Humvee

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This article is about the military vehicle. For the civilian vehicle brand, see Hummer.
High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
US Navy 060322-N-5438H-018 U.S. Army soldiers assigned to the Bravo Battery 3rd Battalion 320th Field Artillery Regiment along with Iraq Army soldiers from the 1st Battalion 1st Brigade 4th Division perform a routine patrol.jpg
A U.S. Army HMMWV in Saladin Province, Iraq in March 2006.
Type Unarmored: Light Utility Vehicle
Armored: Light Armored Car
Place of origin  United States of America
Service history
In service 1984–present
Production history
Manufacturer AM General
Unit cost Unarmored: $65,000
Armored: $140,000[1]
Produced 1984–present
Number built 281,000[2]
Specifications
Weight 5,200–5,900 lb (2,359–2,676 kg) curb weight[3]
Length 15 ft (4.57 m),[4] wheelbase 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
Width 7 ft 1 in (2.16 m)[4]
Height 6 ft (1.83 m), reducible to 4 ft 6 in (1.37 m)[4]

Main
armament
see text
Engine V8 diesel 6.2 L (380 cu in) -or-
V8 turbo diesel 6.5 L (400 cu in): 190 hp (142 kW) @ 3,400 rpm / 380 lbf·ft (515 N·m) @ 1,700 rpm[3]
Transmission 3-speed automatic
Suspension Independent 4x4
Fuel capacity 25 U.S. gal (95 L)[4]
Speed 55 mph (89 km/h) at max gross weight[5]
Over 70 mph (113 km/h) top speed[6]

The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly known as the Humvee, is a four-wheel drive military automobile produced by AM General.[7] It has largely supplanted the roles originally performed by the original jeep, and older Military light utility vehicles such as the Vietnam-era M151 14-short-ton (230 kg) MUTT, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance versions, the CUCV, and other light trucks. Primarily used by the United States military, it is also used by numerous other countries and organizations and even in civilian adaptations. The Humvee's widespread use in the Persian Gulf War, where it negotiated the treacherous desert sand with ease, helped inspire the civilian Hummer automotive marque.

History[edit]

Since the WWII era Willys MB, the United States Army had relied on Jeeps to transport small groups of soldiers. The jeep was built around a requirement for a compact vehicle with a folding windshield that was actually shorter than the Volkswagen Beetle. It had seats for a 3 man crew with a 660 lb (300 kg) payload and weighed just over one ton.

By the 1970s, the U.S. Army had tried larger militarized civilian trucks, but even these no longer satisfied newer requirements. In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in an attempt to meet the Army contract specifications.

In 1979, the U.S. Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, or HMMWV which was to replace all the tactical vehicles in the 1/4 to 1 1/4-ton range.[8] Compared to the Jeep, it was larger and had a much wider track, with a 16 in (410 mm) ground clearance, double that of most sport-utility vehicles. The new truck was to climb a 60 percent incline and traverse a 40 percent slope. The air intake was to be mounted flush on top of the right fender (or to be raised on a stovepipe to roof level to ford 5 ft (1.5 m) of water[9]) and electronics waterproofed to drive through 2.5 ft (0.76 m) of water were specified. The radiator was to be mounted high, sloping over the engine on a forward-hinged hood.

In July 1979, AM General (a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation) began preliminary design work. Less than a year later, the first prototype was in testing. Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental also produced competing designs. In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the government for another series of tests. In 1983, AM General was awarded the initial batch of a five-year contract for nearly 55,000 HMMWVs to be delivered in 1985. The original M998 A0 series had a curb weight of 5,200 lb (2,400 kg). with a payload of 2,500 lb (1,100 kg), with a 6.2 L (380 cu in) V-8 diesel engine and a three-speed automatic transmission.

Ft. Lewis Washington and the 9th Infantry Division was the testing unit to employ HMMWV in the new concept of a motorized division. Yakima Training Center; Yakima, Washington was the main testing grounds for HMMWVs from 1985 through December 1991, when the motorized concept was abandoned and the division inactivated.

