Heckler & Koch HK416

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from HK 416)
Jump to: navigation, search
HK416
HK416.jpg
Norwegian Army Heckler & Koch HK416N with 419 mm (16.5 in) long barrel, an Aimpoint CompM4 red dot sight and a vertical foregrip.
Type Assault rifle
Carbine
Place of origin Germany
Service history
In service 2005 – present
Used by See Users
Wars War in Afghanistan
Iraq War
Northern Mali conflict[1]
2013 Lahad Datu standoff[2]
Production history
Designer Ernst Mauch[citation needed]
Manufacturer Heckler & Koch
Produced 2005–present
Variants D10RS, D14.5RS, D16.5RS, D20RS, HK416C, MR223, HK417, M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle
Specifications
Weight HK416C: 2.950 kg (6.50 lb)
D10RS: 3.020 kg (6.66 lb)
D14.5RS: 3.490 kg (7.69 lb)
D16.5RS: 3.560 kg (7.85 lb)
D20RS: 3.855 kg (8.50 lb)
M27 IAR: 3.600 kg (7.94 lb)
Length HK416C: 690 mm (27.2 in) stock extended / 560 mm (22.0 in) stock collapsed
D10RS: 797 mm (31.4 in) stock extended / 701 mm (27.6 in) stock collapsed
D14.5RS: 900 mm (35.4 in) stock extended / 804 mm (31.7 in) stock collapsed
D16.5RS: 951 mm (37.4 in) stock extended / 855 mm (33.7 in) stock collapsed
D20RS: 1,037 mm (40.8 in) stock extended / 941 mm (37.0 in) stock collapsed
M27 IAR: 940 mm (37.0 in) stock extended / 840 mm (33.1 in) stock collapsed
Barrel length HK416C: 228 mm (9.0 in)
D10RS: 264 mm (10.4 in)
D14.5RS: 368 mm (14.5 in)
D16.5RS: 419 mm (16.5 in)
D20RS: 505 mm (19.9 in)
M27 IAR: 420 mm (16.5 in)
Width 78 mm (3.1 in)
Height HK416C: 236 mm (9.3 in)
HK416 and M27 IAR: 240 mm (9.4 in)

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO
Action Short-stroke piston, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 700 – 900 rounds/min (cyclic) HK416
850 rounds/min (cyclic) HK416A5[3]
Muzzle velocity Varies according to barrel length:
788 m/s (10.4 in)
882 m/s (14.5 in)
890 m/s (16.5 in)
917 m/s (19.9 in)
Effective firing range 300 m (11´´Model) Point Targets
Maximum firing range 400m (11´´ Model) Area Targets
Feed system 20, 30-round STANAG magazine or 100-round Beta C-Mag
Sights Rear rotary diopter sight and front post, Picatinny rail

The Heckler & Koch HK416 is an assault rifle/carbine designed and manufactured by Heckler & Koch. It is based on the AR-15 platform, and was originally conceived as an improvement to the Colt M4 carbine family issued to the U.S. military, with the notable inclusion of an HK-proprietary short-stroke gas piston system derived from the Heckler & Koch G36. Military and law enforcement customers can purchase a new upper receiver, buffer, and drive spring to refurbish existing AR-15s, or buy new complete HK416s.

History[edit]

The United States Army's Delta Force, at the request of R&D NCO Larry Vickers, collaborated with the German arms maker Heckler & Koch to develop the new carbine in the early 1990s.[when?] During development, Heckler & Koch capitalized on experience gained developing the Bundeswehr's Heckler & Koch G36 assault rifle, the U.S. Army's XM8 rifle project (canceled in 2005) and the modernization of the British Armed Forces SA80 small arms family.[citation needed] The project was originally called the HK M4, but this was changed in response to a trademark infringement suit filed by Colt Defense.

Delta Force replaced its M4s with the HK416 in 2004, after tests revealed that the piston operating system significantly reduces malfunctions while increasing the life of parts.[4] The HK416 has been tested by the United States military and is in use with some law enforcement agencies and special operations units. It has also been adopted as the standard rifle of the Norwegian Armed Forces.

