or div elements to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text).

Example:

{| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}

Example:

Place images here

Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers).

See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial.

Tables[edit]

Main page: Help:Table

There are two ways to build tables:

  • In special wiki-markup (see Help:Table).
  • Using HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

See also When tables are appropriate.

References and citing sources[edit]

Making a reference citing a printed or online source can be accomplished by using the <ref>...</ref> tags. Inside these tags details about the reference are added.

Details about the citation can be provided using a structure provided by various templates; the table below lists some typical citation components.

What it's for What you type
To create the reference <ref name="name for reference">Use a closing tag</ref>
To cite a book {{cite book}}
To cite a web source {{cite web}}
Book ISBN |isbn=0-4397-0818-4 (ISBN of the book)
Web URL |url=http://www.wikipedia.org
Title |title=title of source
Author |author=authors, use commas for multiple
First name |first=first name
Last name |last=last name
Location |location=location of publisher
Publisher |publisher=who published the source
Date |date=2007-09-21 (date of source)
Year |year=year of source
Accessed date |accessdate=2008-12-25 (only if url= is included)
A complete reference tag <ref name="WikiMarkup">{{cite web |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup |title=Help:Wiki markup |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}</ref>
Referencing this again <ref name="WikiMarkup" />
Citation needed {{Citation needed|{{subst:DATE}}}}

Templates and transcluding pages[edit]

Examples for templates: {{pad|...}}, {{math|...}}, {{as of|...}}, {{edit}}

Templates are segments of wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. It is also possible to transclude other pages by using {{:colon and double braces}}.

There are three pairs of tags that can be used in wikitext to control how transclusion affects parts of a template or article. They determine whether or not wikitext renders, either in its own article, which we will call "here", or in another article where it is transcluded, which we will call "there".

  • <noinclude>: the content will not be rendered there. These tags have no effect here.
  • <includeonly>: the content will render only there, and will not render here (like invisible ink made visible by means of transclusion).
  • <onlyinclude>: the content will render here and will render there, but it will only render there what is between these tags.

There can be several such section "elements". Also, they can be nested. All possible renderings are achievable. For example, to render there one or more sections of the page here use <onlyinclude> tags. To append text there, wrap the addition in <includeonly> tags before, within, or after the section. To omit portions of the section, nest <noinclude> tags within it.

If a page is transcluded without transclusion markup, it may cause an unintentional categorization. Any page transcluding it will contain the same category as the original page. Wrap the category markup with <noinclude> tags to prevent incorrect categorization.

Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character |.

What you type What it looks like
{{Transclusion demo}}

This text comes from the page named Template:Transclusion demo. It has been transcluded into this page.

{{Help:Transclusion demo}}

This transclusion demo is a little bit of text from the page Help:Transclusion demo to be included into any file.

This template takes two parameters,
and creates underlined text with a
hover box for many modern browsers
supporting CSS:

{{H:title|This is the hover text|
Hover your mouse over this text}}

Go to this page to see the H:title
template itself: {{tl|H:title}}

This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS:

Hover your mouse over this text

Go to this page to see the H:title template itself: {{H:title}}

Talk and project pages[edit]

Signing comments[edit]

  • The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page.
  • Your username provides a link to your user page.
Description What you type What it looks like

You should sign your comments by appending four tildes to the comment, which adds your user name plus date/time.

~~~~

Username (talk) 12:22, 31 July 2014 (UTC)

Adding three tildes will add just your user name.

~~~

Username (talk)