Usage in combat[edit]

HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U.S. invasion of Panama in 1989.

The HMMWV was designed primarily for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle. Like the previous Jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear threats. Nevertheless, losses were relatively low in conventional operations, such as the Gulf War. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu due to the nature of the urban engagement; however, the chassis survivability allowed the majority of those crews to return to safety, though the HMMWV was never designed to offer protection against intense small arms fire, much less machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades. However, with the rise of asymmetric warfare and low intensity conflicts, the HMMWV has been pressed into service in urban combat roles for which it was not originally intended.

After Somalia, the military recognized a need for a more protected HMMWV and AM General developed the M1114, an armored HMMWV to withstand small arms fire. The M1114 has been in limited production since 1996, seeing limited use in the Balkans before deployment to the Middle East. This design is superior to the M998 with a larger, more powerful turbocharged engine, air conditioning, and a strengthened suspension system. More importantly, it boasts a fully armored passenger area protected by hardened steel and bullet-resistant glass. With the increase in direct attacks and guerrilla warfare in Iraq, AM General has diverted the majority of its manufacturing power to producing these vehicles.

The HMMWV has become the vehicular backbone of U.S.forces around the world. Over 10,000 HMMWVs were employed by coalition forces during the Iraq War.

A U.S. Marine Corps M1123 HMMWV in 2004, equipped with a bolt-on MAK armor kit.
At the Bridgeport, California Mountain Warfare Training Center in March 1997, a test HMMWV drives through the snow, equipped with Mattracks treads.

Modifications[edit]

Humvee maintenance with engine exposed by Czech Army in Afghanistan
Humvee interior

In December 2004, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld came under criticism from U.S. troops and their families for not providing better-equipped HMMWVs.[10] Rumsfeld pointed out that, prior to the war, armor kits were produced only in small numbers per year. As the role of American forces in Iraq changed from fighting the Iraqi Army to suppressing the guerrilla insurgency, more armor kits were being manufactured, though perhaps not as fast as production facilities were capable of bringing them online. Even more advanced kits were also being developed. However, while these kits are much more effective against all types of attacks, they weigh between 1,500 to 2,200 lb (680 to 1,000 kg) and have some of the same drawbacks as the improvised armor.[11] Unlike similar-size civilian cargo and tow trucks, which typically have dual rear wheels to reduce sway, the HMMWV has single rear wheels due to its independent rear suspension coupled with the body design.

A HMMWV equipped with Raytheon surface-to-air missiles, on display at the Paris Air Show in June 2007.

Most up-armored HMMWVs holds up well against lateral attacks, when the blast is distributed in all different directions, but offers little protection from a mine blast below the truck, such as buried improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and land mines. Explosively formed penetrators (EFPs) can also defeat the armor kits, causing casualties.

The armor kits fielded include the Armor Survivability Kit (ASK), the FRAG 5, FRAG 6, as well as upgrade kits to the M1151.[12][13] The ASK was the first fielded, in October 2003, adding about 1,000 pounds (450 kg) to the weight of the vehicle.[14] Armor Holdings fielded an even lighter kit, adding only 750 pounds (340 kg) to the vehicle's weight.[15] The Marine Armor Kit (MAK), fielded in January 2005, offers more protection than the M1114, but also increases weight.[16] The FRAG 5, the latest fielded armor kit, offers the greatest protection but may still be inadequate to stop EFP attacks.[17] The FRAG 6 kit, designed to do just that, is still in development, however its increased protection comes at a hefty price. Over 1,000 lb (450 kg) is added to the vehicle over the FRAG 5 kit, and the width of the vehicle is increased by 2 feet (61 cm). In addition, the doors may require a mechanical assist device to open and close.[18]

Another drawback of the up-armored HMMWVs occurs during an accident or attack, when the heavily armored doors tend to jam shut, trapping the troops inside.[19] As a result, HMMWVs are being fitted with hooks on their doors, so that another vehicle can rip the door off, freeing the troops inside.[20] In addition, Vehicle Emergency Escape (VEE) windows, developed by BAE Systems are currently being fielded for use on the M1114 uparmored HMMWV, with 1,000 kits ordered.[21]

A U.S. military M997 ambulance, emblazoned with the Red Cross.

