HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from HIStory)
Jump to: navigation, search
HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I
A image of a silver status that is wearing a military-like outfit and has its hair clipped behind its head. To the left of the statue the words "MICHAEL JACKSON" are written in white letters and underneath those two words are other words written in smaller white print. Behind the statue, a sky with clouds that are black and red can be seen.
Studio album / Greatest hits by Michael Jackson
Released June 16, 1995 (1995-06-16)
Recorded September 1994 – March 1995
Genre Pop, R&B, rock, hip hop
Length 71:39 (Disc 1)
77:06 (Disc 2)
148:45 (Total)
Label Epic, MJJ Productions
Producer Michael Jackson, Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis, Dallas Austin, Bruce Swedien, René Moore, David Foster, Bill Bottrell, R. Kelly
Michael Jackson chronology
Dangerous
(1991)
HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I
(1995)
Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix
(1997)
Singles from HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I
  1. "Scream/Childhood"
    Released: May 31, 1995
  2. "You Are Not Alone"
    Released: August 15, 1995
  3. "Earth Song"
    Released: November 27, 1995
  4. "This Time Around"
    Released: December 26, 1995
  5. "They Don't Care About Us"
    Released: March 31, 1996
  6. "Stranger in Moscow"
    Released: November 4, 1996
  7. "Smile"
    Released: January 20, 1997

HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I (usually shortened to HIStory) is the ninth studio album by American recording artist Michael Jackson. It was released on June 16, 1995 by Epic Records. This is Jackson's first album on his own label, MJJ Productions, and consists of two discs: the first disc (HIStory Begins) is a compilation of some of his greatest hits from 1979 forward, while the second disc (HIStory Continues) is composed entirely of new material. The majority of the second disc's tracks were written and produced by Jackson, often in conjunction with collaborators.

HIStory was the first album to be released by Jackson since he was accused of child sexual abuse in August 1993. The new material prepared for the album was recorded during late 1994 and early 1995, and several of the 15 new songs pertain to the accusations and Jackson's mistreatment in the media, specifically the tabloids. The songs' themes included environmental awareness, isolation, greed, and injustice.

HIStory is Jackson's most controversial album. Jackson was accused of using anti-Semitic lyrics in "They Don't Care About Us". Jackson stated that he did not mean any offense and on multiple occasions denied anti-Semitism. The dispute regarding the lyrics ended with Jackson re-recording them. R. Kelly was accused of plagiarizing one of the album's songs, "You Are Not Alone". In 2007 a judge ruled that the song was plagiarized and the song was subsequently banned from radio stations in Belgium.

Six singles and two promotional singles were released from HIStory: "Scream", "You Are Not Alone", "Earth Song", "This Time Around", "They Don't Care About Us" and "Stranger in Moscow". "This Time Around" was released as a radio-only single, and "Earth Song", "They Don't Care About Us" and "Stranger in Moscow" were less successful within the United States, but were successful internationally; all three peaked within the top ten in multiple countries.

The album was generally well received by music critics, although the first disc received more acclaim than the newly created material on the second. The album was also commercially successful, debuting and peaking at number one in many counties, including the United States, Canada, Australia, France and the United Kingdom, as well as charting within the top ten in Spain and Mexico. The album was certified six times platinum by the end of 1996 in Europe, making it the best selling album of the year in the combined European market.[1] The album was nominated for five Grammy Awards, winning one for Best Music Video – Short Form for "Scream". The greatest hits disc of the album was reissued as a single disc on November 13, 2001, under the name Greatest Hits: HIStory, Volume I and has reportedly sold four million copies worldwide as of early 2010.[2]

Background and production[edit]

HIStory is primarily directed at the tabloid press. Starting in the late 1980s, Jackson and the press had a difficult relationship. In 1986, the tabloids ran a story claiming that Jackson slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber, which Jackson claimed was not true.[3] It was reported that Jackson had offered to buy the bones of Joseph Merrick (the "elephant man"). Jackson described the story as "a complete lie".[3][4] These stories inspired the pejorative nickname "Wacko Jacko", which Jackson despised. He stopped leaking untruths to the press, so the media began making up their own stories.[5] In 1989, Jackson released the song and music video "Leave Me Alone", a song about his perceived victimization at the hands of the press.[6] The video shows Jackson poking fun not only at the press but also the situation he was in.[7]

In 1993, the relationship between Jackson and the press soured entirely when he was accused of child sexual abuse. Although he was not charged with a crime, Jackson was subject to intense media scrutiny while the criminal investigation took place. Complaints about the coverage and media included: using sensational headlines to draw in readers and viewers when the content itself did not support the headline;[8] accepting stories of Jackson's alleged criminal activity in return for money;[9] accepting confidential, leaked material from the police investigation in return for money paid;[10] deliberately using pictures of Jackson's appearance at its worst;[11] a lack of objectivity;[11] and using headlines that strongly implied Jackson's guilt.[11] In 1994, Jackson said of the media coverage, "I will say I am particularly upset by the handling of the matter by the incredible, terrible mass media. At every opportunity, the media has dissected and manipulated these allegations to reach their own conclusions."[12]

