HD 41742/41700

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HD 41742 AabB/HD 41700 (C)
HD41742ESO.png
HD 41742 (centre) and HD 41700 (top-right).
Diagram showing star positions and boundaries of the constellation of Puppis and its surroundings
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A star chart of the constellation of Puppis showing the position of HD 41742/41700.
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0
Constellation Puppis
HD 41742 Aab
Right ascension 06h 04m 40.10s [1]
Declination −45° 04′ 44.15″ [1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 5.975 ± 0.009[2]
HD 41742 B
Right ascension 06h 04m 39.79s[2]
Declination −45° 04′ 48.61″[2]
Apparent magnitude (V) 8.867 ± 0.028[2]
HD 41700 (C)
Right ascension 06h 04m 28.440s[1]
Declination −45° 02′ 11.77″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 6.343 ± 0.010[2]
Characteristics
HD 41742 Aab
Spectral type F6V[3]/K-MV(MS)
B−V color index 0.493 ± 0.009[1]
HD 41742 B
Spectral type K3V[3]
B−V color index 1.014 ± 0.076[2]
HD 41700 (C)
Spectral type F7.5V[3]
B−V color index 0.517 ± 0.005[1]
Astrometry
HD 41742 Aab
Radial velocity (Rv) 27.0 ± 2.5[4][note 1] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: -78.76 ± 0.59[1] mas/yr
Dec.: 254.93 ± 0.69[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 37.18 ± 0.64[1] mas
Distance 88 ± 2 ly
(26.9 ± 0.5 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 3.853 ± 0.024[5]
HD 41742 B
Proper motion (μ) RA: -80.0 ± 0.6[2] mas/yr
Dec.: 254.3 ± 0.7[2] mas/yr
Absolute magnitude (MV) 6.745 ± 0.043[5]
HD 41700 (C)
Radial velocity (Rv) 27.4 ± 0.4[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: -81.18 ± 0.25[1] mas/yr
Dec.: 246.24 ± 0.26[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 37.64 ± 0.25[1] mas
Distance 86.7 ± 0.6 ly
(26.6 ± 0.2 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 4.221 ± 0.025[5]
Details
HD 41742 Aab
Mass 1.20 +0.07
−0.06
[4] M / ~≥0.21 ± 0.06 M
Surface gravity (log g) 4.30 ± ~0.10[4] cgs
Temperature 6363 ± 85[4] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] -0.17 ± 0.10[4] dex
Rotation ≤2.0 days (maximum rotational period, derived from v sin i if i = 90°)[6]
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 26.7 ± 1.3[6] km/s
HD 41742 B
Mass 0.80[7] M
HD 41700 (C)
Mass 1.13 +0.04
−0.07
[4] M
Surface gravity (log g) 4.36 ± ~0.10[4] cgs
Temperature 6165 ± 80[4] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] -0.19 ± 0.10[4] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 16.6 ± 1.0[8] km/s
Age 0.20 ± 0.05[8] Gyr
Other designations
HD 41742 Aab: HIP 28790, TYC 8101-1755-1, HR 2158
HD 41742 B: TYC 8101-1757-1
HD 41700 (C): HIP 28764, GJ 9200, TYC 8101-309-1, HR 2157
Database references
HD 41742 AabB
SIMBAD data
HD 41742 Aab
SIMBAD data
HD 41742 B
SIMBAD data
HD 41700 (C)
SIMBAD data

HD 41742/41700 is a star system that lies approximately 87 light-years away in the constellation of Puppis. The system consists of two bright stars where the primary is orbited by two fainter stars, making it a quadruple with an unequal hierarchy.

Component discovery[edit]

A diagram of the visual components of the HD 41742/41700 system (Click to enlarge).
HD 41742 B's motion relative to HD 41742 Aab (Click to enlarge).

HD 41742 B was discovered early on in the history of visual binaries, due to the brightness of the primary. The earliest measurement in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) dates to 1837 and was made by William Herschel, stating a position angle of 246° and a separation of 1.1" for the companion.[9] Surprisingly, recent measures suggest that the secondary has moved significantly over the two centuries since, with it lying at a position angle of around 215° and a separation increasing between 5.30" in the late 1970s[10] to 5.95" in 2010.[11] This translates to a minimum change in physical separation between 142 and 159 AU over 35 years,[7] which suggests that HD 41742 B is moving quickly away from the primary.

