HK 4.6×30mm

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4.6×30mm
4.6x30mm, 5.7x28mm, .30 M1 Carbine.jpg
From left to right: 4.6×30mm (Hollow Point), 5.7×28mm, .30 Carbine.
Type Personal defense weapon
Place of origin  Germany
Service history
In service 2001–present
Used by See Heckler & Koch MP7 Users
Wars Afghanistan War[1]
Production history
Manufacturer Heckler & Koch
Variants See Variations
Specifications
Case type Rimless, bottleneck
Bullet diameter 4.65 mm (0.183 in)
Neck diameter 5.31 mm (0.209 in)
Shoulder diameter 7.75 mm (0.305 in)
Base diameter 8.02 mm (0.316 in)
Rim diameter 8.00 mm (0.315 in)
Rim thickness 1.10 mm (0.043 in)
Case length 30.50 mm (1.201 in)
Overall length 38.50 mm (1.516 in)
Rifling twist 160 mm (1 in 6.3 in)
Primer type Boxer Small Rifle[2]
Maximum pressure 400.00 MPa (58,015 psi)
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
1.7 g (26 gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (Combat Steel) 725 m/s (2,380 ft/s) 447 J (330 ft·lbf)
2.0 g (31 gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (DM11, Ultimate Combat) 720.0 m/s (2,362 ft/s) 506 J (373 ft·lbf)
2.0 g (31 gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (DM31) 680 m/s (2,200 ft/s) 505 J (372 ft·lbf)
2.7 g (42 gr) FMJ (Full Metal Jacket) 600 m/s (2,000 ft/s) 544 J (401 ft·lbf)
2.0 g (31 gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (CPS Black Tip) 735 m/s (2,410 ft/s) 525 J (387 ft·lbf)
Test barrel length: 180 mm
Source(s): HK USA[3] HKPro[4] RUAG Ammotec[5] HK USA[6] Modern Firearms, Pistol / SMG ammunation[7] Heckler & Koch Products[8]

The HK 4.6×30mm cartridge is a type of ammunition used in the Heckler & Koch MP7 Personal Defense Weapon (PDW) and by the canceled HK UCP pistol. It is an indigenous German cartridge. It is designed to minimize weight and recoil while increasing penetration of body armor. It features a bottlenecked case and a pointed, steel-core, brass-jacketed bullet.

Development[edit]

The 4.6×30mm cartridge was introduced in 1999.[9] It was designed as a competitor to FN Herstal's 5.7×28mm cartridge.[9]

Overview[edit]

Compared to conventional assault rifle cartridges one can carry more 4.6×30mm ammunition due to the lighter weight and relative small dimensions of the cartridge. Also, due to the lighter weight of the bullet, aiming in rapid fire is much easier as recoil depends much on the weight of the bullet. CRISAT testing shows that because of the smaller diameter and high projectile velocity of the round, body armor penetration is higher than that of traditional handgun projectiles.

The 4.6×30mm cartridge has been claimed to have low terminal effectiveness, especially by those who disagree with the "energy dump" theory of wound ballistics, such as Dr. Martin Fackler.[citation needed] Kinetic energy manifests itself in human tissue in temporary stretching of tissue, which most tissue except for liver and neural tissue is able to withstand with little ill effect. Slow motion videos show that the 4.6 mm bullet yaws at impact on soft tissue. This is because the center of mass of the bullet is behind the geometric center, causing the back to come forward at impact, and therefore tumbling through soft tissue, creating much greater damage, according to the "energy dump" theory.

Testing done by HKPro in 2000 indicated that the 4.6×30mm cartridge penetrated deeper in 20% ballistic gelatin and transferred slightly more energy than the 5.7×28mm cartridge fired from the FN P90.[4] However, a more recent series of tests performed by NATO in the United Kingdom and France indicated that 5.7×28mm was the superior cartridge.[9] The results of the NATO tests were analyzed by a group formed of experts from France, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom and the group's conclusion was that the 5.7×28mm was "undoubtedly" the more efficient cartridge.[9]