Jackson began taking painkillers, Valium, Xanax and Ativan to deal with the stress of the allegations.[13] A few months after the allegations became news, Jackson had stopped eating.[14] Soon after, Jackson's health had deteriorated to the extent that he cancelled the remainder of his tour and went into rehabilitation.[15][16] Jackson booked the whole fourth floor of a clinic and was put on Valium IV to wean him from painkillers.[15][16] When Jackson left the United States to go into rehabilitation, the media showed Jackson little sympathy. In 1993, The Daily Mirror held a "Spot the Jacko" contest, offering readers a trip to Disney World if they could correctly predict where Jackson would appear next.[15] The same year, a Daily Express headline read, "Drug Treatment Star Faces Life on the Run", while a News of the World headline accused Jackson of being a fugitive; these tabloids also falsely alleged that Jackson had travelled to Europe to have cosmetic surgery that would make him unrecognisable on his return.[15] In early November 1993, Geraldo Rivera set up a mock trial, with a jury made up of audience members, even though Jackson had not been charged with a crime.[17]

The new material on HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I was recorded from September 1994 to March 1995.[18] Jackson co-wrote and co-produced a majority of the songs featured on the album. Aside from Jackson, other writers include Dallas Austin, The Notorious B.I.G., Bruce Swedien, R. Kelly and René Moore and other producers include David Foster and Bill Bottrell.[18] HIStory was Jackson's first studio album since his 1991 album Dangerous four years prior, and his first new material to be released since being accused of child sexual abuse in 1994.[19] HIStory was released as a two-disc album; disc one (HIStory Begins) contains already released material from Jackson, and the second disc (HIStory Continues) comprises new material. HIStorys first disc had fifteen songs from Jackson's four previous studio albums, Off the Wall (1979), Thriller (1982), Bad (1987) and Dangerous (1991). Physically, the album was available on double gold CD, double cassette, and, due to the format's running time limitations, triple vinyl. Musically, HIStory's themes are credited as, R&B, pop, rock, dance, urban, new jack swing, funk, and hip-hop.[19] HIStory was released on June 16, 1995 by Sony Music's Epic Records.

Composition[edit]

Excerpt of the single "Scream". Both siblings vocals can be heard in the audio sample, with Janet Jackson's vocals first. Critics noted that it was hard to distinguish their voices apart.

Excerpt of the album track "D.S.". In the excerpt Jackson accuses "D.S." of being politically motivated, having a poor social life and a bad childhood upbringing. The song has a distinctive rock edge.

A sample of "Tabloid Junkie". The songs lyrics are about media biases and are aimed at listeners not to believe everything they read from the media and tabloids.

Unlike other songs lyrics on HIStory, the lyrics to "Earth Song" pertain to environmental concerns.

Problems playing these files? See media help.

HIStory, similar to Jackson's previous studio albums Thriller and Bad, contains lyrics that deal with paranoia. The majority of the new songs were written by Jackson. Several of the album's fifteen new songs pertain to the child sexual abuse allegations made against him in 1993[20] and Jackson's perceived mistreatment by the media, mainly the tabloids.[21] Because of this, the album has been described as being Jackson's most "personal".[22] Two of the album's new tracks were covers.[20] The genres of the album's music span R&B, pop, hard rock and ballads.[20][22][23] The lyrics pertain to isolation, greed, environmental concerns, injustice. "Scream" is a duet with Jackson's younger sister Janet; contemporary critics noted that it was difficult to distinguish their voices apart.[20] It was noted that the "refrain" of the song's lyrics "Stop pressurin' me!" is "compelling," and that Jackson "spits out the lyrics with drama and purpose".[20] "Scream"'s lyrics are about injustice.[22]

The lyrics for the R&B ballad "You Are Not Alone", written by R. Kelly, pertain to isolation.[22] Two Belgian songwriters, brothers Eddy and Danny Van Passel, claimed to have written the melody in 1993; In September 2007, a Belgian judge ruled the song was plagiarized from the Van Passel brothers, and it was subsequently banned from airwaves in Belgium.[24][25] "D.S." is a hard rock song, whose lyrics were interpreted by music critics as an attack on the district attorney of Jackson's child sexual abuse case, Thomas Sneddon.[20][23] Multiple critics reviewed the song in connection with Sneddon, Fox News Channel and CNN, noting that the "cold man" in the lyrics is Sneddon; when the name "Dom S. Sheldon" from the chorus is sung, it resembles "Thomas Sneddon".[26][27]

