HMS Black Prince (1904)

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For other ships of the same name, see HMS Black Prince.
HMS Black Prince.jpg
Career Royal Navy Ensign
Name: HMS Black Prince
Namesake: Edward, the Black Prince
Builder: Thames Ironworks
Laid down: 3 June 1903
Launched: 8 November 1904
Commissioned: 17 March 1906
Fate: Sunk, 31 May 1916 at the Battle of Jutland
General characteristics
Class & type: Duke of Edinburgh-class armoured cruiser
Displacement: 12,590 long tons (12,790 t) (normal)
13,965 long tons (14,189 t) (deep load)
Length: 505 ft 6 in (154.1 m)
Beam: 73 ft 6 in (22.4 m)
Draught: 27 ft (8.2 m) (maximum)
Installed power: 23,000 ihp (17,000 kW)
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines
20 Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers and 6 cylindrical boilers
Speed: 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph)
Range: 8,130 nmi (15,060 km; 9,360 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Complement: 789
Armament: 6 × 1 - BL 9.2-inch (234 mm) Mk X guns
10 × 1 - BL 6-inch (152 mm) Mk XI guns
20 × 1 - Vickers QF 3-pounder guns
3 × 1 - submerged 18 in (460 mm) torpedo tubes
Armour: Belt: 3–6 in (76–152 mm)
Decks: 0.75–1.5 in (19–38 mm)
Barbettes: 3–6 in (76–152 mm)
Turrets: 4.5–7.5 in (110–190 mm)
Conning tower: 10 in (250 mm)
Bulkheads: 2–6 in (51–152 mm)

HMS Black Prince was a Duke of Edinburgh-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1900s. She was stationed in the Mediterranean when the First World War began and participated in the pursuit of the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and light cruiser SMS Breslau. After the German ships reached Ottoman waters, the ship was sent to the Red Sea in mid-August to protect troop convoys arriving from India and to search for German merchant ships. After capturing two ships, Black Prince was transferred to the Grand Fleet in December 1914 and was sunk during the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, with all hands killed.

Design and description[edit]

Two armoured cruisers of a new design, HMS Duke of Edinburgh and Black Prince, the latter named for Edward, the Black Prince, were ordered for the Royal Navy as part of the 1902–03 Naval Estimates. They were the first ships to be designed for the Royal Navy under the supervision of the new Director of Naval Construction, Sir Philip Watts. The new design was significantly larger than the previous Monmouth and Devonshire class cruisers, mounting a heavier main armament of six 9.2 in (234 mm) guns in single turrets.[1][2]

Black Prince displaced 12,590 long tons (12,790 t) as built and 13,965 long tons (14,189 t) fully loaded. The ship had an overall length of 505 feet 6 inches (154.1 m), a beam of 73 feet 6 inches (22.4 m) and a draught of 27 feet (8.2 m). She was powered by four-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines, driving two shafts, which produced a total of 23,000 indicated horsepower (17,000 kW) and gave a maximum speed of 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph). The engines were powered by 20 Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers and six cylindrical boilers. The ship carried a maximum of 2,150 long tons (2,180 t) of coal and an additional 600 long tons (610 t) of fuel oil that was sprayed on the coal to increase its burn rate. At full capacity, she could steam for 8,130 nautical miles (15,060 km; 9,360 mi) at a speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). The ship's complement was 789 officers and enlisted men.[3]

Her main armament consisted of six BL 9.2-inch Mk X guns in single turrets, two on the centreline and two on each beam, giving a broadside of four 9.2 in guns. Her secondary armament of four BL 6-inch Mark XI guns was arranged in single casemates. They were mounted amidships on the main deck and were only usable in calm weather. Twenty Vickers QF 3-pounders were fitted, six on turret roofs and fourteen in the superstructure. The ship also mounted three submerged 18-inch torpedo tubes.[4]

Operational history[edit]

Black Prince was laid down on 3 June 1903 at the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company's shipyard at Blackwall, London. She was launched on 8 November 1904 and completed on 17 March 1906.[1] When completed, Black Prince served with the 2nd Squadron until 1907, the 1st Cruiser Squadron from 1907–1908, the 5th Cruiser Squadron (as part of the Atlantic Fleet) from 1908–1912 and the Third from 1912–1913.[5]

At the beginning of the First World War, the Black Prince was one of the four armoured cruisers serving in the 1st Cruiser Squadron of the Mediterranean Fleet, commanded by Rear-Admiral Ernest Charles Thomas Troubridge. She participated in the pursuit of Goeben and Breslau. Following the escape of the two German ships to neutral Turkey, Black Prince and Duke of Edinburgh were sent into the Red Sea to search for German merchant ships, with Black Prince capturing the German ocean liners Südmark and Istria.[5] On 6 November, she was ordered to Gibraltar to join a squadron of French and British ships to search for German warships still at sea off the African coast. This was cancelled on 19 November after the location of the German East Asia Squadron was revealed by survivors of the Battle of Coronel.[6] Black Prince joined the Grand Fleet in December 1914 and was assigned to the 1st Cruiser Squadron under Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Keith Arbuthnot.[7]