Among other points, the NATO group cited superior effectiveness (27% greater) for the 5.7×28mm against unprotected targets and equal effectiveness against protected targets.[9] It also cited less sensitivity to extreme temperatures for the 5.7×28mm and cited a greater potential risk of barrel erosion with the 4.6×30mm.[9] In addition, the group pointed out that 5.7×28mm is close to the 5.56×45mm NATO by its design and manufacture process, allowing it to be manufactured on existing production lines.[9] The group also pointed out that 5.7×28mm weapons are more mature than 4.6×30mm weapons, and the 5.7×28mm FN Five-seven pistol was already in production at that time, while the 4.6×30mm Heckler & Koch UCP pistol was still only an early concept.[9] However, the German delegation and others rejected the NATO recommendation that 5.7×28mm be standardized, and as a result, the standardization process was indefinitely halted.[1][9]

Cartridge dimensions[edit]

The 4.6×30mm has 0.87 ml (13.4 grains) H2O cartridge case capacity.

4,6 x 30.jpg

4.6×30mm maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).[10]

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 22 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 160 mm (1 in 6.3 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands = 4.52 mm, Ø grooves = 4.65 mm, land width = 1.21 mm and the primer type is small rifle.[2]

According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) guidelines, the 4.6×30mm case can handle up to 400 MPa (58,015 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every pistol cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.

The Belgian 5.7×28mm cartridge introduced in 1993 is probably the closest currently available ballistic twin of the 4.6×30mm.

Variations[edit]

2 g DM11 Penetrator Ultimate Combat[edit]

The German Army version of the 4.6×30mm cartridge (DM11 Penetrator) weighs 6.5 g and uses a 2 g copper plated steel bullet projectile at 720 m/s (2,362 ft/s) muzzle velocity. The DM11 Penetrator cartridge is designed for the MP7. The Ultimate Combat can penetrate the NATO CRISAT target at more than 300 meters.[4] This ammunition should combine energy transfer in soft targets and very good penetration.[11] The muzzle velocity V0 and V100 indicate a G1 ballistic coefficient of approximately 0.141 to 0.150 (BC's are somewhat debatable) making the DM11 projectile aerodynamically more efficient compared to typical service handgun projectiles, but less efficient compared to typical assault rifle projectiles. At the stated effective range of 200 m the DM11 projectile will be travelling at approximately Mach 1.25 (425 m/s) under ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3).

DM11 cartridge technical data:[11][dead link]

  • Temperature range: between -54°C and +52°C
  • Velocity/energy at 0 m: minimum 720 m/s (2,362 ft/s) / 506 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 100 m: 545 m/s / 297 Joule
    • Velocity/energy at 100 m (with 240 mm barrel): 625 m/s (2050 ft/s)  / 365 Joule (270 ft·lbf), with CRISAT target after 100 m: 504 m/s (1676 ft/s)  / 224 Joule (182 ft·lbf)
    • Velocity 100 m (behind CRISAT target): 432 m/s (1417 ft/s)
    • Energy at 100 m (behind CRISAT target): 186 J (138 ft·lbf)[4]
  • Ballistic coefficient C 1: 0.141 - 0.150 (ICAO)/(Army Metro)
  • Mean chamber pressure: max. 400 MPa
  • Penetration at 50 m: mild steel plate 9 mm thickness
  • Penetration at 200 m: CRISAT NATO target (1.6 mm titanium plate + 20 layers of Kevlar)
  • Penetration in gelatine bare at 25: < 35 cm
  • Accuracy at 100 m: Ø 5 cm[3]
  • Effective range: 200 m (656 ft)[12]
  • NATO CRISAT Armour penetration: +300 m (984 ft)[4]

2 g Action Law Enforcement Hollow Point[edit]

The Action 4.6×30mm Law Enforcement cartridge weighs 6.5 g and is loaded with a 2 g CuZn-alloy (brass) Solid Hollow Point projectile that achieves 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s) muzzle velocity. The cartridge is designed for the MP7. This ammunition is optimized for energy transfer in soft targets and should offer decent penetration performance on hard and combined targets like car doors or glass and body armour.[13] The muzzle velocity V0 and V50 indicate a G1 ballistic coefficient of approximately 0.112 to 0.119 (BC's are somewhat debatable). At the stated effective range of 200 m the 2 g Action projectile will be travelling at approximately Mach 1.67 (586 m/s) under ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3).