A modified variant underwent testing by the United States Marine Corps as the M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle. After the Marine Corps Operational Test & Evaluation Activity supervised a round of testing at MCAGCC Twentynine Palms, Fort McCoy, and Camp Shelby (for dust, cold-weather, and hot-weather conditions, respectively). As of March 2012, fielding of 452 IARs has been completed of 4,748 ordered. Five infantry battalions; 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion and 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines, out of Camp Pendleton, CA, First Battalion, 3rd Marines, out of Marine Corps Base HI, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, out of Camp Lejeune, NC; and 1st Battalion, 25th Marines, out of Fort Devens, MA have deployed the weapon.[5][6]

Design details[edit]

A Norwegian soldier in Afghanistan, armed with the HK416N.

The HK416 uses a HK-proprietary short-stroke gas system that derives from the HK G36, forgoing the direct impingement gas system standard in AR-15 rifles.[7] The HK G36 gas system was in turn partially derived from the AR-18 assault rifle designed in 1963.[8] The HK system uses a short-stroke piston driving an operating rod to force the bolt carrier to the rear. This design prevents combustion gases from entering the weapon's interior—a shortcoming with direct impingement systems.[9] The reduction in heat and fouling of the bolt carrier group increases the reliability of the weapon and extends the interval between stoppages. It also reduces operator cleaning time and stress on critical components. According to H&K, "...experience that Heckler & Koch gained during its highly successful 'midlife improvement programme' for the British Army SA80 assault rifle, have now borne fruit in the HK416."[7]

The HK416 is equipped with a proprietary accessory rail forearm with MIL-STD-1913 rails on all four sides. This lets most current accessories for M4/M16-type weapons fit the HK416. The HK416 rail forearm can be installed and removed without tools by using the bolt locking lug as the screwdriver. The rail forearm is "free-floating" and does not contact the barrel, improving accuracy.

The HK416 has an adjustable multi-position telescopic butt stock, offering six different lengths of pull. The shoulder pad can be either convex or concave and the stock features a storage space for maintenance accessories, spare electrical batteries or other small kit items.

The trigger pull is 34 N (7.6 lbf). The empty weight of a HK416 box magazine is 250 g (8.8 oz).

The HK416's barrel is cold hammer-forged with a 20,000-round service life and features a 6 grooves 178 mm (7 in) right hand twist. The cold hammer-forging process provides a stronger barrel for greater safety in case of an obstructed bore or for extended firing sessions. Modifications for an over-the-beach (OTB) capability such as drainage holes in the bolt carrier and buffer system are available to let the HK416 fire safely after being submerged in water.

Differences from the M4[edit]

The HK416's outer appearance resembles the M4. It includes international symbols for safe, semi-automatic, and fully automatic. It has a redesigned retractable stock that lets the user rotate the butt plate, and a new pistol grip designed by H&K to more ergonomically fit the hand. A new single-piece hand guard attaches to the rifle with a free floating RI system for mounting accessories. The most notable internal difference is the short stroke gas piston system, which is derived from the HK G36. To compensate for increased pressure due to the new gas system, it has a thicker barrel.

Furthermore, an adjustable gas block with piston allows reliable operation on short-barrelled models, with or without a suppressor attached. Finally, the HK416 includes a folding front sight, and a rear sight similar to the G3. The HK416 system is offered as an upper receiver, separate from the rest of the rifle, as a replacement to the standard issue M4 upper receiver. It can attach to existing AR-15 family rifles, giving them the new gas system, the new hand guard, and sights, while retaining the original lower receiver. The Heckler & Koch 416 can also be purchased as a fully assembled, stand alone carbine.

Evaluation[edit]

In July 2007, the U.S. Army announced a limited competition between the M4 carbine, FN SCAR, HK416, XCR, and the previously-shelved HK XM8. Ten examples of each of the four competitors were involved. Each weapon fired 6,000 rounds in an extreme dust environment. The shoot-off was for assessing future needs, not to select a replacement for the M4.[10][11] The XM8 scored the best, with only 127 stoppages in 60,000 total rounds, the FN SCAR Light had 226 stoppages, while the HK416 had 233 stoppages. The M4 carbine scored "significantly worse" than the rest of the field with 882 stoppages.[4]

In December 2009, a modified version of the HK416 was selected for the final testing in the Infantry Automatic Rifle program, designed to partially replace the M249 light machine gun at the squad level for the United States Marine Corps.[12] It beat the three other finalists by FN Herstal and Colt Defense. In July 2010, the HK416 IAR was designated as the M27, and 450 were procured for additional testing.[13]

The Norwegian Army conducted an extensive evaluation before selecting the HK416 as its new primary firearm.