The soldier manning the exposed crew-served weapon on top of the vehicle is extremely vulnerable. In response, many HMMWVs have been fitted with basic gun shields or turrets, as was the case with M113 APCs after they were first deployed in Vietnam. The U.S. military is currently evaluating a new form of protection, developed by BAE Systems as well as systems designed by the Army, which are already in theater.[22] The new gunner's seat is protected by 1.5 to 2 feet (46 to 61 cm) high steel plates with bullet-proof glass windows. Additionally, some HMMWVs have been fitted with a remotely operated CROWS weapon station, which slaves the machine gun to controls in the back seat so it can be fired without exposing the crew. The Boomerang anti-sniper system is also being fielded by some HMMWVs in Iraq to immediately give troops the location of insurgents firing on them.

Another weakness for the HMMWV has proven to be its size, which has limited its deployment in Afghanistan because it is too wide for the smallest roads and too large for many forms of air transport compared to Jeep or Land Rover-sized vehicles (which are nearly two feet narrower). This size also limits the ability for the vehicle to be manhandled out of situations.

Alternatives[edit]

The army has purchased a purpose-built armored car, the M1117 Armored Security Vehicle in limited numbers for use by the United States Army Military Police Corps. In 2007, the Marine Corps announced an intention to replace all HMMWVs in Iraq with MRAPs due to high loss rates, and issued contracts for the purchase of several thousand of these vehicles, which include the International MaxxPro, M-ATV, the BAE OMC RG-31, the BAE RG-33 and Caiman, and the Force Protection Cougar,[23][24][25][26][27] which have been deployed primarily for mine clearing duties. Heavier models of infantry mobility vehicles (IMV) can also be used for patrol vehicles.[28] the Maxxpro Line has been shown to have the highest rate of vehicle rollover accidents to its very high center of gravity and immense weight. The massive weight of these vehicles combined with their high center of gravity also greatly reduces their utility in off road situations versus the HMMWV which was the primary cause for the push for the M-ATV to be developed quickly.[citation needed]

Future and replacement[edit]

The Humvee replacement process, now being undertaken by the U.S. military, is focused on interim replacement with MRAPs and long-term replacement with the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV). The HMMWV has evolved several times since its introduction, and is now used in tactical roles for which it was never originally intended. The military is pursuing several initiatives to replace it, both in the short and long terms. The short term replacement efforts utilize commercial off-the-shelf vehicles as part of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) program. These vehicles are procured to replace Humvees in combat theaters. The long term replacement for the Humvee is the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle which is designed from the ground up. The Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) program was initiated to make an analysis of potential requirements for a Humvee replacement. Various prototype vehicles such as the MillenWorks Light Utility Vehicle, and the ULTRA AP have been constructed as part of these efforts.