Adding five tildes gives the date/time alone.

~~~~~

12:22, 31 July 2014 (UTC)

What links here and related changes[edit]

What you type What it looks like

[[Special:WhatLinksHere/aaa]]

Special:WhatLinksHere/aaa

[[Special:RecentChangesLinked/aaa]]

Special:RecentChangesLinked/aaa

Linking to old revisions of pages, diffs, and specific history pages[edit]

  • External link function is mainly used for these.
  • Open an old revision or diff and copy the URL from the address bar, pasting it where you want it.
What you type What it looks like

[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&diff=330350877&oldid=330349143 Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]

Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877

  • For an old revision, you can also use a permalink. Though here only the main text is guaranteed to be retained (images and templates will be shown as they are today, not as they were at the time).
What you type What it looks like

[[Special:Permalink/330350877|Revision 330350877]]

Revision 330350877

User edits[edit]

  • Link to a user's Contributions page.
Description What you type What it looks like
Username (registered users). [[Special:Contributions/UserName]] Special:Contributions/UserName
IPv4 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]] Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0
IPv6 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329]] Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329

Coloring text[edit]

What you type What it looks like

I will change the color in {{color|blue|the middle part of}} this sentence.

I will change the color in the middle part of this sentence.

Highlighting text[edit]

What you type What it looks like

This is how to {{Font color||yellow|highlight}} part of a sentence.

This is how to highlight part of a sentence.

Show deleted or inserted text[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Wikipedia:Talk page guidelines.
  • When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted content.
    • It is best to <s>Strike out no longer accurate or no longer relevant content</s> and <u>underline new material</u>.
  • When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
    • However, when the article itself discusses deleted or inserted content, such as an amendment to a statute, it is best
      • to indicate deleted content using <del>...</del> and
      • to indicate inserted content using <ins>...</ins>.
      • Note: the <s></s> markup is 9 times more popular than <del></del> on this wiki.
What you type What it looks like

You can <del>strike out deleted material</del> and <ins>underline new material</ins>.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

Alternative markup:

You can <s>strike out deleted material</s> and <u>underline new material</u>.

Alternative markup:

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

Limiting formatting / escaping wiki markup[edit]

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the wiki to display things as you typed them – what you see is what you get!

What you type What it looks like
'''&lt;nowiki&gt; tag:'''

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup''. It reformats text by
removing newlines and multiple
spaces. It still interprets
characters specified by
&name;: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets characters specified by &name;: →

'''&lt;pre&gt; tag:'''

<pre>The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
tag. Additionally, <pre> displays
in a mono-spaced font, and does
not  reformat    text    spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</pre>

<pre> tag:

The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
tag. Additionally, <pre> displays
in a mono-spaced font, and does
not  reformat    text    spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: →
'''[Text without a URL]:'''

Single square brackets holding
[text without a HTTP URL] are
preserved, but single square
brackets containing a URL are
treated as being an external
[http://example.com/ Web link].

[Text without a URL]:

Single square brackets holding [text without a HTTP URL] are preserved, but single square brackets containing a URL are treated as being an external Web link.

'''Leading space:'''

Leading spaces are another way
to preserve formatting.
 Putting a space at the
 beginning of each line
 stops the text   from
 being reformatted.
 It still interprets [[wiki]]
 ''markup'' and special characters: &rarr;

Leading space:

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the
beginning of each line
stops the text   from
being reformatted.
It still interprets wiki
markup and special characters: →

Nowiki[edit]

Shortcuts:

<nowiki>...</nowiki> and <nowiki /> tags stop parsing of wiki markup, except HTML character entity references (e.g., for special characters). Unlike <pre>, "nowiki" doesn't change formatting.

An example of <nowiki>...</nowiki>:

Markup Renders as
<nowiki>{{cite book}}</nowiki>
{{cite book}}

(However in this particular case probably you prefer {{tl|cite book}} to create a link as {{cite book}}, or {{tlf|cite book}} prints {{cite book}}.)

A singular <nowiki /> can be used to break wikimarkup.

  • Markup such as *, #, ; and : only and always take effect at the beginning of a line. A <nowiki /> before the markup will cause the characters to not parse as markup.
  • An internal link immediately followed by characters are blended to form a single link. Where this is not desired, add a <nowiki /> after the link.