"Money" was interpreted as being directed at Evan Chandler, the father of the boy who accused Jackson of child sexual abuse.[20] The lyrics of "Childhood" pertain to Jackson's own childhood.[28] Similar to "Scream", the lyrics to "They Don't Care About Us" pertain to injustice, as well as racism. In "This Time Around", Jackson asserts himself as having been "falsely accused".[20] The song features The Notorious B.I.G. (aka Biggie Smalls) two years before his death in 1997. Jackson worked with Biggie again posthumously in 2001 on Jackson's following album, Invincible on the song "Unbreakable"; this made him the only rapper to appear on multiple Jackson LPs.[29] "Earth Song" was described as a "slow blues-operatic",[22] and its lyrics pertain to environmental concerns. On HIStory, Jackson covered Charlie Chaplin's "Smile" and The Beatles' "Come Together".[22] "Stranger in Moscow" is a pop ballad that is interspersed with sounds of rain.[20] Jackson described the lyrics as being a "swift and sudden fall from grace".[22] "Tabloid Junkie" is a hard funk song[30] with lyrics instructing listeners to not believe everything they read in the media and tabloids.[22][23] The album's title track, "HIStory" contained multiple samples, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.[31] "HIStory" was not released as a single from HIStory, but was from Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix in 1997.

As an introduction for "Little Susie", Michael used his own variation of Pie Jesu from Maurice Duruflé's Requiem. The inspiration behind the song more likely came from an artist called Gottfried Helnwein. Michael admired the artist's work and he had purchased some of his paintings. One of them, "Beautiful Victim", inspired the song. Helnwein is considered quite provocative as he paints about the human condition depicting wounded children, among others. Helnwein later painted a portrait of Michael.[32] There appears to be a similarity between the "Beautiful Victim" painting and the artwork included for the song in HIStory.[32]

Controversy and influence[edit]

Dispute regarding lyrics of "They Don't Care About Us"[edit]

One of many identical statues (pictured June 3, 2005, in the Netherlands), that Sony positioned throughout Europe to promote HIStory.

The possibility that the lyrics to "They Don't Care About Us" contained antisemitism was first raised publicly by The New York Times on June 15, 1995, one day before the album's release. The publication highlighted the lyrics, "Jew me, sue me, everybody do me/ Kick me, kike me, don't you black or white me" and labeled them "slurs".[33] Jackson responded directly to the publication, stating:

The idea that these lyrics could be deemed objectionable is extremely hurtful to me, and misleading. The song in fact is about the pain of prejudice and hate and is a way to draw attention to social and political problems. I am the voice of the accused and the attacked. I am the voice of everyone. I am the skinhead, I am the Jew, I am the black man, I am the white man. I am not the one who was attacking. It is about the injustices to young people and how the system can wrongfully accuse them. I am angry and outraged that I could be so misinterpreted.[33]

When questioned further about the lyrics, Jackson denied that "They Don't Care About Us" was antisemitic, commenting "It's not anti-Semitic because I'm not a racist person ... I could never be a racist. I love all races."[33] That same day, Jackson received support from his manager and record label, who described the lyrics as "brilliant", that they were about opposition to prejudice and taken out of context.[33] The following day, David A. Lehrer and Rabbi Marvin Hier, leaders of two Jewish organizations, stated that Jackson's attempt to make a song critical of discrimination had backfired. They expressed the opinion that the lyrics used were unsuitable for young audiences because they might not understand the song's context and that the song was ambiguous for some of the listeners. They acknowledged that Jackson meant well and suggested that he write an explanation in the album booklet.[34]

On June 17, Jackson issued another public apology to anyone offended by his choice of words and promised that future copies of the album would include an apology, Jackson concluded, "I just want you all to know how strongly I am committed to tolerance, peace and love, and I apologize to anyone who might have been hurt".[35] The next day, in his review of HIStory, Jon Pareles of The New York Times alleged, "In ... 'They Don't Care About Us', he gives the lie to his entire catalogue of brotherhood anthems with a burst of anti-Semitism: 'Jew me, sue me, everybody do me/ Kick me, kike me, don't you black or white me'".[36]

On June 23, Jackson decided, despite the cost incurred, he would return to the studio and alter the offending wording on future copies of the album; "Jew me" and "Kike me" would be substituted with "do me" and "strike me".[37] He reiterated his acceptance that the song was offensive to some.[37][38] Spike Lee, who would direct the music videos for "They Don't Care About Us", stated that he felt there was a double standard in the music industry, commenting that the use of the word nigger, in music, does not cause controversy.[39] Additionally, rapper Notorious B.I.G., used the word nigga on another song on the HIStory album, "This Time Around", but it did not attract media attention.[39] Jackson also said the word "shit" in that song as well as the word "ass" in "D.S." but it did not cause much attention either compared to the alleged anti-Semitic words in "They Don't Care About Us" as well as the use of the word "fuck" in "Scream."[citation needed]

Music videos[edit]

