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Heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2
Symbols HAND2 ; DHAND2; Hed; Thing2; bHLHa26; dHand
External IDs OMIM602407 MGI103580 HomoloGene32092 GeneCards: HAND2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE HAND2 220480 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 9464 15111
Ensembl ENSG00000164107 ENSMUSG00000038193
UniProt P61296 Q61039
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_021973 NM_010402
RefSeq (protein) NP_068808 NP_034532
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
174.45 – 174.45 Mb
Chr 8:
57.32 – 57.32 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAND2 gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is one of two closely related family members, the HAND proteins, which are asymmetrically expressed in the developing ventricular chambers and play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis. Working in a complementary fashion, they function in the formation of the right ventricle and aortic arch arteries, implicating them as mediators of congenital heart disease. In addition, this transcription factor plays an important role in limb and branchial arch development.[2]

A progesterone-regulated transcription factor regulates stromal-epithelial communication in early pregnancy.[3]

HAND2 is involved in the development of the tongue.[4]


HAND2 has been shown to interact with GATA4,[5] PPP2R5D[6] and PHOX2A.[7]


  1. ^ Russell MW, Kemp P, Wang L, Brody LC, Izumo S (Feb 1999). "Molecular cloning of the human HAND2 gene". Biochim Biophys Acta 1443 (3): 393–9. PMID 9878849. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HAND2 heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2". 
  3. ^ Xi,, Quanxi; DeMayo Francesco J, Lydon John P, Cooke,Paul S, Yamagishi Hiroyuki, Srivastave Deepak, Bagchi Milak K,Bagchi Indrani C (18 Feb 2011). "The Antiproliferative Action of Progesterone in Uterine Epithelium Is Meditated by Hand2.". Science 331 (6019): 912–916. doi:10.1126/science.1197454. PMC 3320855. PMID 21330545. 
  4. ^ Barron, F; Woods, C; Kuhn, K; Bishop, J; Howard, MJ; Clouthier, DE (2011). "Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis". Development (Cambridge, England) 138 (11): 2249–59. doi:10.1242/dev.056929. PMC 3091495. PMID 21558373. 
  5. ^ Dai, Yan-Shan; Cserjesi Peter; Markham Bruce E; Molkentin Jeffery D (Jul 2002). "The transcription factors GATA4 and dHAND physically interact to synergistically activate cardiac gene expression through a p300-dependent mechanism". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (27): 24390–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202490200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11994297. 
  6. ^ Firulli, Beth A; Howard Marthe J; McDaid Jennifer R; McIlreavey Leanne; Dionne Karen M; Centonze Victoria E; Cserjesi Peter; Virshup David M; Firulli Anthony B (Nov 2003). "PKA, PKC, and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation". Mol. Cell (United States) 12 (5): 1225–37. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00425-8. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 14636580. 
  7. ^ Rychlik, Jennifer L; Gerbasi Vincent; Lewis Elaine J (Dec 2003). "The interaction between dHAND and Arix at the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter region is independent of direct dHAND binding to DNA". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (49): 49652–60. doi:10.1074/jbc.M308577200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 14506227. 

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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.