HATNet Project

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The Hungarian Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) project is a network of six small fully automated "HAT" telescopes. The scientific goal of the project is to detect and characterize extrasolar planets using the transit method. This network is used also to find and follow bright variable stars. The network is maintained by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

The HAT acronym stands for Hungarian-made Automated Telescope, because it was developed by a small group of Hungarians who met through the Hungarian Astronomical Association. The project started in 1999 and has been fully operational since May 2001.[1]

Equipment[edit]

The prototype instrument, HAT-1 was built from a 180 mm focal length and 65 mm aperture Nikon telephoto lens and a Kodak KAF-0401E chip of 512 × 768, 9 μm pixels. The test period was from 2000 to 2001 at the Budapest, Konkoly Observatory.[1]

HAT-1 was transported from Budapest to the Steward Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, in January 2001. The transportation caused serious damage to the equipment.[1]

Later built telescopes use Canon 11 cm diameter f/1.8L lenses for a wide-field of 8°×8°. It is a fully automated instrument with 2K x 2K Charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors. One HAT instrument operates at the Wise Observatory.[2][3]

HAT is controlled by a single Linux PC without human supervision. Data are stored in a MySQL database.[citation needed]

HAT-South[edit]

From 2009, three other locations joined the HATNet with telescopes of completely new design. The telescopes are deployed to Australia, Namibia and Chile. Each system has eight (2*4) joint-mounted, quasi-parallel Takahashi Epsilon (180 mm diameter, f/2.8) astrographs with Apogee 4k*4k CCDs with overlapping fields of view. The processing computers are Xenomai-based industrial PCs with 10 TB of storage. The funding is provided until 2013.

Participants in the project[edit]

HAT-1 was developed during the undergraduate (and also the first year graduate) studies of Gáspár Bakos (Eötvös Loránd University) and at Konkoly Observatory (Budapest), under the supervision of Dr. Géza Kovács. In the development József Lázár, István Papp and Pál Sári also played an important role.

Planets discovered[edit]

Twenty-nine extrasolar planets have been discovered so far by the HATNet project (note that the discovery of the planet WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b, WASP-40b/HAT-P-27b and WASP-51b/HAT-P-30b was simultaneously announced by the SuperWASP team). All have been discovered using the transit method. In addition, the radial velocity followup has detected an additional companion, either a massive planet or a small brown dwarf around the star HAT-P-13, making this the first known transiting planet in a system with an outer companion in a well-characterised orbit.[4]

Light green rows indicate that the planet orbits one of the stars in a binary star system.

North

Star Constellation Right
ascension
Declination App.
mag.
Distance (ly) Spectral
type
Planet Mass
(MJ)
Radius
(RJ)
Orbital
period