The Turkish company Makina ve Kimya Endustrisi Kurumu ("Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation") has considered manufacturing a copy of the HK416 as the MKEK Mehmetçik-1 for the Turkish Armed Forces.[14] Instead, a new assault rifle has been developed by KALEKALIP with MKEK as the producer, with the Mehmetçik-1 dropped from adoption into the Turkish military.[15][16]

HK416A5[edit]

The HK416 was one of the weapons displayed to U.S. Army officials during an invitation-only Industry Day on November 13, 2008. The goal of the Industry Day was to review current carbine technology prior to writing formal requirements for a future replacement for the M4 carbine.[17][18] The HK416 was then an entry in the Individual Carbine competition to replace the M4. The weapon submitted was known as the HK416A5.[19] It features a stock similar to that of the G28 designated marksman rifle, except slimmer and non-adjustable. The rifle features an improved tool-less adjustable gas regulator for suppressor use, which can accommodate barrel lengths down to 267 mm (10.5 in) without modifications. It also features a redesigned lower receiver with ambidextrous fire controls, optimized magazine and ammunition compatibility, a repair kit housed inside the pistol grip, and a Flat Dark Earth color-scheme.[20] The stock has a fixed buttplate and no longer has a storage space, as well as the sling loops removed from it. The V2 HK Battle grip is incorporated, which has the V2 grip profile with the storage compartment of the V1 grip for tools. The handguard uses a new hexagonal-shaped cross bolt that cannot be removed by the bolt locking lugs, but instead by the takedown tool housed inside the grip.[21] The Individual Carbine competition was cancelled before a winning weapon was chosen.[22] The HK416A5 offers several additional features compared to the preceding HK416 models and has become the standard military and law enforcement model line.[23]

German arms procurement agency designation[edit]

In mid-2014, the German arms procurement agency type classified the HK416A5 with a 16.5 in (420 mm) barrel as the G38 (for Gewehr 38). The carbine version with a 14.5 in (370 mm) barrel received the G38K, another version with an 11 in (280 mm) barrel received the G38C designation in the Bundeswehr catalog (Katalog der Bundeswehr).[24]

Variants[edit]

A U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group soldier armed with an HK416 D14.5RS (foreground) in June 2006, during the Iraq War.
A suppressed D10RS in service with Polish GROM commandos at a media demonstration in May 2011.

Military and law enforcement[edit]

The HK416 models chambered for 5.56×45mm NATO available to the military and law enforcement market are:

  • D10RS: sub-compact with a 264 mm (10.4 in) barrel
  • D14.5RS: carbine rifle 368 mm (14.5 in) barrel
  • D16.5RS: rifle with 419 mm (16.5 in) barrel
  • D20RS: full-sized rifle 505 mm (19.9 in) barrel

As of 2013, the HK416 A5 models chambered for 5.56×45mm NATO available to the military and law enforcement market are:

  • HK416 A5 - 11": sub-compact with a 279 mm (11.0 in) barrel
  • HK416 A5 - 14.5": carbine rifle 368 mm (14.5 in) barrel
  • HK416 A5 - 16.5": rifle with 419 mm (16.5 in) barrel
  • HK416 A5 - 20": full-sized rifle 505 mm (19.9 in) barrel

HK416 based derivates[edit]

  • HK416C: ultra-compact variant. The HK416C has a 228 mm (9.0 in) barrel and is expected to produce muzzle velocities of approximately 730 m/s (2,395 ft/s).[25] The firearm's precision is specified as ≈ 4 MOA (12 cm at 100 m) by Heckler & Koch.[25][26][27] The HK416C has a high degree of component commonality with the HK416 family, but it has a HK416C specific shortened buffer tube and a sliding collapsible butt-stock similar to compact variants of H&K's MP5 sub-machine gun and the HK53 carbine.
  • M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle: squad automatic weapon developed from the D16.5RS for the United States Marine Corps
  • HK416A5: Improved carbine entered in the Individual Carbine competition.[20] Competition cancelled without a weapon chosen.[22]