The U.S. Marine Corps issued a request for proposals (RFP) in 2013 for its Humvee sustainment modification initiative to upgrade 6,700 expanded capacity vehicles (ECVs). The Marines plan to field the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, but do not have enough funding to completely replace all Humvees, so they decided to continue sustaining their fleet. Key areas of improvement include the suspension, engine, and transmission. Upgrades to the suspension would reduce the amount of force transferred to the chassis, lowering operation and maintenance costs. Additionally, upgrades to the engine and transmission would help to make the vehicles more fuel efficient, and enhancements to the cooling system will better prevent overheating. The Marine Corps is also looking at incorporating a central tire inflation system to allow for reduced tire pressures during off-road use to improve mobility and ride quality. They are also seeking to increase the underbody survivability. Testing of upgraded Humvees will occur in 2014, with production and installation occurring from 2015 through 2018. Older A2 series Humvees make up half the current fleet, and 4,000 are to be disposed of through foreign military sales and transfers. By 2017, the Marines' light tactical vehicle fleet is to consist of 3,500 A2 series Humvees, 9,500 ECV Humvees, and 5,500 JLTVs, with 18,500 vehicles in total. Humvees in service with the Marine Corps will be upgraded through 2030.[29] Oshkosh Corporation is offering Humvee upgrades to the Marine Corps in addition to its JLTV offering. Oshkosh has developed modular and scalable Humvee upgrade solutions, providing varying levels of capabilities at a range of price points, that can be provided individually or as complete solutions for upgrading all critical vehicle systems. Their approach addresses requirements for engine and powertrain, suspension, driveline, hubs and brakes, frame and hull, electrical, cooling, and auxiliary automotive improvements. The TAK-4 independent suspension system delivers 70 percent off-road profile capability, improved ride quality, and a 40 percent increase in maximum speed. It also gives greater whole-vehicle durability, a restored 2,500-pound payload capacity, and a restored ground clearance of 17 inches. Oshkosh also can deliver a modern engine option that’s more powerful than the Humvee’s stock engine and provides increased fuel efficiency.[30]

The U.S. Army and Marine Corps have vowed commitment to buying nearly 55,000 JLTVs even in the face of sequestration cuts. This level of support is given while major acquisition programs like the Ground Combat Vehicle were in danger of cuts (and eventually cancelled), which potentially meant the Army favored replacing Humvees more than the M2 Bradley. How many light vehicles that will need to be reduced are still being determined, but they are hoped to direct the effects to the existing Humvee fleet.[31]

In October 2014, Northrop Grumman unveiled a new chassis and power train for the Humvee that would combine the mobility and payload capabilities of original vehicle variants while maintaining the protection levels of up-armored versions. During operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the threat of IEDs and close-range combat prompted the addition of armor to Humvees to increase protection, but it was heavy which decreased fuel economy and mobility and increased stress on the chassis. Lower fuel efficiency increased the need for tanker trucks to supply them, threatening logistics through more traffic on vulnerable roads. The new chassis increases fuel efficiency to 16-18 miles per gallon and allows the vehicle to accelerate to over 60 mph (97 km/h) in 22 seconds. Installation can be done through removing the six attachment bolts and the electrical connections, lifting the body of the Humvee off, rolling the old chassis out, and rolling the new chassis in; the chassis includes a new power train, transmission, and transfer case. Although the Army has not signed off on the upgrades, the company has installed the new chassis on four Humvees through a cooperative agreement with the Army, two of which have been delivered for trials.[32][33]

Textron has offered another Humvee upgrade option to rival Northrop Grumman's. Called the Survivable Combat Tactical Vehicle (SCTV), it not only restores mobility but improves survivability over armored Humvee levels. It was developed as a blast protected cab solution with a stronger frame and suspension with underbody armor and the ability to mount additional B-kit armor. It has a 6.7l 275 hp engine system with 2500 SP Allison transmission that can power an increased gross vehicle weight of 18,500 lb (8,400 kg) (verses 13,450 lb (6,100 kg)) with four more inches of ground clearance, one-inch larger brakes, larger wheels and tires, and an improved internal layout with four inches of additional headroom. The battery pack was moved from under the passenger seat to outside under the hood and the 27 gallon plastic fuel tank was changed to a 40 gallon stainless steel container moved from under the transmission tunnel to behind the back wall. It is available in four-door, two-door , ambulance, and nine-seat troop carrier variants. The SCTV costs $200,000 compared to $145,000 for Northrop Grumman's solution, but the company claims it can restore the Humvee for operational use while the JLTV takes time to be introduced; both the Army and Marines have acquired about half a dozen vehicles each for testing.[34]

Design features[edit]

A U.S. Air Force airman in Southwest Asia stands in the ringmount of a FRAG 6-reinforced HMMWV in April 2010.