Lying at a considerably wider separation, HD 41700 was first observed relative to HD 41742 later than the tighter binary, despite being much brighter. The first measurement in the WDS dates to 1854 and was again made by Herschel, giving a position angle of 320° and a separation of 174".[9] More recent values agree on the position angle, but suggest a separation closer to 200". The wide separation of this tertiary component means that it has a separate Hipparcos entry to the primary, which confirms that the two stars lie at the same distance and are co-moving. The physical separation between the two is about 0.026 parsecs (0.084 light-years), or approximately 17200 AU.[12] This is comparable to the ~15000 AU separation between Alpha Centauri AB and Proxima Centauri; such wide separations between components are relatively rare, at least for solar-type stars.

An orbital fit to HD 41742 A's radial velocity (Click to enlarge).

Radial velocity observations of HD 41742 A with the HARPS spectrograph detected variations on a level of several km/s over a period of months, indicating that the star is a single-lined spectroscopic binary (SB1).[13] Though an orbital fit was not attempted, A good orbital fit is possible (left), which implies that HD 41742 Ab has a minimum mass of ~0.2 M, and is on a high eccentricity ~222-day orbit around the 1.2 M primary. Given that the lines of the secondary are not detected, it must have a significantly lower luminosity than the primary, indicating that it is of late spectral type.

Properties[edit]

The position of HD 41742 AB and HD 41700 (C) on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
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On the celestial sphere, HD 41742/41700 can be seen as a 6th magnitude star (a magnitude barely observable by the naked eye under good conditions) lying close to the border between Puppis and Pictor. The nearest bright star to its location is the 4th magnitude Eta Columbae approximately two arcminutes to the north; The system lies about a quarter of the distance between Eta Columbae and Canopus (Alpha Carinae) on the sky.

HD 41742 A and HD 41700 (C) are similar stars, with their colours indicating spectral types of F6 and F7.5; this means that the two stars are about 500 K hotter than the Sun, and in turn the difference in temperature between the stars is about 150 kelvin.[3] The stars lie slightly below the main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (left image), which is probably due to their sub-solar metallicity (Fe/H ≈ -0.2).[4]

HD 41742 B is a much cooler star than the brighter components; its B-V indicates a spectral type of K3, making it approximately 1000 K cooler than the Sun.[3] It lies on the main sequence on the HRD (left image), and its photometry is fully consistent with an 0.8 solar-mass dwarf.[7]

Indication of a young age for the HD 41742/41700 system was first found Henry et al. (1996), detecting large chromospheric activity in HD 41700; they measured a log R'HK of -4.35 for the star,[14] significantly higher than a "quiet" value of <-4.70, indicating that the system is considerably younger than 1 Gyr. The brightest stars in the system are both moderately fast rotators for late-F dwarfs, again indicating that they are young.[6][8] Finally, HD 41700 has a somewhat large lithium content; because lithium is used up by a star at an approximately constant rate over its lifetime, this can be used to estimate a star's age. For HD 41700, its lithium abundance indicates an age of 200 ± 50 million years.[8]

Some young star systems remain loosely associated with other stars that formed in the same molecular cloud as they move through space, known as a moving group. The HD 41742/41700 system has space velocities of (UVW) = -37.8, -10.4, -14.6 km/s,[15] which is similar to those of the Hyades (UVW = -39.7, -17.7, -2.4 km/s[15]); however, the system is probably not a Hyad because it has a lower peculiar velocity than expected,[15] as well as a lower metallicity and lithium age than the Hyades.

Another feature prevalent around young stars are debris disks. For HD 41742 A and HD 41700 (C), IRAS and ISO detected infra-red excesses,[16][17] which are typically indicative of disks of material re-radiating absorbed light at redder wavelengths; however, in both cases evidence against the excesses have been found. For HD 41742 A, the excess is offset by 26",[18] which is large enough so that contamination from another object is likely responsible for the excess, while for HD 41700 (C) the excess has not been confirmed by Spitzer observations.[19]

Planet searches[edit]

HD 41700 (C) is included on the CORALIE and Keck-HIRES planet search samples.[20][21][22] No variability has been announced so far, so the star likely does not host a close-in, easily detectable giant planet.