HIStory's music videos displayed different themes and elements. Certain music videos, such as "They Don't Care About Us", helped bring awareness of poverty and had positive effects on the locations. "They Don't Care About Us"'s music video was directed by Spike Lee, Jackson said that Lee chose to direct the video because the song "has an edge, and Spike Lee had approached me. It's a public awareness song and that's what he is all about. It's a protest kind of song ... and I think he was perfect for it".[40] Jackson also collaborated with 200 members of the cultural group Olodum, who played music in the video.[41] The media interest surrounding the music video exposed Olodum to 140 countries around the world. It brought them worldwide fame and increased their credibility in Brazil.[42] Lúcia Nagib, of The New Brazilian Cinema, said of the music video:

When Michael Jackson decided to shoot his new music video in a favela of Rio de Janeiro ... he used the favela people as extras in a visual super-spectacle ... All the while there is a vaguely political appeal in there ... The interesting aspect of Michael Jackson's strategy is the efficiency with which it gives visibility to poverty and social problems in countries like Brazil without resorting to traditional political discourse. The problematic aspect is that it does not entail a real intervention in that poverty.[43]

In 2009, Billboard described the area as "now a model for social development" and stated that Jackson's influence was partially responsible for this improvement.[44] For the first time in Jackson's career, he made a second music video for a single.[45] This second version was filmed in a prison with cell mates; the video shows Jackson handcuffed and contains real footage of police attacking African Americans, the Ku Klux Klan, genocide, execution, and other human rights abuses.[45] Jackson's music video for "Earth Song" received praise for its environmental recognition. In 1995, the video received a Genesis Award for Doris Day Music Award, given each year for animal sensitivity.[46] In 2008, a writer for the Nigeria Exchange noted, "'Earth Song' drew the world's attention to the degradation and bastardization of the earth as a fall out of various human activities".[47]

Two other music videos from HIStory have been influential. Jackson's "Stranger In Moscow" music video influenced the advertising campaign for International Cricket Council Champions Trophy 2004, which featured "a series of smart outdoor ads and a classy TV spot".[48] The television commercial was inspired by "Stranger In Moscow"s video where "the maiden in black splash about in the rain, with kids playing cricket for company".[48] "Scream" was a creative influence on other music videos such as the 1999 release of the award winning "No Scrubs" by TLC.[49] This influence was also present on the 2008 release of "Shawty Get Loose" by Lil Mama and Chris Brown.[50] Reacting to the comparisons made between the videos, Mama explained, "I feel honored, because that was one of the initial goals, and I feel that it was executed well", she added that the emulation was intentional and that Brown was the only logical choice to step into Michael Jackson's role.[50]

Promotion[edit]

Sony Music spent $30 million to promote the album.[51] Prior to the album's release, the music press were anticipating how well it would sell. One analyst for SoundScan expressed the opinion that the press were out of touch with the public when it came to Jackson; the public liked him, while the press did not.[52] He believed that "naysayers" in the media would be left surprised with the commercial reception to the HIStory campaign.[52] "Smile", "This Time Around" and "D.S." were released as promotional singles in 1995 and December 1997. Due to lack of radio airplay, "Smile" and "D.S." did not chart on any music charts worldwide. "This Time Around", was released as radio-only single in the United States in December 1995. The song peaked at number twenty-three on the Billboard Hot R&B Singles chart and at number eighteen on the Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart solely off radio airplay.[53]

To promote the album, Jackson embarked on the commercially successful world concert tour, titled HIStory World Tour. The HIStory World Tour was Jackson's third, and last, concert tour as a solo artist. The HIStory World Tour, beginning in Prague, Czech Republic on September 7, 1996, attracted more than 4.5 million fans from 58 cities in 35 countries around the world. The average concert attendance was 54,878 and the tour lasted 82 tour dates. Jackson did not perform any concerts in the United States, besides two concerts in January 1997 in Hawaii.[54] VIP seats cost, on average, $200 per person.[54] Each concert lasted an estimated two hours and ten minutes.[54] The HIStory World Tour concluded in Durban, South Africa on October 15, 1997.[55][56]

Singles[edit]

A image of a person with pale skin dangling by their hands from a crane. The person is wearing a whit shirt and black pants and footwear. A black background can be seen behind the person.
Jackson performing "Earth Song" on June 20, 1997, in Lausanne during the HIStory World Tour. During the performance Jackson was dangled from the edge of a crane.