The Humvee seats 4 with an available fully enclosed metal cabin with a vertical windshield. The body is constructed from lightweight and rust-resistant aluminum, instead of conventional steel. It has all-wheel drive with an independent suspensions and helical gear-reduction hubs similar to portal axles which attach towards the top rather than center of each wheel to allowed the drivetrain shafts to be raised for a full 16 in (410 mm) of ground clearance. The body is mounted on a narrow steel frame with boxed rails and five cross members for rigidity. The rails act as sliders to protect the drivetrain which is nestled between and above the rails.[35] Raising the drivetrain into the cabin area and lowering the seats into the frame creates a massive chest-high transmission hump which separates passengers on each side and lowers the overall center of gravity compared to most trucks where the body and passengers are above the frame.[36] The vehicle also has disc brakes on all 4 wheels, and 4-wheel double-wishbone suspension. The brake discs are not mounted at the wheels as on conventional automobiles, but are inboard, attached to the outside of each differential. The front and rear differentials are Torsen type, and the center differential is a regular, lockable type. Torque-biasing differentials allows forward movement as long as at least one wheel has traction. It runs on specialized 37 x 12.5 radial tires with low-profile runflat devices. Some HMMWVs are equipped with an optional central tire inflation system (CTIS), which enables pressure to be lowered for soft ground or raised for hard pavement. While it is optimized for off-road mobility, it can drive at highway speeds of 55 mph (89 km/h) at maximum weight with a top speed of 70 mph (110 km/h).[37]

HMMWVs are well suited for air mobile operations as they are transportable by C-130 or larger combat transports, droppable by parachute, and can be sling-loaded from helicopters, though there are smaller vehicles such as the Growler which were designed to fit into smaller craft such as the V-22. In combat conditions, the HMMWV can be delivered by the Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System which pulls the vehicle out of the open rear ramp just above the ground without the aircraft having to land.

There are at least 17 variants of the HMMWV in service with the United States Armed Forces. HMMWVs serve as cargo/troop carriers, automatic weapons platforms, ambulances (four litter patients or eight ambulatory patients), M220 TOW missile carriers, M119 howitzer prime movers, M1097 Avenger Pedestal Mounted Stinger platforms, MRQ-12 direct air support vehicles, S250 shelter carriers, and other roles. The HMMWV is capable of fording 2.5 ft (76 cm) normally, or 5 ft (1.5 m) with the deep-water fording kits installed.

A BGM-71 TOW missile being fired from a U.S. Army HMMWV.

Optional equipment includes a winch (maximum load capacity 6,000 lb (2,700 kg) and supplemental armor. The M1025/M1026 and M1043/M1044 armament carriers provide mounting and firing capabilities for the M134 Minigun, the Mk 19 grenade launcher, the M2 heavy machine gun, the M240G/B machine gun and M249 LMG.

The M1114 "up-armored" HMMWV, introduced in 2004, also features a similar weapons mount.[38] In addition, some M1114 and M1116 up-armored and M1117 Armored Security Vehicle models feature a Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS), which allows the gunner to operate from inside the vehicle, and/or the Boomerang anti-sniper detection system. Recent improvements have also led to the development of the M1151 model, which is quickly rendering the previous models obsolete. By replacing the M1114, M1116, and earlier armored HMMWV types with a single model, the U.S. Army hopes to lower maintenance costs.