Action Law Enforcement cartridge technical data:[14][dead link]

  • Temperature range: -30°C to + 52°C
  • Velocity/energy at 0 m: 700 m/s /480 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 50 m: 568 m/s / 322 Joule
  • Ballistic coefficient C 1: 0.112 - 0.119 (ICAO)/(Army Metro)
  • Mean chamber pressure: max. 400 MPa
  • Penetration in 20% gelatine: bare at 25 m: < 30 cm
  • Accuracy at 50 m: Ø 5 cm
  • Effective service range: 200 m (656 ft)

2.7 g Full Metal Jacket 4.6×30mm[edit]

The Ball 4.6×30mm cartridge weighs 7 g and is loaded with a 2.7 g Full Metal Jacket projectile with a PbSb – alloy core and a steel copper plated jacket that achieves 600 m/s (2,000 ft/s) muzzle velocity. The cartridge is designed for the MP7. This ammunition is optimized for energy transfer in soft targets and should offer good precision.[15] The muzzle velocity V0 and V100 indicate a G1 ballistic coefficient of approximately 0.171 to 0.187 (BC's are somewhat debatable). At the stated effective range of 200 m the 2.7 g Ball projectile will be travelling at approximately Mach 1.36 (463 m/s) under ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3).

Ball cartridge technical data:[16][dead link]

  • Temperature range: between -54°C and +52°C
  • Velocity/energy at 0 m: 600 m/s / 544 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 100 m: 463 m/s / 320 Joule
  • Ballistic coefficient C 1: 0.171 - 0.187 (ICAO)/(Army Metro)
  • Mean chamber pressure: max. 400 MPa
  • Penetration in gelatine bare at 25 m: < 35 cm
  • Accuracy at 100 m: Ø 8 cm
  • Effective range:~300 m (984 ft) (HK claims that the FMJ round has more retained energy than the "Combat Steel" due to the FMJ's heavier projectile.)[4]

Others[edit]

VBR produces a 4.6×30mm 2-part controlled fragmenting projectile that is claimed to increase the content of the permanent wound cavity and double the chance to hit a vital organ.[17] Heckler & Koch claims that the CPS Black Tip ammunition made by Fiocchi has a muzzle energy of approximately 525 J that would be comparable to 9 mm rounds.[18][19]

See also[edit]

Weapons[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gourley, S.; Kemp, I (November 26, 2003). "The Duellists". Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN: 02653818), Volume 40 Issue 21, pp 26–28.
  2. ^ a b "Suppressed Rifle Cartridges". Raygun.10gauge.de. 2007-04-23. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  3. ^ a b "Fiocchi - SFN Ram". Heckler-koch.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "HKPro PDW article". Hkpro.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  5. ^ RUAG Ammotec[dead link]
  6. ^ "Heckler & Koch :: Products". Hkd-usa.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  7. ^ "Modern Firearms - Pistol / SMG ammunition". World.guns.ru. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  8. ^ "01 December 2011, brochure (Energy and velocity at 10 m)". Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Oliver, David (2007). "Global Defence Review — In the Line of Fire". GDR Publications. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  10. ^ Current C.I.P. decisions, texts and tables (Free C.I.P. CD-ROM version download in ZIP and RAR format)
  11. ^ a b RUAG Ammotec 2.0 g German Army 4.6×30mm Penetrator DM11 cartridge factsheet[dead link]
  12. ^ "MP7". Hkpro.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  13. ^ RUAG Ammotec 2.0 g Law Enforcement 4.6×30mm cartridge factsheet[dead link]
  14. ^ RUAG Ammotec 2.0 g Law Enforcement 4.6×30mm cartridge factsheet[dead link]
  15. ^ RUAG Ammotec 2.7 g Full Metal Jacket 4.6×30mm cartridge factsheet[dead link]
  16. ^ RUAG Ammotec 2.7 g Full Matal Jacket 4.6×30mm cartridge factsheet[dead link]
  17. ^ "The 4.6x30 mm B2F cartridge". Fsdip.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  18. ^ "Heckler & Koch :: Products". Heckler-koch.de. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  19. ^ "Modern Firearms - Pistol / SMG ammunition". World.guns.ru. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 

External links[edit]