HD 41742 A was included on a planet search around early-type (<~F7) stars with HARPS that detected its spectroscopic binarity,[13] as discussed above.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Value not accounting for binary orbit

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Høg, E.; et al. (2000). "The Tycho-2 catalogue of the 2.5 million brightest stars". Bibcode:2000A&A...355L..27H. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f A Modern Mean Stellar Color and Effective Temperatures (Teff) # Sequence for O9V-Y0V Dwarf Stars, E. Mamajek, 2011, website
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Casagrande, L.; et al. (2011). "New constraints on the chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood and Galactic disc(s). Improved astrophysical parameters for the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey". arXiv:1103.4651. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.138C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201016276. 
  5. ^ a b c d The relevant calculation for absolute magnitude is  M = m - 5 ((\log_{10}{D_L}) - 1)\!\,, where m\!\, is the apparent magnitude and D_L\!\, is the distance in light-years.
  6. ^ a b c d Ammler-von Eiff, A.; Reiners; et al. "New measurements of rotation and differential rotation in A-F stars: are there two populations of differentially rotating stars?". arXiv:1204.2459. Bibcode:2012A&A...542A.116A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118724. 
  7. ^ a b c d Ehrenreich, D.; et al. (2010). "Deep infrared imaging of close companions to austral A- and F-type stars". arXiv:1007.0002. Bibcode:2010A&A...523A..73E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014763. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Weise, P.; et al. (2010). "Rotational velocities of nearby young stars". Bibcode:2010A&A...517A..88W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014453. 
  9. ^ a b c Mason et al. (2001-2013...). "WDS 06047-4505". The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog. Retrieved 2013-08-02.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ a b van Albada-van Dien, E. (1985). "Photographic observations of visual double stars". Bibcode:1985A&AS...60..315V. 
  11. ^ a b Tokovinin, Andrei; et al. (2010). "Subsystems in Nearby Solar-type Wide Binaries". arXiv:1006.1253. Bibcode:2010AJ....140..510T. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/2/510. 
  12. ^ a b Shaya, Ed J.; Olling, Rob P. (January 2011), Very Wide Binaries and Other Comoving Stellar Companions: A Bayesian Analysis of the Hipparcos Catalogue, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 192 (1): 2, arXiv:1007.0425, Bibcode:2011ApJS..192....2S, doi:10.1088/0067-0049/192/1/2 
  13. ^ a b c Lagrange, A. -M.; et al. (2009). "Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around A-F type stars. VI. High precision RV survey of early type dwarfs with HARPS". arXiv:0809.4636. Bibcode:2009A&A...495..335L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810105. 
  14. ^ a b Henry, Todd J.; et al. (1996). "LA Survey of Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission in Southern Solar-Type Stars". Bibcode:1996AJ....111..439H. doi:10.1086/117796. 
  15. ^ a b c d Montes, D.; et al. (2001). "Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single stars". arXiv:astro-ph/0106537. Bibcode:2001MNRAS.328...45M. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04781.x. 
  16. ^ a b Mannings, Vincent; Barlow, Michael J. (1998). "Candidate Main-Sequence Stars with Debris Disks: A New Sample of Vega-like Sources". Bibcode:1998ApJ...497..330M. doi:10.1086/305432. 
  17. ^ a b Decin, G.; et al. (2000). "The Vega phenomenon around G dwarfs". Bibcode:2000A&A...357..533D. 
  18. ^ a b Sylvester, Roger J.; et al. (2000). "Optical, infrared and millimetre-wave properties of Vega-like systems - IV. Observations of a new sample of candidate Vega-like sources". Bibcode:2000MNRAS.313...73S. 
  19. ^ a b Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; et al. (2008). "The Complete Census of 70 μm-bright Debris Disks within "the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems" Spitzer Legacy Survey of Sun-like Stars". arXiv:0801.0163. Bibcode:2008ApJ...677..630H. doi:10.1086/529027. 
  20. ^ a b Mortier, A.; et al. (2013). "On the functional form of the metallicity-giant planet correlation". arXiv:1302.1851. Bibcode:2013A&A...551A.112M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220707. 
  21. ^ a b Wright, J. T.; et al. (2004). "Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars". arXiv:astro-ph/0402582. Bibcode:2004ApJS..152..261W. doi:10.1086/386283. 
  22. ^ a b Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra (2010). "Chromospheric Activity and Jitter Measurements for 2630 Stars on the California Planet Search". arXiv:1009.2301. Bibcode:2010ApJ...725..875I. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/725/1/875.