The latest iteration of the Humvee series can be seen in the M1151A1 and later up-armored A1-versions. It has a stronger suspension and larger 6.5 liter turbo-diesel engine to accommodate the weight of up to 680 kg (1,500 lb) of additional armor. The armor protection can be installed or taken off depending on the operating environment, so the vehicles can move more efficiently without armor when there is no threat of attack. There is some underbody armor that moderately protects against mines and roadside bombs. Other improvements include Vehicle Emergency Escape (VEE) windows that can be quickly removed so troops inside can escape in the event of a rollover, jammed door, or the vehicle catching fire, and a blast chimney that vents the force of a bomb blast upwards and away from the occupants. The M1151A1 has a crew of four, can carry 2,000 lb (910 kg) of payload, and can tow a 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) load. On roads, it has a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) and a range of 480 km (300 mi).[39]

Versions[edit]

HMMWV upgrade process
HMMWV with a communications dish

Major HMMWV versions[edit]

  • M56 Coyote Smoke Generator Carrier
  • M707 Knight HMMWV
  • M966 HMMWV TOW Armored
  • M996 Mini-Ambulance, Armored
  • M997 Maxi-Ambulance, Armored
  • M998 Cargo/Troop
  • M998 HMMWV Avenger
  • M1025 Armament Carrier, Armored
  • M1026 Armament Carrier, Armored W/W
  • M1035 Soft-Top Ambulance
  • M1036 TOW Armored W/W
  • M1037 S-250/S-788 Shelter Carrier
  • M1038 Cargo/Troop Carrier W/W
  • M1042 S-250/S-788 Shelter Carrier W/W
  • M1043 Armament Carrier, Up-Armored
  • M1044 Armament Carrier, Up-Armored W/W
  • M1045 TOW Up-Armored Armor
  • M1046 TOW Up-Armored Armor W/W
  • M1069 Tractor for M119 105-mm Gun
  • M1097 Heavy
  • M1097 Heavy HMMWV Avenger
  • M1109 Up-Armored Armament Carrier
  • Active Denial System
  • Ground Mobility Vehicle (special ops variant)
  • IMETS
  • ZEUS-HLONS

Expanded capacity[edit]

The M1113 has been selected by the U.S. Army as its A2 chassis for HMMWV purchases. Currently, the ECV is used for special operations vehicles and communications shelter carriers.

An M1114 with a Kevlar Wrapped Turret returns from a Combat Logistics Patrol (CLP) mission to CAMP Adder

During 1995, production of the M1114 based on the improved ECV chassis began. The M1114 meets Army requirements for a scout, military police, and explosive ordnance disposal vehicle with improved ballistic protection levels. The M1114 provides protection against 7.62 mm armor-piercing projectiles, 155 mm artillery air bursts and 12 lb (5.4 kg) anti-tank mine blasts. The U.S. Air Force has a number of these vehicles under the designation M1116, specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Air Force. The M1116 features an expanded cargo area, armored housing for the turret gunner, and increased interior heating and air conditioning system. The M1114 and M1116 receive armor at O'Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt Armoring Company of Fairfield, Ohio. The M1145 offers the protection of the M1114 and M1116 for Air Force Air Support Operations Squadrons (ASOS). Modifications include perimeter ballistic protection, overhead burst protection, IED protection, mine blast protection, and 'white glass' transparent armor.[40] These extended capacity HMMWVs can drive over an 18 in (460 mm) vertical wall and carry a 6,820 lb (3,090 kg) payload.[41]