(d)
Semimajor
axis

(AU)
Orbital
eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
Discovery
year
Ref
ADS 16402 B Lacerta 22h 57m 47s +38° 40′ 30″ 10.4 453 G0V HAT-P-1b 0.524 1.225 4.4652934 0.0553 <0.067 86.28 2006 [5][6]
HD 147506 Hercules 16h 20m 36s +41° 02′ 53″ 8.71 440 F8 HAT-P-2b 8.65 0.951 5.63341 0.0677 0.5163 90 2007 [7]
GSC 03466-00819 Ursa Major 13h 44m 23s +48° 01′ 43″ 11.86 457 K HAT-P-3b 0.599 0.890 2.899703 0.03894 0 87.24 2007 [8]
BD+36°2593 Boötes 15h 19m 58s +36° 13′ 47″ 11.2 1010 F HAT-P-4b 0.68 1.27 3.056536 0.0446 0 89.9 2007 [9]
GSC 02634-01087 Lyra 18h 17m 37s +36° 37′ 16″ 12 1110 G HAT-P-5b 1.06 1.26 2.788491 0.04075 0 86.75 2007 [10]
GSC 03239-00992 Andromeda 23h 39m 06s +42° 27′ 58″ 10.5 650 F HAT-P-6b 1.057 1.33 3.852985 0.05235 0 85.51 2007 [11]
GSC 03547-01402 Cygnus 19h 28m 59s +47° 58′ 10″ 10.5 1044 F8 HAT-P-7b 1.776 1.363 2.2047299 0.0377 0 85.7 2008 [12]
GSC 02757-01152 Pegasus 22h 52m 10s +35° 26′ 50″ 10.17 750 F HAT-P-8b 1.52 1.5 3.07632 0.0487 0 87.5 2008 [13]
HAT-P-9 Auriga 07h 20m 40s +37° 08′ 26″ 12.34 1560 F HAT-P-9b 0.78 1.4 3.92289 0.053 0 86.5 2008 [14]
WASP-11/HAT-P-10 Perseus 03h 09m 29s +30° 40′ 25″ 11.89 408 K3V WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b 0.460 1.045 3.7224690 0.0439 0 88.5 2008 [15]
GSC 03561-02092 Cygnus 19h 50m 50s +48° 04′ 51″ 9.59 123.5 K4 HAT-P-11b 0.081 0.422 4.8878162 0.053 0.198 88.5 2009 [16]
HAT-P-12 Canes Venatici 13h 57m 34s +43° 29′ 37″ 12.84 465 K4 HAT-P-12b 0.211 0.959 3.2130598 0.0384 0 89.0 2009 [17]
GSC 3416-00543 Ursa Major 08h 39m 31s +47° 21′ 07″ 10.429 698 G4 HAT-P-13b 0.851 1.28 2.9162595 0.0426 0.021 83.4 2009 [4]
GSC 3416-00543 Ursa Major 08h 39m 31s +47° 21′ 07″ 10.429 698 G4 HAT-P-13c >15.2 428.5 1.186 0.691 2009 [4]
GSC 3086-00152 Hercules 17h 20m 28s +38° 14′ 32″ 9.98 670 F HAT-P-14b 1.386 1.468 4.6267669 0.0606 0.107 83.5 2010 [18]
GSC 2883-01687 Perseus 04h 25m 33.65s +39° 20′ 44.2″ 12.16 190 G5 HAT-P-15b 1.946 1.072 10.863502 0.0964 0.19 89.1 2010 [19]
GSC 2792-01700 Andromeda 00h 38m 17.56s +42° 27′ 47.2″ 10.8 235 F8 HAT-P-16b 4.193 1.289 2.77596 0.0413 0.036 86.6 2010 [20]
HAT-P-17 Cygnus 21h 38m 09s +30° 29′ 19″ 10.54 293.5 K HAT-P-17b 0.53 1.01 10.338523 0.0882 0.346 89.2 2010 [21]
HAT-P-17 Cygnus 21h 38m 09s +30° 29′ 19″ 10.54 293.5 K HAT-P-17c 1.4 1797 2.75 0.1 2010 [21]
HAT-P-18 Hercules 17h 05m 24s +33° 00′ 45″ 12.76 541 K HAT-P-18b 0.197 0.995 5.508023 0.0559 0.084 88.8 2010 [22]
HAT-P-19 Andromeda 00h 38m 04s +34° 42′ 42″ 12.9 701 K HAT-P-19b 0.292 1.132 4.008778 0.0466 0.067 88.2 2010 [23]
HAT-P-20 Gemini 07h 27m 40s +24° 20′ 11″ 11.34 228 K7 HAT-P-20b 7.246 0.867 2.875317 0.0361 0.015 86.8 2010 [24]
HAT-P-21 Ursa Major 11h 25m 06s +41° 01′ 41″ 11.46 228 G3 HAT-P-21b 4.063 1.024 4.124461 0.0494 0.228 87.2 2010 [25]
HAT-P-22 Ursa Major 10h 22m 44s +50° 07′ 42″ 9.73 267 G5 HAT-P-22b 2.147 1.08 3.21222 0.0414 0.016 86.9 2010 [26]
HAT-P-23 Delphinus 20h 24m 30s +16° 45′ 44″ 11.94 1282 G5 HAT-P-23b 2.09 1.368 1.212884 0.0232 0.106 85.1 2010 [27]