Large caliber[edit]

Civilian[edit]

Civilian variants of the HK416 and HK417 introduced in 2007 were known as MR223 and MR308.[28] Both are semi-automatic rifles with several "sporterized" features. At the 2009 SHOT Show, these two firearms were introduced to the American civilian market renamed respectively MR556 and MR762.[29] There is another variant of the MR556 called the MR556A1, which is an improved version of the former.[30] It was created with input from American special forces units.[31] The MR556A1 lets the upper receiver attach to any M16/M4/AR-15 family lower receiver, as the receiver take-down pins are in the same standard location. The original concept for the MR556 did not allow for this, as the take-down pins were located in a "non-standard" location. The MR223 maintains the "non-standard" location of the pins, disallowing attachment of the upper receiver to the lower receivers of any other M16/M4/AR-15 family of rifles. As of 2012, the MR556A1 upper receiver group fits standard AR-15 lower receivers without modification, and functions reliably with standard STANAG magazines[32]

Users[edit]

Country Organization name Model Quantity Date Reference
 Australia Special Operations Command of the Australian Defence Force D10RS Tender evaluation 2010 [33]
 Brazil Brazilian Federal Police - - 2012 [34]
 Croatia Special Operations Battalion (BSD) D14.5RS Gen. 2 12 (more to be acquired) March, 2013 [35]
 France Commando Parachutiste de l'Air n°10 of the French Air Force [36]
Commando Parachutiste de l'Air n°20 of the French Air Force [37]
 Germany German Special Forces Command (Kommando Spezialkräfte, KSK) of the German Army [38]
German Border Police Group 9 (Grenzschutzgruppe 9 der Bundespolizei, GSG-9) of the German Federal Police [39]
 Indonesia Indonesian Kopassus special forces & Denjaka [38]
Detachment 88 of the Indonesian National Police [38]
 Ireland Army Ranger Wing (ARW) of the Defence Forces HK416, HK417 2010 [40]
Emergency Response Unit (ERU) of the Garda Síochána
 Italy COMSUBIN (Comando Raggruppamento Subacquei e Incursori Teseo Tesei, COMSUBIN) of the Italian Navy [38]
9th Parachute Assault Regiment [38]
GIS (Gruppo di Intervento Speciale, GIS) of the Carabinieri [38]
 Jordan Joint Special Operations Command (Jordan) HK416 [41]
 Malaysia Naval Special Warfare Forces (Pasukan Khas Laut, PASKAL) Maritime Counter-Terrorism unit of the Royal Malaysian Navy D16.5RS 180 2010 [42]
[43]
[44]
Special Operations Command (Pasukan Gerakan Khas, PGK) Counter-Terrorism divisions of the Royal Malaysia Police D10RS
D14.5RS
[45]
 Netherlands Korps Commandotroepen of the Royal Netherlands Army D10RS
D14.5RS
2010 [46][47]
[48]
Unit Interventie Mariniers of the Netherlands Marine Corps (Maritime Special Operations Forces) [49]
Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten of the Royal Marechaussee [50]
 Norway Norwegian Armed Forces HK416N 8200 2008 [51][52]
 Poland Wojska Specjalne 2008 [53][54]
Policja D10RS, C 2006, 2011 [55]
 Philippines Force Recon Battalion of the Philippine Marine Corps D10RS + AG416
D14.5RS
2010 [56][57]
 Serbia Special Brigade HK416 2010 [58]
 Singapore Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) HK416 2013 [59]
[60]
Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation HK416 [61]
Special Operations Force (Singapore) HK416 [62]
 Slovakia 5th Special forces regiment 2010 [63]
 South Korea Naval Special Warfare Flotilla of the Republic of Korea Navy [64]
 Turkey Special Forces Command HK416 [38]
 United States Joint Special Operations Command (including Delta Force and DEVGRU) [65][66][67]
Asymmetric Warfare Group of the United States Army [68]
NASA Emergency Response Teams [69]
FBI Hostage Rescue Team [70]
Los Angeles Police Department SWAT [71]
United States Marine Corps M27 IAR 4476 [72][73]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Keaten, Jamey (Jan 19, 2013). "Africa forces' role in Mali faces diverse snags". WTOP. Retrieved 23 Jan 2013. 
  2. ^ SabahDaily. "Intruders photo in Sabah" (in Malay). Retrieved 2013-03-02. 