  • M1114 Up-Armored Armament Carrier
  • M1115 Up-Armored TOW Carrier
  • M1116 Up-Armored HMMWV
  • M1121 Up-Armored TOW Carrier
  • M1123 Up-Armored HMMWV
  • M1124 Up-Armored HMMWV
  • M1145 Up-Armored HMMWV
  • M1151 Up-Armored Capable HMMWV
  • M1152 Up-Armored Capable HMMWV
  • M1165 Up-Armored HMMWV
  • M1167 Up-Armored TOW Carrier[42]
  • Packhorse – Attachment to convert an M1097 to tractor version for semi-trailers.
An M1113 Humvee chassis-mounted XM1124 Hybrid-Electric diesel-series hybrid-powered HMMWV on display in September 2009.
  • Scorpion – Version fitted with 2B9 Vasilek 82 mm automatic mortar. This is a heavy chassis HMMWV developed in 2004 by engineers at the U.S. Army's Picatinny Arsenal. The mortar itself can fire on single shots or on automatic using 4 round clips. Range for direct fire is 1,000m and indirect fire is 4,000m. It is also intended to provide another means of destroying roadside bombs but at a safer standoff range. Only one has been produced.[43]
  • Composite HMMWV – A prototype developed by TPI Composites of Rhode Island and AM General.[44] The purpose of the concept vehicle is to reduce the vehicle's weight so that it may more easily carry an up armor kit.[45] TPI's all-composite HMMWV saves approximately 900 pounds (410 kg) when compared to a current steel and aluminum HMMWV.[46][47]
  • A prototype XM1124 Hybrid-Electric Humvee on an M1113 Humvee chassis powered by a diesel-series hybrid featuring an all-electric drive train has been developed by RDECOM/TARDEC. The vehicle has a 6 mi (9.7 km) full-electric range for silent operations.[48]

International versions[edit]

An Eastwind EQ2050 on display at the People's Revolution Military Museum of China in August 2007, during the 'Our Troops towards the Sky' exhibition.
Greek Army M1114GR HMMWV in April 2007. This particular HMMWV has the ability to mount a 9M133 Kornet on top.
  • Bulgaria – Bulgarian HMMWVs have been fitted with PKS general purpose machine guns. Bulgaria usually replaces Western machine guns on its vehicles to simplify maintenance, since the country is an active producer of Russian weapons.
  • EQ2050/SQF2040 – Chinese versions of the HMMWV. There are at least two Chinese automobile manufacturers building HMMWV copies. Both HMMWV copies rely heavily on imported U.S.-made parts, including the chassis, gear box, and diesel engine. Both manufacturers claimed that they will be able to gradually increase the percentage of indigenous-made content on the vehicles in the future, since the PLA is unlikely to accept any equipment that relies largely on foreign made parts.
  • EgyptAOI equips HMMWVs with anti-armor weaponry, including: TOW, Milan, or HOT missiles.
  • Georgia – Georgian HMMWVs have been fitted with PK general purpose machine guns.
  • Greece – Greek HMMWVs, built entirely by ELBO in Greece, are equipped to fire the Russian 9M133 Kornet ATGM. They have storage room for 10 missiles. Another version, the M1115GR, is equipped with the HK GMG 40. Israel's Plasan has developed armored versions of the HMMWV, assembled by ELBO in Greece as the M1114GR, M1115GR and M1118GR.[49] ELBO also produced the Ambulance version, a SOF version, and an engineering version of the HMMWV for the Hellenic Army.
  • Israel – Plasan has also designed and supplied an HMMWV armored protection kit for the Portuguese Army,[50] and a different version assembled by Automotive Industries in Nazareth for the Israel Defense Forces.
  • Mexico – The Dirección General de Industria Militar (DGIM), the Mexican Army's prime wholly owned military manufacturer, builds the HMMWV under license in Mexico[51][52] after a small amount of American-built Humvees proved to be reliable within the Mexican army. Mexican HMMWVs are similar to the American built models but are slightly longer. They feature a standard selective shift automatic transmission connected to a Mercedes Benz diesel engine and an anti-spalling layer in the passenger cabin. Many are equipped with bulletproof windows and a layer of armor unique to these Mexican HMMWVs. In 2010, Mexico displayed a wagon variant with a second gun hatch to cover the rear of the vehicle.[51] This version also featured a more powerful V-12 engine and civilian road wheels to increase top speed capabilities in urban areas.
  • Poland – Polish Land Forces operate 222 HMMWVs (5 unknown variants are operated by special forces). Over 200 are used by the 18th Airborne Battalion which is a part of the 6th Air Assault Brigade. The used variants are designated as follows: Tumak-2 – M1043A2, Tumak-3 – M1025A2, Tumak-4 – M1097A2, Tumak-5 – M1045A2, Tumak-6 – M1097A2 (variant used for transport of special containers), Tumak-7 – M1035A2. All vehicles are modified to meet Polish road regulations and are equipped with Polish communication devices. 140 HMMWVs are equipped with Fonet digital internal communication device. 120 Tumak-2s and Tumak-3s have a rotatable mount which can be fitted with either the UKM-2000P 7.62 mm general purpose machine gun or the NSW-B 12.7 mm heavy machine gun. Tumak-5s are used by anti-tank subunits and are armed with a dismountable Spike missile.[53] Additionally Polish forces of ISAF operate 120 HMMWVs on loan from the U.S. forces.
  • Switzerland – Early MOWAG Eagle light armored vehicles utilized the HMMWV chassis, although the latest uses a Duro III chassis. The Eagle is an NBC-tight, air conditioned and armor protected vehicle. It is in service and available in several configurations with varying levels of armor protection. The Eagle can be fitted with a wide assortment of armaments.
  • TurkeyOtokar Cobra – is a wheeled armoured vehicle developed by Turkish firm Otokar which uses some mechanical components, sub-systems and some parts of the HMMWV.[54][55]