HAT-P-24 Gemini 07h 15m 18s +14° 15′ 44″ 11.818 998 F8 HAT-P-24b 0.681 1.243 3.3552464 0.0465 0.067 88.6 2010 [28]
HAT-P-25 Aries 03h 13m 45s +25° 11′ 51″ 13.19 969 G5 HAT-P-25b 0.567 1.19 3.652836 0.0466 0.032 87.6 2010 [29]
HAT-P-26 Virgo 14h 12m 37.55s +04° 03′ 36.13″ 11.74 437 K1 HAT-P-26b 0.059 0.565 4.234516 0.0479 0.124 88.6 2010 [30]
WASP-40/HAT-P-27 Virgo 14h 51m 04s +05° 56′ 50″ 12.21 665 G8 WASP-40b/HAT-P-27b 0.66 1.038 3.039586 0.0403 0.078 84.7 2011 [31]
HAT-P-28 Andromeda 00h 52m 00s +34° 43′ 42″ 13.03 1288 G3 HAT-P-28b 0.626 1.212 3.257215 0.0434 0.051 88 2011 [32]
HAT-P-29 Perseus 02h 12m 31s +51° 46′ 44″ 11.9 1050 F8 HAT-P-29b 0.778 1.107 5.72318 0.0667 0.095 87.1 2011 [33]
WASP-51/HAT-P-30 Draco 08h 15m 48s +05° 50′ 12″ 10.42 629 F WASP-51b/HAT-P-30b 0.711 1.34 2.810595 0.0419 0.035 83.6 2011 [34]
HAT-P-31 Cancer 08h 06m 09s +26° 25′ 36″ 11.66 1155 HAT-P-31b 2.171 1.07 5.005425 0.055 0.245 87.1 2011 [35]
HAT-P-32 Andromeda 02h 01m 10s +46° 41′ 16″ 11.29 1044 F/G HAT-P-32b 0.941 2.037 2.150009 0.0344 0.163 88.7 2011 [36] [37]
HAT-P-33 Gemini 07h 32m 44s +33° 50′ 06″ 11.89 1367 F HAT-P-33b 0.763 1.827 3.474474 0.0503 0.148 86.7 2011 [36] [38]
HAT-P-34 Sagitta 20h 12m 47s +18° 06′ 18″ 10.16 838 F8 HAT-P-34b 3.328 0.0677 5.452654 0.0677 0.441 87.1 2012 [39] [40]
HAT-P-35 Hydra 08h 13m 00s +04° 47′ 13″ 12.46 1745 F or G HAT-P-35b 1.054 1.332 3.646706 0.0498 0.025 87.3 2012 [39] [41]
HAT-P-36 Canes Venatici 12h 33m 03s +44° 54′ 55″ 12.26 1034 F or G HAT-P-36b 1.832 1.264 1.327347 0.0238 0.063 86 2012 [39] [42]
HAT-P-37 Draco 18h 57m 11 s +51° 16′ 09″ 13.23 1341 F or G HAT-P-37b 1.169 1.178 2.797436 0.0379 0.058 86.9 2012 [39] [43]
HAT-P-38 12.56 2094 G HAT-P-38b 0.267 0.825 4.640382 0.0523 0.067 88.3 2012 [44]
HAT-P-39 Gemini 07h 35m 02.0s +17° 49′ 48″ 11.42 812 F HAT-P-39b 0.599 1.571 3.54387 0.0509 - 87 2012 [45] [46]
HAT-P-40 Lacerta 22h 22m 03.0s +45° 27′ 27″ 11.7 1634 F HAT-P-40b 0.615 1.73 4.45724 0.0608 - 88.3 2012 [45] [47]
HAT-P-41 Aquila 19h 49m 17.0s +04° 40′ 21″ 11.09 1014 F HAT-P-41b 0.812 1.529 2.69405 0.0424 - 87.9 2012 [45] [48]
HAT-P-42 Hydra 09h 01m 23.0s +06° 05′ 50″ 12.17 1458 F or G HAT-P-42b 0.975 1.277 4.64188 0.0575 - 85.9 2012 [49]
HAT-P-43 Cancer 08h 35m 42.0s +10° 12′ 24″ 13.36 1771 F or G HAT-P-43b 0.66 1.283 3.33269 0.0443 - 88.7 2012 [50]
HAT-P-44 Cassiopeia 00h 56m 50.3s +47° 00′ 52″ 13.21 1220 HAT-P-44b 0.392 1.28 4.30122 0.0507 0.072 89 2013 [51]
HAT-P-44 Cassiopeia 00h 56m 50.3s +47° 00′ 52″ 13.21 1220 HAT-P-44c 1.6 - 219.9 0.699 - - 2013 [52]
HAT-P-45 Cetus 00h 33m 09.9s −03° 22′ 51″ 12.79 995 HAT-P-45b 0.892 1.426 3.12899 0.0452 0.049 87.8 2013 [53]
HAT-P-46 Cetus 00h 32m 07.1s −02° 58′ 15″ 11.94 965 HAT-P-46b 0.493 1.284 4.46313 0.0577 0.123 85.5 2013 [54]
HAT-P-46 Cetus 00h 32m 07.1s −02° 58′ 15″ 11.94 965 HAT-P-46c 2 - 77.7 0.387 - - 2013 [55]
HAT-P-49 Vulpecula 20h 21m 45.928s +26° 4133.653′ 10.3 1050 F HAT-P-49b 1.73 1.41 2.6915 0.0438 0 86.2 2014 [56]
HAT-P-54 Gemini 06h 39m 35.53s 25° 28′ 57.1″ 13.505 443 Late K HAT-P-54b 0.760 0.944 3.7998 0.04117 - 87.04 2014 [57]

