HER2/neu

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V-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2
Trastuzumab Fab-HER2 complex 1N8Z.png
PDB rendering based on 1n8z.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols ERBB2 ; CD340; HER-2; HER-2/neu; HER2; MLN 19; NEU; NGL; TKR1
External IDs OMIM164870 MGI95410 HomoloGene3273 ChEMBL: 1824 GeneCards: ERBB2 Gene
EC number 2.7.10.1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ERBB2 216836 s at.png
PBB GE ERBB2 210930 s at.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2064 13866
Ensembl ENSG00000141736 ENSMUSG00000062312
UniProt P04626 P70424
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001005862 NM_001003817
RefSeq (protein) NP_001005862 NP_001003817
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
37.84 – 37.89 Mb
Chr 11:
98.41 – 98.44 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene. The ERBB2 gene is also frequently called HER2 (from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) or HER2/neu.

HER2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family. Amplification or overexpression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of breast cancer. In recent years the protein has become an important biomarker and target of therapy for approx. 30% of breast cancer patients.[1]

Function[edit]

Gene[edit]

ERBB2, a known proto-oncogene, is located at the long arm of human chromosome 17 (17q12). HER2 is named because it has a similar structure to human epidermal growth factor receptor, or HER1. Neu is so named because it was derived from a rodent glioblastoma cell line, a type of neural tumor. ErbB-2 was named for its similarity to ErbB (avian erythroblastosis oncogene B), the oncogene later found to code for EGFR. Gene cloning showed that HER2, Neu, and ErbB-2 are all encoded by the same orthologs.[2]

Protein[edit]

The ErbB family is composed of four plasma membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases. All four contain an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain that can interact with a multitude of signaling molecules and exhibit both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent activity. HER2 can heterodimerise with any of the other three receptors and is considered to be the preferred dimerisation partner of the other ErbB receptors.[3] Dimerisation results in the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of the receptors and initiates a variety of signaling pathways. The other members of the family are epidermal growth factor receptor, erbB-3 (neuregulin-binding; lacks kinase domain), and erbB-4.

Signal transduction[edit]

Signaling pathways activated by HER2 include:[4]

In summary, signaling through the ErbB family of receptors promotes cell proliferation and opposes apoptosis, and therefore must be tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled cell growth from occurring.

HER2 and cancer[edit]

Amplification or over-expression of the ERBB2 gene occurs in approximately 15-30% of breast cancers.[1][5] It is strongly associated with increased disease recurrence and a poor prognosis.[6] Over-expression is also known to occur in ovarian, stomach, and aggressive forms of uterine cancer, such as uterine serous endometrial carcinoma.[7]

HER2 is co-localized, and, most of the time, co-amplified with the gene GRB7, which is a proto-oncogene associated with breast, testicular germ cell, gastric, and esophageal tumours.

HER2 proteins have been shown to form clusters in cell membranes that may play a role in tumorigenesis.[8][9]

Furthermore, diverse structural alterations have been identified that cause ligand-independent firing of this receptor, doing so in the absence of receptor over-expression. HER2 is found in a variety of tumors and some of these tumors carry point mutations in the sequence specifying the transmembrane domain of HER2. Substitution of a valine for a glutamic acid in the transmembrane domain can result in the constitutive dimerization of this protein in the absence of a ligand.

Drugs targeting HER2[edit]

HER2 is the target of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (marketed as Herceptin). Trastuzumab is effective only in cancers where HER2 is over-expressed. An important downstream effect of trastuzumab binding to HER2 is an increase in p27, a protein that halts cell proliferation.[10] Another monoclonal antibody, Pertuzumab, which inhibits dimerization of HER2 and HER3 receptors, was approved by the FDA for use in combination with trastuzumab in June 2012.

Additionally, NeuVax (Galena Biopharma) is a peptide-based immunotherapy that directs "killer" T cells to target and destroy cancer cells that express HER2. It has entered phase 3 clinical trials.

It has been found that patients with ER+ (Estrogen receptor positive)/HER2+ compared with ER-/HER2+ breast cancers may actually benefit more from drugs that inhibit the PI3K/AKT molecular pathway.[11]

Over-expression of HER2 can also be suppressed by the amplification of other genes. Research is currently being conducted to discover which genes may have this desired effect.