Five singles were released from HIStory. "Scream/Childhood", released as a double A-side, was the first single released from HIStory in May 1995. "Scream" was sung and performed by Jackson and his sister Janet Jackson. The single had the best ever debut at number five - where it peaked, on the Billboard Hot 100.[57] The song received a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Collaboration With Vocals".[57][58] The music video for "Scream" is one of Jackson's most critically acclaimed songs and music videos, receiving numerous awards. With a US$9 million music video production budget, "Scream" is the most expensive music video ever made as of 2010.[59]

"You Are Not Alone" was the second single released from HIStory. Having debuted at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 on September 2, 1995,[60] it would become the first song ever to debut at number one on the chart, succeeding the record previously held from Jackson's "Scream" single.[57] "You Are Not Alone" was released in August 1995, and it topped the charts in various international markets, including the United Kingdom,[29] France, and Spain.[61] The song was seen as a major artistic and commercial success.[58]

"Earth Song" was the third single released in November 1995. "Earth Song" did not chart on Billboard 100. Internationally, the song topped four countries' charts, as well as charting within the top-ten in nine other nations.[62] The song topped the UK Singles Chart for six weeks over Christmas in 1995 and sold one million copies there, making it his most successful United Kingdom single, surpassing the success of his single "Billie Jean".[58]

"They Don't Care About Us" was the fourth single. "They Don't Care About Us" peaked at number thirty on the Billboard 100, and it charted within the top-ten of Billboard's Hot Dance Music and Hot R&B Singles Charts.[53] The song charted better in international countries, compared to the United States, managing to chart within the top-ten in fourteen countries. "They Don't Care About Us" topped the German Singles chart for three weeks,[63] while peaking at number two in Spain, number three in Austria, Sweden, and Switzerland, as well as charting at number four in France, the united kingdom and the Netherlands.[64]

"Stranger in Moscow" was released as the fifth and final single in November 1996. The song was well received by critics. In the United States, the song peaked at number ninety one on the Billboard Hot 100.[65] Outside of the United States, the song was a success, topping in Spain and Italy, while peaking within the top-ten in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and New Zealand, among others.[66][67]

Release and reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic 3/5 stars[19]
Rolling Stone 4/5 stars[22]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide 3/5 stars[68]
Robert Christgau (2-star Honorable Mention)[69]
Entertainment Weekly (B)[23]
Michigan Chronicle (favorable)[70]
New York Daily News mixed[21]
Q 3/5 stars[71]
The Daily Collegian (favorable)[72]
The Seattle Times mixed[20]

HIStory received generally positive reviews, although several reviewers specified that their overall positive review for the album was based on the strength of the previously released material, not the newly recorded tracks. Arguably[vague] Jackson's most angry, raw, emotional album, the new tracks on HIStory revealed a musician worn, torn and possibly paranoid by years of superstardom, now reportedly reacting against people who tried to bring him down. This reaction is what some people say ultimately stunted his previous skill at creating cutting edge musical trends,[73] with Jon Pareles of The New York Times writing that "It has been a long time since Michael Jackson was simply a performer. He's the main asset of his own corporation, which is a profitable subsidiary of Sony".[73] Some reviewers commented on the unusual format of a new studio album being accompanied by a "greatest hits" collection, with Q magazine saying "from the new songs' point of view, it's like taking your dad with you into a fight."[71] Fred Shuster of the Daily News of Los Angeles described "This Time Around", "Money" and "D.S." as "superb slices of organic funk that will fuel many of the summer's busiest dance floors".[74]

James Hunter of Rolling Stone gave HIStory four-out-of-five stars and noted that it "unfolds in Jackson's outraged response to everything he has encountered in the last year or so. It makes for an odd, charmless second chapter to a first that includes miraculous recordings like 'Billie Jean,' 'The Way You Make Me Feel,' 'Black or White' and 'Beat It.'[22] In relation to "This Time Around", Hunter described it as a "dynamite jam" that's "ripe for remixes" and described "Scream" and "Tabloid Junkie," as being "adventurous" while noting that "Earth Song" as a "noble sentiments" that sounds "primarily like a showpiece".[22] Jim Farber of the New York Daily News gave the album a generally mixed review and commented that he would give the album's first disc three stars if it was released on its own.[21] Jon Pareles of The New York Times believed that Jackson "muttered" lyrics such as "They thought they really had control of me".[73] Chris Willman of the Los Angeles Times said of "This Time Around", "a tough, rhythm-guitar-driven track co-written and co-produced by hit-maker Dallas Austin that sports one of the album's better grooves".[75]

Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic gave HIStory three-out-of-five stars, but commented that it was a "monumental achievement" of Jackson's ego.[19] Erlewine remarked that on the HIStory Begins CD, it contains "some of the greatest music in pop history" but that it leaves some hits out, citing "Say Say Say" and "Dirty Diana" — commenting that "yet it's filled with enough prime material to be thoroughly intoxicating".[19] Erlewine noted that HIStory Continues is "easily the most personal album Jackson has recorded" and that its songs' lyrics referencing the molestation accusations create a "thick atmosphere of paranoia".[19] He cited "You Are Not Alone" and "Scream" as being "well-crafted pop that ranks with his best material", but concludes that "nevertheless, HIStory Continues stands as his weakest album since the mid-'70s."[19] David Browne of Entertainment Weekly, gave "HIStory Begins" an "A-" grade but the album's new material a "C-", which "winds up a B" for the entire album.[23] Browne commented that the music "rarely seems to transport him (and thereby us) to a higher plane."[23] The album was nominated for five Grammy Awards at the 1996 and 1997 ceremonies respectively, winning one award. "You Are Not Alone" was nominated for Best Pop Vocal Performance – Male, "Scream" was nominated for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals and "Scream" won Best Music Video - Short Form and "Earth Song" was nominated for the same award the following year. The album itself was nominated for Album of the Year. At the 1995 MTV Video Music Awards, "Scream" received ten nominations, winning in three categories.[76]