South

Star Constellation Right
ascension
Declination App.
mag.
Distance (ly) Spectral
type
Planet Mass
(MJ)
Radius
(RJ)
Orbital
period

(d)
Semimajor
axis

(AU)
Orbital
eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
Discovery
year
Ref
HATS-1 Crater 11h 32m 6s −23° 21′ 170″ 12.5 988 G HATS-1b 1.855 1.302 3.44646 0.0444 0.12 85.6 2012 [58]
HATS-2 Crater 11h 46m 57.4s −22° 33′ 47″ 13.562 1174 K HATS-2b 1.345 1.168 1.35413 0.023 - 87.2 2013
HATS-3 Capricornus 20h 49m 50s −24° 25′ 44″ 11.44 1478 F HATS-3b 1.071 1.381 3.54785 0.0485 - - 2013
HATS-4 Canis Major 06h 16m 27.0s −21° 27′ 11″ 13.46 1370 HATS-4b 1.32 1.02 2.5167 0.0362 0.013 88.5 2014 [59]
HATS-5 Eridanus 04h 28m 54s −20° 31′ 05″ 12.6 838 F8 HATS-5b 0.24 0.91 4.7634 0.0542 <0.019 89.3 2014 [60]

See also[edit]

A subset of HATNet light curves are available at the NASA Exoplanet Archive.

Other extrasolar planet search projects[edit]

Extrasolar planet searching spacecraft[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bakos, G. Á. et al. (2002). "System Description and First Light Curves of the Hungarian Automated Telescope, an Autonomous Observatory for Variability Search". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 114 (799): 974–987. arXiv:astro-ph/0206001. Bibcode:2002PASP..114..974B. doi:10.1086/342382. 
  2. ^ G. Bakos et al. (March 2004). "Wide-field millimagnitude photometry with the HAT: a tool for extrasolar planet detection". He Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 116 (817): 266–277. arXiv:astro-ph/0401219. Bibcode:2004PASP..116..266B. doi:10.1086/382735. 
  3. ^ HARTMAN et al.; Bakos, G.; Stanek, K. Z.; Noyes, R. W. (October 2004). "HATNET Variability Survey in the High Stellar Density "Kepler Field" with Millimagnitude Image Subtraction Photometry". The Astronomical Journal 128 (4): 1761–1783. arXiv:astro-ph/0405597. Bibcode:2004AJ....128.1761H. doi:10.1086/423920. 
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  6. ^ Johnson, John Asher et al. (2008). "Measurement of the Spin-Orbit Angle of Exoplanet HAT-P-1b". The Astrophysical Journal 686 (1): 649–657. arXiv:0806.1734. Bibcode:2008ApJ...686..649J. doi:10.1086/591078. 
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  57. ^ | HAT-P-54b: A hot jupiter transiting a 0.64 Msun star in field 0 of the K2 mission
  58. ^ HATS-1b: The First Transiting Planet Discovered by the HATSouth Survey: K. Penev (1,2), G. Á. Bakos (1,2), D. Bayliss (3), A. Jordán (4), M. Mohler (5), G. Zhou (3), V. Suc (4), M. Rabus (4), J. D. Hartman (1,2), L. Mancini (5), B. Béky (2), Z. Csubry (1,2), L. Buchhave (6), T. Henning (5), N. Nikolov (5), B. Csák (5), R. Brahm (4), N. Espinoza (4), P. Conroy (3), R. W. Noyes (2), D. D. Sasselov (2), B. Schmidt (3), D. J. Wright (7), C. G. Tinney (7), B. C. Addison (7), J. Lázár (8), I. Papp (8), P. Sári (8) ((1) Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, (2) CfA, (3) ANU, (4) PUC, (5) MPIA, (6) Niels Bohr Institute, (7) NSW, (8) HAA)
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  60. ^ "HATS-5b: A Transiting hot-Saturn from the HATSouth Survey". 

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