Black Prince was modified in March 1916 as a result of lessons learned at the Battle of Coronel, with the 6-inch guns removed from their casemates and replaced by six 6-inch guns mounted individually behind shields between the beam 9.2-inch turrets.[5][8]

The ship participated in the Battle of Jutland, where she was sunk with heavy loss of life. The circumstances under which she sank were mysterious for some years after. As the British had lost contact and did not see the ship destroyed, they were unsure as to whether a submarine or surface ship was responsible for sinking the Black Prince.[9] During the battle, the First Cruiser Squadron was deployed as part of a screening force several miles ahead of the main force of the Grand Fleet,[10] but Black Prince lost contact with the rest of the Squadron as it came into contact with German forces, at about 17:42.[11] Soon after, two other members of the First Cruiser Squadron, HMS Defence and HMS Warrior were heavily engaged by German battleships and battlecruisers, with Defence blowing up and Warrior receiving heavy damage, which later caused her to sink.[12]

Loss[edit]

There were no positive sightings of Black Prince by the British fleet after that, although a wireless signal from her was received at 20:45, reporting a submarine sighting.[11] During the night of 31 May–1 June, the British destroyer HMS Spitfire, badly damaged after colliding with the German battleship Nassau, sighted what appeared to be a German battlecruiser, with two widely spaced funnels, described as being "...a mass of fire from foremast to mainmast, on deck and between decks. Flames were issuing out of her from every corner." The mystery ship exploded at about midnight. It was later thought that the burning ship may have been Black Prince, with the two midships funnels having collapsed or been shot away.[13]

Recent historians, however, hold to the German account of the ship's sinking. Black Prince briefly engaged the German battleship Rheinland at about 23:35 GMT, scoring two hits with 6-inch shells.[14] Separated from the rest of the British fleet, the Black Prince approached the German lines at approximately midnight. She turned away from the German battleships, but it was too late. The German battleship Thüringen fixed the Black Prince in her searchlights and opened fire. Up to five other German ships, including battleships Nassau, Ostfriesland, and Friedrich der Grosse, joined in the bombardment, with return fire from Black Prince being ineffective. Most of the German ships were between 750 and 1500 yards of the Black Prince [15] — effectively point blank range for contemporary naval gunnery. Black Prince was hit by at least twelve heavy shells and several smaller ones,[16] sinking within 15 minutes. There were no survivors from Black Prince's crew, all 857 being killed.[17]

The wrecksite is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.[18]

Popular culture[edit]

In the first episode of Series 4 of the SBS-TV (Australia) series Who Do You Think You Are?, Australian writer-actor-comedian Shaun Micallef discovered that his great-grandfather Giovanni (John) Micallef, a steward on the Black Prince, was among those killed.[19]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chesneau and Kolesnik 1979, p. 71.
  2. ^ Brown 2003, p. 161.
  3. ^ Parkes 1990, p. 442.
  4. ^ Parkes 1990, pp. 442–443.
  5. ^ a b c Gardiner and Gray 1985, p. 13.
  6. ^ Corbett 1938, I, p. 371, 406–407.
  7. ^ Corbett 1929, II, p. 418.
  8. ^ Brown 2003, pp. 161–162.
  9. ^ Jellicoe 1919, p. 477.
  10. ^ Campbell 1998, p.36.
  11. ^ a b Campbell 1998, p.122.
  12. ^ Campbell 1998, pp. 152–153.
  13. ^ Fawcett and Hooper 1921, pp. 180–181.
  14. ^ Campbell 1998, pp. 286–287.
  15. ^ Campbell 1998, p. 290.
  16. ^ Campbell 1998, p. 303.
  17. ^ Campbell 1998, p. 338.
  18. ^ SI 2008/950 Designation under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986
  19. ^ SBS-TV - Who Do You Think You Are (Series 4)

References[edit]

  • Brown, David K. (2003). Warrior to Dreadnought: Warship Developments 1860–1905. London: Caxton Editions. ISBN 1-84067-529-2. 
  • Campbell, John (1998). Jutland: An Analysis of the Fighting. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 1-55821-759-2. 
  • Chesneau, Roger; Kolesnik, Eugene M., eds. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4. 
  • Corbett, Julian. Naval Operations to the Battle of the Falklands. History of the Great War: Based on Official Documents I (2nd, reprint of the 1938 ed.). London and Nashville, TN: Imperial War Museum and Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-256-X. 
  • Corbett, Julian (1997). Naval Operations. History of the Great War: Based on Official Documents II (reprint of the 1929 second ed.). London and Nashville, TN: Imperial War Museum in association with the Battery Press. ISBN 1-870423-74-7. 
  • Fawcett, Harold William; Hooper, Geoffrey William Winsmore (1921). The Fighting at Jutland: the Personal Experiences of Forty-Five Officers and Men of the British Fleet (Abridged ed.). London: Macmillan. 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, eds. (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. 
  • Jellicoe, John (1919). The Grand Fleet 1914–1916: Its Creation, Development and Work. New York: George H. Doran. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  • Parkes, Oscar (1990). British Battleships (reprint of the 1957 ed.). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-075-4. 
  • Roberts, John. "HMS Cochrane". Warship. Warship. III:9. London: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 34–6. ISBN 0-85177-204-8. Retrieved 5 August 2009.