HIStory debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts selling over 391,000 copies in its first week.[77][78] The album was certified seven times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America on October 22, 1999 in recognition of 3.5 million shipments in the United States.[79] Multi-disc albums are counted once for each disc within the album. Because HIStory is double disc album, its CDs are therefore counted separately for certification purposes, meaning the album achieved platinum status in the United States after 500,000 copies were shipped, not one million. In Europe, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry certified HIStory six times platinum, denoting six million shipments within the continent, including 1.5 million in Germany and 1.2 million shipments in the United Kingdom.[80] As of 2010, HIStory has sold 25 million copies (50 million units) worldwide[81] and is the best selling multiple-disc release, making it one of the best-selling albums of all time.[82]

Track listing[edit]

Disc 1: HIStory Begins/Greatest Hits: HIStory, Volume I
No. Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Length
1. "Billie Jean"   Michael Jackson
4:54
2. "The Way You Make Me Feel"   M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
4:57
3. "Black or White"  
  • M. Jackson
  • Bottrell
4:15
4. "Rock with You"   Rod Temperton Jones 3:39
5. "She's Out of My Life"   Tom Bahler Jones 3:37
6. "Bad"   M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
4:07
7. "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" (duet with Siedah Garrett) M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
4:11
8. "Man in the Mirror"  
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
5:18
9. "Thriller"   Temperton Jones 5:57
10. "Beat It"   M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
4:18
11. "The Girl Is Mine" (duet with Paul McCartney) M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
3:41
12. "Remember the Time"  
  • Teddy Riley
  • M. Jackson
3:59
13. "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough"   M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
6:04
14. "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'"   M. Jackson
  • Jones
  • M. Jackson (co.)
6:02
15. "Heal the World"   M. Jackson
6:24
Disc 2: HIStory Continues
No. Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Length
1. "Scream" (duet with Janet Jackson)
4:38
2. "They Don't Care About Us"   M. Jackson M. Jackson 4:44
3. "Stranger in Moscow"   M. Jackson M. Jackson 5:43
4. "This Time Around" (featuring The Notorious B.I.G.)
  • Austin
  • Jackson
  • Swedien (co.)
  • Rene (co.)
4:20
5. "Earth Song"   M. Jackson
6:46
6. "D.S."   M. Jackson M. Jackson 4:50
7. "Money"   M. Jackson M. Jackson 4:41
8. "Come Together"  
  • M. Jackson
  • Bottrell
4:02
9. "You Are Not Alone"   R. Kelly
  • Kelly
  • M. Jackson
5:45
10. "Childhood" (Theme from Free Willy 2) M. Jackson
  • M. Jackson
  • Foster
4:28
11. "Tabloid Junkie"  
  • M. Jackson
  • Harris III
  • Lewis
  • M. Jackson
  • Jimmy Jam
  • Lewis
4:32
12. "2 Bad"  
  • M. Jackson
  • Swedien
  • Rene
  • Austin
  • M. Jackson
  • Jimmy Jam
  • Lewis
  • Swedien
  • Rene
4:49
13. "HIStory"  
  • M. Jackson
  • Harris III
  • Lewis
  • M. Jackson
  • Jimmy Jam
  • Lewis
6:37
14. "Little Susie"   M. Jackson M. Jackson 6:13
15. "Smile" (a tribute to Charlie Chaplin taken from the stage version of "Smile")
  • Foster
  • M. Jackson
4:56
Notes

Album credits[edit]