Operators[edit]

HMMWV operator map – dark blue shows original HMMWV operators, light blue shows PRC HMMWV operators
In October 2009, U.S. Marine Corps HMMWVs in the Philippines deliver family food packs to communities affected by Tropical Storm Ketsana.
A HMMWV firing an AGM-114 Hellfire missile.
U.S. Marines in July 2006, pushing an M1114 HMMWV during a 'Humvee Push' competition.
M1114 HMMWVs of the Slovenian military.
HMMWV in Taiwan user for MP. 2011
In August 2008, a Ukrainian М1097А2 HMMWV parades through the streets of downtown Kiev, during Ukrainian Independence Day festivities.
Iraqi Army HMMWVs on display at Camp Echo, Iraq, in December 2008.
In Cambridge Bay, Canada, in May 2009, the Mars Institute's Moon-1 HMMWV Rover waits for a C-130 Hercules from the 109th Airlift Squadron to airlift it to Resolute Bay Airport.
In December 1993, during UNOSOM II, a Saudi Arabian HMMWV departs for the seaport of Mogadishu, Somalia. This particular HMMWV has an M2HB-QCB machine gun mounted on top.

Replicas[edit]

Kits have been produced for the general market to turn a sedan into a Humvee lookalike. An alternative is to buy a preconstructed (or "turnkey") wombat. Various kits exist, but one of the most famous names is the Volkswagen Beetle-based "Wombat" (previously called a HummBug, until the threat of a lawsuit from General Motors forced them to change both the name and the design of the grill to make it look less like the real thing [79][80]). It can be purchased/built for about US$18,000; this puts it considerably cheaper than the actual HMMWV ($56,000), or Hummer. In Australia, a Gold Coast-based company called Rhino Buggies produces replicas of the Hummer H1 based on the Nissan Patrol 4WD vehicle for around A$30,000.[81]

Similar vehicles[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  30. ^ Oshkosh Defense Answers USMCs' Light Vehicle Needs – ASDnews.com, 24 September 2013
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  35. ^ 2006 Hummer H1 Duramax Diesel - The Last Hummer
  36. ^ Hummer H1
  37. ^ Features and Design
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  41. ^ M1165 spec sheet
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  44. ^ VoIP and Call Center News Editor (2007-07-20). "TPI Composites and Armor Holdings Unveil Army's First All-Composite Military Vehicle". Tmcnet.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  45. ^ "TPI Composites engineers, fabricates and builds large scale composite structures and composite components for the wind energy, military, and transportation markets". Tpicomposites.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
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External links[edit]