  • HTML(-like) tags can be stopped parsing by inserting <nowiki /> after the opening angle bracket.
<nowiki /> examples
Markup Renders as
* Unordered list
  • Unordered list
<nowiki />* Unordered list

* Unordered list

A [[micro-]]second.
A micro-second.
A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.
A micro-second.
'<nowiki />'We don't want italics.'<nowiki />'
''We don't want italics.''
[[<nowiki />Example]]
[[Example]]
[<nowiki />[[Example]]]
[Example]
No <<nowiki />br />line break. But for tag pairs, you need nowiki for the closing tag, too. <<nowiki />pre>The following /pre is gone!</pre>
No <br />line break. But for tag pairs, you need nowiki for the closing tag, too. <pre>The following /pre is gone!

If you want to write tags, {{tag}} template is handy. E.g. {{tag|nowiki}} prints <nowiki>...</nowiki>.

HTML entities

<nowiki> and <pre> parse HTML entities. If you want to escape this, replace & with &amp;.

Markup Renders as
<nowiki>&amp;</nowiki>
&
<nowiki>&lt;</nowiki>
<
<nowiki>&amp;amp;</nowiki>
&amp;
<nowiki>&amp;lt;</nowiki>
&lt;

Use in templates

When used in a template, <nowiki> simply does not work as you may expect.

  • Including <nowiki> immediately acts upon the enclosed markup. Attempting to escape or transclude the brackets causes <nowiki /> to not work at all.
  • Using #tag:nowiki works, but has major limitations:
    • Templates, parameters, parser functions, and parser magic such as signatures are parsed, not nowikied.
    • Included <ref> tags will expose the strip markers.
Markup Renders as
<nowiki>{{tl|cite book}}</nowiki>
{{tl|cite book}}
{{#tag:nowiki|{{tl|cite book}}}}
{{[[Template:cite book|cite book]]}}
{{#tag:nowiki|<ref>Text</ref>}}
{{reflist}}
UNIQ7859956352940e8d-nowiki-000000FD-QINU1UNIQ7859956352940e8d-nowiki-000000FE-QINU
  1. ^ Text

Pre[edit]

Shortcut:

<pre> is a parser tag that emulates the HTML <pre> tag. It defines preformatted text that is displayed in a fixed-width font and is enclosed in a dashed box. HTML and wiki markups are escaped and spaces and line breaks are preserved, but HTML entities are parsed.

<pre> examples
Markup Renders as
<pre><!--Comment-->

[[wiki]] markup &amp;</pre>
<!--Comment-->

[[wiki]] markup &

<pre> formatted text does not wrap, thus text may extend past the browser window:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

To resolve this, <pre> may use CSS styling to add wrapping or a horizontal scrollbar:

  • Wrapping: <pre style="white-space:-moz-pre-wrap; white-space:-pre-wrap; white-space:-o-pre-wrap; white-space:pre-wrap; word-wrap:break-word;">
  • Scroll bar: <pre style="overflow:auto; width:auto;">

Alternatively, consider using {{pre2}} template or <syntaxhighlight enclose="div" lang="text">...</syntaxhighlight>.

Invisible text (comments)[edit]

It's uncommon – but on occasion acceptable for notes to other editors – to add a hidden comment within the text of an article. These comments are only visible when editing or viewing the source of a page. Most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page. The format is to surround the hidden text with "<!--" and "-->" and may cover several lines, e.g.:

<!-- An example of hidden comments
 This won't be visible except in "edit" mode. -->

Another way to include a comment in the wiki markup uses the {{Void}} template, which can be abbreviated as {{^}}. This template "expands" to the empty string, generating no HTML output; it is visible only to people editing the wiki source. Thus {{^|A lengthy comment here}} operates similarly to the comment <!-- A lengthy comment here -->. The main difference is that the template version can be nested, while attempting to nest HTML comments produces odd results.

Variables[edit]

Wikipedia namespaces
Subject namespaces Talk namespaces
0 (Main/Article) Talk 1
2 User User talk 3
4 Wikipedia Wikipedia talk 5
6 File File talk 7
8 MediaWiki MediaWiki talk 9
10 Template Template talk 11
12 Help Help talk 13
14 Category Category talk 15
100 Portal Portal talk 101
108 Book Book talk 109
118 Draft Draft talk 119
446 Education Program Education Program talk 447
710 TimedText TimedText talk 711
828 Module Module talk 829
Virtual namespaces
-1 Special
-2 Media
Code Effect Notes
{{CURRENTWEEK}} 31
{{CURRENTDOW}} 4

Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, etc., but Sunday = 0

{{CURRENTMONTH}} 07
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} July
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} July
{{CURRENTDAY}} 31
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Thursday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2014
{{CURRENTTIME}} 12:22
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 4,570,771
{{NUMBEROFPAGES}} 33,441,849
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 21,924,413
{{PAGENAME}} Wiki markup
{{NAMESPACE}} Help
{{REVISIONID}} 618519727
{{REVISIONUSER}} Telpardec
{{localurl:pagename}} /wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} /w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Sandbox&action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}} //en.wikipedia.org
{{ns:1}} Talk

{{ns:index}} e.g. {{ns:1}} → full name of namespace

{{SITENAME}} Wikipedia

{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect. This includes full articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages but not in English; {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

HTML[edit]

Many HTML tags can be used in wiki markup. You can check your HTML by using markup validation.