The HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cells) cell line has been used for laboratory research on how certain kinds of blood cells are formed. HL-60 proliferates continuously in suspension culture in nutrient medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, L-glutamine, HEPES and antibiotic chemicals. The doubling time is about 36–48 hours. The cell line was derived from a 36-year-old woman with acute promyelocytic leukemia at the National Cancer Institute. HL-60 cells are predominantly a neutrophilic promyelocyte (precursor).
Proliferation of HL-60 cells occurs through the transferrin and insulin receptors, which are expressed on cell surface. The requirement for insulin and transferrin is absolute, as HL-60 proliferation immediately ceases if either of these compounds is removed from the serum-free culture media. With this line, spontaneous differentiation to mature granulocytes can be induced by compounds such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or retinoic acid. Other compounds like 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and GM-CSF can induce HL-60 to differentiate to monocytic, macrophage-like and eosinophil phenotypes, respectively.
The HL-60 cultured cell line provides a continuous source of human cells for studying the molecular events of myeloid differentiation and the effects of physiologic, pharmacologic, and virologic elements on this process. HL-60 cell model was used to study the effect of DNA topoisomerase (topo) IIα and IIβ on differentiation and apoptosis of cells and is especially useful in dielectrophoresis studies, which require an aqueous environment with suspended and round cells.
- Gallagher R, Collins S, Trujillo J, et al. (1979). "Characterization of the continuous, differentiating myeloid cell line (HL-60) from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia". Blood 54 (3): 713–33. PMID 288488.
- Breitman, T, S. Collins, B. Keene, (1980). "Replacement of serum by insulin and transferrin supports growth and differentiation of the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60.". Exp. Cell Res 126 (2): 494–498. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(80)90296-7. PMID 6988226.
- Sugimoto, K, K. Yamada, M. Egashira, Y. yazaki, H. Hirai, A. Kikuchi and K. Oshimi, (1998.). "Temporal and Spatial Distribution of DNA Topoisomerase II Alters During Proliferation, Differentiation, and Apoptosis in HL-60 Cells.". Blood 91 (4): 1407–1417. PMID 9454772.
- Ratanachoo, K., Gascoyne, P.R.C. and Ruchirawat, M. (2002). "Detection of cellular responses to toxicants by dielectrophoresis.". Biochim Biophys Acta 1564 (2): 449–458. doi:10.1016/S0005-2736(02)00494-7. PMC 2726261. PMID 12175928.
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