Charts and certifications[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IFPI Platinum Europe Awards". IFPI (IFPI website). 1996-06-21. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  2. ^ Chery, Carl: XXL: Michael Jackson Special Collector's Edition, p. 100. American Press.
  3. ^ a b Ken Tucker (2009-06-25). "Beyond the Pale". EW.com. Time Warner Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  4. ^ Taraborrelli, p. 355–361
  5. ^ Taraborrelli, p. 370–373
  6. ^ Taraborrelli, p. 365
  7. ^ Taraborrelli, p. 413
  8. ^ Campbell (1995), p. 42–45
  9. ^ Campbell (1995), p. 77–80
  10. ^ Campbell (1995), p. 47–50
  11. ^ a b c Taraborrelli, p. 500–507
  12. ^ "Michael Jackson speaks: 'I am totally innocent of any wrongdoing.'". Jet. January 10, 1994. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  13. ^ Taraborrelli, p. 518–520
  14. ^ Taraborrelli, p. 514–516
  15. ^ a b c d Campbell (1995), p. 89–93
  16. ^ a b Taraborrelli, p. 524–528
  17. ^ Campbell (1995), p. 104–106
  18. ^ a b c HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I liner notes Epic Records (1995).
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-02-01. [dead link]
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Patrick Macdonald (1995-06-21). "'History' Lesson: Jackson's Living On Past Glories". The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  21. ^ a b c Jim Farber (1995-06-19). "HIS-SY FIT". New York Daily News (Mortimer Zuckerman). Retrieved 2010-02-02. [dead link]
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k James Hunter (1995-08-10). "Michael Jackson HIStory". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f David Browne (1995-06-23). "HIStory: Past, Present, and Future Book I (1992)". Entertainment Weekly. Time Warner, Inc. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  24. ^ Friedman, Roger (2007-10-11). "Britney Spears' 'Blackout' Hits Internet". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  25. ^ "R Kelly 'copied Belgian song'". The Independent. 2007-09-12. 
  26. ^ "Michael Jackson sings of D.A. on previous album". CNN (Time Warner Inc). 2003-11-20. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  27. ^ Friedman, Roger (2003-11-03). "Jacko Song About D.A. May Haunt Him". Fox News Channel (News Corporation). Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  28. ^ Pratt, p. 792
  29. ^ a b George, p. 48
  30. ^ Wright, Rickey (June 18, 1995). "Jackson's Self-Glorifying Double CD History Certainly Is No Thriller". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 12, 2010. "The hard-funk workout of Tabloid Junkie features some good production ideas that suggest Jackson could mastermind one more chart comeback for James Brown" 
  31. ^ Jackson, Michael. HIStory booklet. Sony BMG. p 50
  32. ^ a b "Helnwein’s Artwork – Beautiful Victim". 2010-01-31. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  33. ^ a b c d Bernard Weinraub (1995-06-15). "In New Lyrics, Jackson Uses Slurs". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  34. ^ "Jewish Response to Jackson". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). 1995-06-16. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  35. ^ Dinitia Smith (1995-06-17). "Michael Jackson Apologizes For Hurt Caused by Lyrics". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  36. ^ Pareles, Jon (1995-06-18). "Pop View; Michael Jackson Is Angry, Understand?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  37. ^ a b Chris Riemenschneider (1995-06-23). "Jackson Will Re-Record `Care' Lyrics Pop music: Michael Jackson apologizes and says he plans to change the words in `They Don't Care About Us' that some considered to be racial slurs.". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). 
  38. ^ Dinitia Smith (1995-06-23). "Jackson Plans New Lyrics For Album". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  39. ^ a b Lee, Spike (2002). Spike Lee: Interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 151–152. ISBN 1-57806-470-8. 
  40. ^ Grant, Adrian (1998). Michael Jackson : Making History. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-6723-7. 
  41. ^ Dunn, Christoper (2001). Brutality Garden. UNC Press. p. 207. ISBN 0-8078-4976-6. 
  42. ^ Crock, Larry (2005). Brazilian Music. ABC-CLIO. p. 296. ISBN 1-57607-287-8. 
  43. ^ Nagib, Lúcia (2003). The New Brazilian Cinema. I.B. Tauris. p. 123. ISBN 1-86064-928-9. 
  44. ^ Leila Cobo (2009-07-11). "We Are the World: Brazil". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved 2011-07-07. 
  45. ^ a b "First look at Michael Jackson's new music video on Entertainment Tonight". (March 29, 1996). PR Newswire.
  46. ^ George, p. 48–50
  47. ^ Ifedigbo Sylva (2008-10-27). "Scammers New Anthem; "Mugu Don Pay!!!". Nigeria Exchange. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  48. ^ a b "Extra oomph on field". The Telegraph. 2004-09-03. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  49. ^ Hip Hop Divas, Vibe Magazine Staff, Three Rivers Press, 2001, ISBN 0-609-80836-2, p. 224
  50. ^ a b Shaheem Reid (2008-01-23). "Lil Mama Reflects On Her Journey 'From The 'Hood To The Stage' Of Madison Square Garden". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  51. ^ "Yahoo! Movies biography". Yahoo. Yahoo Inc. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  52. ^ a b Farley, Christopher (June 19, 1995). "History and hubris". Time. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  53. ^ a b "allmusic (((Michael Jackson > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  54. ^ a b c Nisid Hajarl (1996-09-20). "The King of Pap". Entertainment Weekly. Time Warner Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  55. ^ Grant, p. 188
  56. ^ Grant, p. 202
  57. ^ a b c Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2004). The Magic and the Madness. Headline. ISBN 0-330-42005-4. 
  58. ^ a b c Michael Jackson, The Ultimate Collection booklet.
  59. ^ Glenday, Craig (2005). Guinness World Records 2006. Guinness. ISBN 1-904994-02-4. 