  3. ^ "Heckler & Koch :: Technical Data | HK416 A5 - 11". Heckler-koch.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  4. ^ a b Matthew Cox. "Newer carbines outperform M4 in dust test". Armytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  5. ^ Lamothe, Dan (August 9, 2010). "SAW replacement set for real world testing". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  6. ^ Lamothe, Dan (Mar 11, 2012). "Corps ramps up fielding of new auto rifle". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  7. ^ a b "Heckler-Koch.de – HK416". Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  8. ^ "A Historical Review of Armalite, page 6". ArmaLite, Inc. January 4, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2011. 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ Lowe, Christian (2007-06-27). "Army Agrees to M4 Sand Test Shoot-Off". Military.Com. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  11. ^ "M4 to face new rifles in dust-chamber test". Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  12. ^ Lamothe, Dan (December 14, 2009). "Frontrunner chosen in IAR contest". Marine Corps Times. p. 20. 
  13. ^ Lamothe, Dan (July 2, 2010). "Conway eyes additional testing for auto-rifle". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 
  14. ^ "The Turkish HK416: Mehmetçik-1". Thefirearmblog.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  15. ^ Johnson, Steve (2011-03-07). "New Turkish Assault Rifle". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  16. ^ "Genelkurmay Başkanı ‘Milli Tüfek’le atış yapıp onayını verdi - Hürriyet Ekonomi". Hurriyet.com.tr. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  17. ^ Matthew Cox. "Army considers options in replacing the M4". Armytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  18. ^ [2][dead link]
  19. ^ "HK 416A5 – chocolatey smooth. | Overhoppers". Overhoppers.wordpress.com. 2012-10-17. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  20. ^ a b Johnson, Steve (2012-10-17). "The New Heckler & Koch HK416A5". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  21. ^ "Montrala: HK416A5 - newest evolution of famous assault rifle". Montrala.blogspot.com. 2012-10-17. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  22. ^ a b "Army Kills Competition to Replace M4". Military.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  23. ^ "Heckler & Koch :: Product Overview | HK416 A5 - 11". Heckler-koch.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  24. ^ The HK416A5 Is Now The G38 - Thefirearmblog.com, 1 September 2014
  25. ^ a b "HK416C – The new ultra compact assault rifle". Heckler & Koch. 2010-10-08. Archived from the original on 2010-10-12. Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  26. ^ "Heckler & Koch :: Welcome". Heckler-koch.de. 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  27. ^ "Heckler & Koch :: Welcome". Heckler-koch.de. 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  28. ^ "The MR223, 416 Piston Drive for German Civilians". Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  29. ^ "HECKLER & KOCH’s MR556 & MR762 Rifles". Tactical Life. Retrieved 2011-06-22. 
  30. ^ Jorge Amselle. "HECKLER & KOCH MR556A1". Tactical Life. Retrieved 2011-06-22. 
  31. ^ Jorge Amselle. "Sneak Peek: HK’s MR556A1". Tactical Life. Retrieved 2011-06-22. 
  32. ^ "Heckler & Koch HK416". Guns and Weapons. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 
  33. ^ "Contract Notice View – CN253784". AusTender. Australian Government. January 12, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  34. ^ http://www.thefirearmblog.com/blog/2013/08/12/brazilian-federal-police-special-forces-c-o-t-adopt-hk416/
  35. ^ Radaković, Siniša. "Light small arms for special forces". Hrvatski vojnik. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  36. ^ "L'armée de l'air abandonne (partiellement) le fusil FAMAS". Lepoint.fr. 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  37. ^ "Exercice commun pour le CPA n°20 et le 2e REP en Corse". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Kemp, Ian (2009). "A New 5.56mm Generation or a Changing of the Guard?". Asianmilitaryreview.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  39. ^ Wikipedia (2014). "GSG-9". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  40. ^ Thompson, Leroy. "Irish Army Ranger Wing (ARW) Special Forces". 1 March 2013. Tactical Life. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  41. ^ Shea, Dan (Spring 2009). "SOFEX 2008". Small Arms Defense Journal, p. 29.
  42. ^ Abas, Marhalim (2009-05-06). "Tender of HK416". Malaysian Defence. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  43. ^ Abas, Marhalim (2010-04-23). "DSA 2010 Part III". Malaysian Defence. Retrieved 2010-05-25. 
  44. ^ Abas, Marhalim (2010-04-23). "DSA 2010: The biggest security and defence show in Asia". Malay Mail Online. Retrieved 2010-05-25. 