The expression of HER2 is regulated by signaling through estrogen receptors. Normally, estradiol and tamoxifen acting through the estrogen receptor down-regulate the expression of HER2. However, when the ratio of the coactivator AIB-3 exceeds that of the corepressor PAX2, the expression of HER2 is upregulated in the presence of tamoxifen, leading to tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.[12][13]

Recent evidence has implicated HER2 signaling in resistance to the EGFR-targeted cancer drug cetuximab.[14]

Her2 and Her3 distribution on a breast cell, (3D Dual Colour Super Resolution Microscopy SPDMphymod / LIMON,marked with Alexa 488 and 568)


HER2 testing[edit]

HER2 testing is performed in breast cancer patients to assess prognosis and to determine suitability for trastazumab therapy. It is important that trastazumab is restricted to HER2-positive individuals as it is expensive and has been associated with cardiac toxicity.[15] For HER2-negative tumours, the risks of trastazumab clearly outweigh the benefits.

HER2 testing on tumor[edit]

Tests are usually performed on biopsy samples obtained by either fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, or surgical excision. Immunohistochemistry is used to measure the amount of HER2 protein present in the sample. Alternatively, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) can be used to measure the number of copies of the gene which are present.

HER2 testing on serum[edit]

The extracellular domain of HER2 can be shed from the surface of tumour cells and enter the circulation. Measurement of serum HER2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) offers a far less invasive method of determining HER2 status than a biopsy and consequently has been extensively investigated. Results so far have suggested that changes in serum HER2 concentrations may be useful in predicting response to trastazumab therapy.[16] However, its ability to determine eligibility for trastazumab therapy is less clear.[17]

HER2 interactions[edit]

HER2/neu has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  10. ^ XF Le, Franz Pruefer, Robert Bast. (2005). "HER2-targeting antibodies modulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 via multiple signaling pathways". Cell Cycle 4 (1): 87–95. doi:10.4161/cc.4.1.1360. PMID 15611642. 
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  17. ^ Lennon S, Barton C, Banken L, Gianni L, Marty M, Baselga J, Leyland-Jones B (April 2009). "Utility of serum HER2 extracellular domain assessment in clinical decision making: pooled analysis of four trials of trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer". J. Clin. Oncol. 27 (10): 1685–93. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.16.8351. PMID 19255335. 
  18. ^ Schroeder JA, Adriance MC, McConnell EJ, Thompson MC, Pockaj B, Gendler SJ (2002). "ErbB-beta-catenin complexes are associated with human infiltrating ductal breast and murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt-1 and MMTV-c-Neu transgenic carcinomas". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (25): 22692–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201975200. PMID 11950845. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Ross JS, Fletcher JA, Linette GP, et al. (2003). "The Her-2/neu gene and protein in breast cancer 2003: biomarker and target of therapy". Oncologist 8 (4): 307–25. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.8-4-307. PMID 12897328. 
  • Zhou BP, Hung MC (2003). "Dysregulation of cellular signaling by HER2/neu in breast cancer". Semin. Oncol. 30 (5 Suppl 16): 38–48. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2003.08.006. PMID 14613025. 
  • Ménard S, Casalini P, Campiglio M, et al. (2005). "Role of HER2/neu in tumor progression and therapy". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (23): 2965–78. doi:10.1007/s00018-004-4277-7. PMID 15583858. 
  • Becker JC, Muller-Tidow C, Serve H, et al. (2006). "Role of receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer: new targets for a selective therapy". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (21): 3297–305. PMID 16733844. 
  • Laudadio J, Quigley DI, Tubbs R, Wolff DJ (2007). "HER2 testing: a review of detection methodologies and their clinical performance". Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 7 (1): 53–64. doi:10.1586/14737159.7.1.53. PMID 17187484. 
  • Bianchi F, Tagliabue E, Ménard S, Campiglio M (2007). "Fhit expression protects against HER2-driven breast tumor development: unraveling the molecular interconnections". Cell Cycle 6 (6): 643–6. doi:10.4161/cc.6.6.4033. PMID 17374991. 
  • Del Bimbo A., Meoni M., Pala P. (2010). "Accurate evaluation of HER-2 amplification in FISH images". Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST), 2010 IEEE International Conference on: 407–10. doi:10.1109/IST.2010.5548461. ISBN 978-1-4244-6492-0. 

External links[edit]