  60. ^ "Week of September 02, 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  61. ^ "Michael Jackson - You Are Not Alone". LesCharts.com (in French). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  62. ^ "M. Jackson - Earth Song (nummer)". Ultratop (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  63. ^ "Artist Chart History - 'They Don't Care About Us' Michael Jackson". Musicline.de (in German). Musicline /Media Control. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  64. ^ "M. Jackson - They Don't Care About Us (Nummer)". Ultratop (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  65. ^ "Artist Chart History - Michael Jackson". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  66. ^ Bruno Marzi (2009). Michael Jackson in Italy. Pieroni Distribuzioni, S.r.l. pp. 106–112. ISSN 1594-0500, 9771594050016. 
  67. ^ "M. Jackson - Stranger In Moscow (nummer)". Ultratop (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  68. ^ "Michael Jackson", Rolling Stone.
  69. ^ Christgau, Robert. "Michael Jackson Albums Review". Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  70. ^ Hosley, Steve (1995-07-04). "HISTORY is an impressive one". Michigan Chronicle. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  71. ^ a b "Album Review: HIStory" Q Magazine". Bauer Media Group. June 1995. Retrieved on February 1, 2010.
  72. ^ Reddy, Deepika (1995-06-23). "Jackson's latest lives up to his character". The Daily Collegian. Retrieved 2010-02-02. [dead link]
  73. ^ a b c Jon Pareles (1995-06-18). "POP VIEW; Michael Jackson Is Angry, Understand?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  74. ^ Shuster, Fred (1995-06-18). "Jackson attempts to rewrite 'history'". Daily News of Los Angeles (MediaNews Group). 
  75. ^ Chris Willman (1995-06-18). "POP REVIEW Hits and Missives Michael Jackson takes off the glove and rails at attackers with new songs that take the King of Pop from `Bad' to sad-very sad.". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  76. ^ "MTV VIDEO MUSIC AWARDS". MTV. Viacom. 1995. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  77. ^ "Jackson's 'Invincible' To Debut At No. 1". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 2001-11-07. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  78. ^ a b c d "allmusic ((( Michael Jackson > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  79. ^ a b "RIAA – Searchable Database". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  80. ^ Carl Bialik (2009-07-15). "Spun: The Off-the-Wall Accounting of Record Sales". Online.WSJ.com (Dow Jones & Company, Inc). Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  81. ^ Access Hollywood (November 2, 2006). "The return of the King of Pop". MSNBC. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  82. ^ Atkins, Carla (2010-02-17). Michael Jackson King of Pop an American Legend: Activity Book. AuthorHouse. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "HIStory". Ultratop (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  84. ^ "CD - TOP 10 Semanal De 06 a 12 de Julho de 2009." (in Spanish). Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  85. ^ "Hits of the World". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 107 (35): 61. 1995-09-02. Retrieved 2011-10-13. 
  86. ^ "French Albums Charts Archive (from 1968 to 2007)". InfoDisc. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  87. ^ "ALBUM - I NUMERI UNO (1995–2006)". IT-Charts. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  88. ^ Fernando Salaverri (2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002. Fundación Autor-SGAE, 2005. ISBN 9788480486392. 
  89. ^ "Scheweizer HitParade - Alben Top 100 25.06.1995". HitParadae.ch (in Swiss). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  90. ^ "Michael Jackson - History - Past, Present And Future Book 1". The Official Charts Company. The Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 2006-11-12. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  91. ^ "Argentinian certification" (in Spanish). Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  92. ^ "ARIA Charts — Accreditations". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  93. ^ "Gold and Platin (search)" (in German). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  94. ^ "Certificados" (in Portuguese). Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  95. ^ "CRIA: Certification results-History". Canadian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2012-02-22. 
  96. ^ "Album Top 40". hitlist.nu. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  97. ^ "IFPI Platinum Europe Awards". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  98. ^ "Finnish certification" (in Finnish). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  99. ^ "French certification" (in French). Syndicat national de l'édition phonographique. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
  100. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank ('HIStory - Past, Present And Future')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  101. ^ "Michael Jackson Award". Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  102. ^ "Italian album certifications" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry.  Select Album e Compilation in the field Scegli la sezione. Select Week -- and Year ----. Click Avvia la ricerca
  103. ^ "Michael Jackson History Mexico Promo award disc (272562)". Eil.com. 2004-03-30. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  104. ^ "Dutch certification (search)" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  105. ^ "Gold / Platinum Albums". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  106. ^ "Norwegian certification (search)" (in Norwegian). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  107. ^ "Platynowe płyty" (in Polish). Oficjalna Lista Sprzedaży. Archived from the original on 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  108. ^ "Top 100 Albums: Semana 32: del 03.08.2009 al 09.08.2009" (in Spanish). Productores de Música de España. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  109. ^ "Michael Jackson - HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I" (in Swedish). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  110. ^ "Edelmentall 1996". HitParade.com (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  111. ^ "British certification". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
Bibliography