  45. ^ Abas, Marhalim (2012-06-14). "2012 Supplementary Budget: Anything for Defence, MMEA and PDRM? Updated". Malaysian Defence. Retrieved 2010-05-25. 
  46. ^ "KCT operator krijgt nieuw persoonlijk wapen". Dutch Defence Press. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  47. ^ "Special Forces – Wapens – Heckler & Koch 416" (in Dutch). Netherlands Legermuseum: Collectie Informatie Centrum. Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  48. ^ "HK416 nieuwe wapen commando’s | Ministerie van Defensie". Defensie.nl. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  49. ^ "Elite operators of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps". Dutch Defence Press. 2010-11-19. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  50. ^ "HK416" (in Dutch). Dutch Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  51. ^ Watne, Monique (2008-09-22). "Nye angrepsrifler i Afghanistan". Mil.no. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  52. ^ "Norway selects the HK416". Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  53. ^ Wilk (REMOV), Remigiusz. "Nowe gromy GROM". 
  54. ^ Chloupek, Ireneusz. "Lubliniec". Special Ops (Oficyna Wydawnicza Medium). 
  55. ^ [3][dead link]
  56. ^ "Current List of HK416/417 Mil/LE End-Users". HKPro.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  57. ^ "HK416 notice of award". Timawa.net. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  58. ^ "Najsavremeniji "hekleri" za Vojsku Srbije : Društvo : POLITIKA". Politika.rs. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  59. ^ "Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) sea security team displays seldom-seen firearms". kementah.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  60. ^ "Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) Open Day photo of HK416". flickr.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  61. ^ Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation
  62. ^ Special Operations Force (Singapore)
  63. ^ "Profesionál-4-marca". Mosr.sk. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  64. ^ "‘아덴만 여명작전’ 참가 장병 수기". Korea.kr. 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  65. ^ Poole, Eric R. (Spring 2012). "Book of the AR-15". http://hk-usa.com. Guns and Ammo. p. 27. Retrieved 11 September 2012. "In 2006 U.S. Special Operations units in Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) began fielding the HK416 as their primary carbine." 
  66. ^ Lowe, Christian (April 30, 2007). "Senator Tells Army to Reconsider M4". Military.com. Retrieved 11 September 2012. "Special operations forces, including "tier one" units such as the Army's Delta Force and the Navy's SEAL Development Group – or SEAL Team Six – have used their own funds to purchase the Heckler & Koch-built 416, which uses a gas-piston operating system less susceptible to failure than Colt's gas-operated design." 
  67. ^ Cox, Matthew (February 20, 2007). "Better than M4, but you can't have one". marinecorpstimes.com. Military Times. Retrieved 11 September 2012. "Members of the elite unit linked up with German arms maker Heckler & Koch, which replaced the M4’s gas system with one that experts say significantly reduces malfunctions while increasing parts life. After exhaustive tests with the help of Delta, the H&K 416 was ready in 2004. Members of the elite commando unit — formally known as 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta — have been carrying it in combat ever since. ... In addition to Delta, experts say the 416 is also in use by other specialized Army units, including the Asymmetric Warfare Group, as well as the Navy’s elite SEAL Team 6." 
  68. ^ Matthew Cox. "Army takes HK416s from special unit". Armytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  69. ^ Andre M. Dall'au. "NASA ERT: Spaceport Protectors". Tactical Life. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  70. ^ Chris Martin. "Meet the FBI hostage team that rescued Hannah Anderson". Yahoo News. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  71. ^ "LAPD Equipment - official website of THE LOS ANGELES POLICE DEPARTMENT". Lapdonline.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  72. ^ "IAR What IAR: The USMC’s SAW Substitution". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  73. ^ Marines swap firepower for accuracy with IAR - Marinecorpstimes.com, June 29, 2011

External links[edit]