HMS Black Prince (81)

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For other ships of the same name, see HMS Black Prince.
HMS Black Prince 1944 IWM FL 2239.jpg
Black Prince under tow on the River Tyne, July 1944
Career (United Kingdom)
Name: HMS Black Prince
Namesake: Edward, the Black Prince
Builder: Harland & Wolff (Belfast, Northern Ireland)
Laid down: 1 December 1939
Launched: 27 August 1942
Commissioned: 30 November 1943
Decommissioned: March 1962
Out of service: Loaned to the Royal New Zealand Navy, 25 May 1946
Fate: Sold for scrap in March 1962, arrived at Mitsui & Company, Osaka breakage yards, Japan, on 2 May 1962 for breaking up
Notes: Pennant number 81
Career (New Zealand)
Name: HMNZS Black Prince
Commissioned: 17 April 1946
Out of service: Returned to Royal Navy control on 1 April 1961
General characteristics
Class & type: Dido-class light cruiser
Displacement: 5,950 tons standard
7,200 tons full load
Length: 485 ft (148 m) pp
512 ft (156 m) oa
Beam: 50.5 ft (15.4 m)
Draught: 14 ft (4.3 m)
Propulsion: Parsons geared turbines
Four shafts
Four Admiralty 3-drum boilers
62,000 shp (46 MW)
Speed: 32.25 knots (60 km/h)
Range: 2,414 km (1,303 nmi; 1,500 mi) at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)
6,824 km (4,240 miles) at 16 knots
1,100 tons fuel oil
Complement: 530
Armament:
Original configuration:
  • 8 × 5.25 in (133 mm) dual guns
  • 6 × 20 mm dual AA guns
  • 3 × 2 pdr (37 mm/40 mm) pom-poms quad guns
  • 2 × 21 in (533 mm) triple Torpedo Tubes

Early 1945 - Mid 1946 configuration:

  • 8 × 5.25 in (133 mm) (4 × 2)
  • 12 × 2 pdr (1.5 in) pom-poms (3 × 4)
  • 24 × 20 mm AA (8 × 2, 8 × 1)
  • 6 × 21 in (533 mm) Torpedo Tubes (2 × 3)
Armor:
Original configuration:
  • Belt: 3 inch
  • Deck: 1 inch
  • Magazines: 2 inch
  • Bulkheads: 1 inch

HMS Black Prince was a Dido-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy, of the Bellona subgroup. The cruiser was commissioned in 1943, and served during World War II on the Arctic convoys, during the Normandy landings, and as part of the British Pacific Fleet. In 1946, the cruiser was loaned to the Royal New Zealand Navy, becoming HMNZS Black Prince. The cruiser was docked for modernisation in 1947, but in April, her sailors walked off the ship as part of a series of mutinies in the RNZN. The shortage of manpower resulting from these mutinies meant that the modernisation had to be cancelled, and Black Prince was placed in reserve until 1953. The ship was decommissioned again two years later, and she was returned to the Royal Navy in 1961. Black Prince did not re-enter service, and was towed from Auckland to the Osaka breakage yards for scrapping in 1962

Design and construction[edit]

She was a modified Dido design, sometimes called Dido Group 2, or the Bellona subgroup with only four 5.25-inch mounts instead of five, and improved anti-aircraft armament. She was built by Harland & Wolff of Belfast, Northern Ireland, with her keel being laid down on 1 December 1939.[1][2] She was launched on 27 August 1942,[1][2] and commissioned on 30 November 1943.[2]

Black Prince was named after Prince Edward (1330-1376), the eldest son of King Edward III.

Operational history[edit]

Royal Navy[edit]

After commissioning, Black Prince served on Arctic convoys and then came south in preparation for the invasion of Europe, being employed on offensive sweeps against German coastal convoy traffic. On the night of 25 and 26 April 1944, accompanied by Canadian destroyers, she was involved in the action which sank the torpedo boat T29 and damaged T24 and T27 off the north Brittany coast.

During the Normandy landings, she was part of Force "A" of Task Force 125 in support of Utah Beach. Task Force 125 at this time consisted of the battleship USS Nevada, the cruisers USS Quincy, USS Tuscaloosa, Black Prince, the monitor HMS Erebus and several destroyers and destroyer escorts.[3]Black Prince's target was the battery at Morsalines.[4][5] In August, she moved to the Mediterranean for the invasion of Southern France.[6] She was then sent to Aegean waters in September 1944. On 8 September, Black Prince arrived in Alexandria, Egypt, where she was ordered to sweep the area around Scarpanto and the Gulf of Salonica. On one occasion she bombarded the airfield at Maleme on the island of Crete to prevent German aircraft from taking off.

On 21 November 1944, Black Prince left Alexandria, passed through the Suez Canal into the Red Sea and then on into the Indian Ocean. She arrived at Colombo in Ceylon on 30 November to join the East Indies Fleet where she covered the aircraft carrier raids against Japanese oil installations and airfields in Sumatra and Malaya (Operation Meridian).

On 16 January 1945, she sailed as part of the British Pacific Fleet, seeing action off Okinawa and in the final bombardments of the Japanese mainland before withdrawing to repossess Hong Kong in September.

Royal New Zealand Navy[edit]

After the Japanese surrender, she remained in the Far East, and was transferred to the Royal New Zealand Navy on 25 May 1946. During 1947, the cruiser was docked for modernisation, but this was cancelled following a series of mutinies in April (which included the sailors from Black Prince), as the RNZN no longer had the manpower to operate her.[7] Black Prince was placed in reserve. Work on reactivating the ship began in January 1952, and she was recommissioned in February 1953.[8] In the same year she took part in the Fleet Review to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.[9] The cruiser was decommissioned again in August 1955, and reverted to Royal Navy control, still in an un-modernised condition,[citation needed] on 1 April 1961.[8]

Fate[edit]

She was sold for scrap in March 1962 and towed from Auckland on 5 April to the Mitsui & Company, Osaka breakage yards, Japan, by the tug Benten Maru, arriving there on 2 May 1962.[2]

Commanding officers[edit]

From To Captain
1953 1953 Captain G V M Dolphin DSO RN
1955 1957

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jane's Fighting Ships of World War II, London: The Random House Group Ltd. ISBN 1-85170-494-9
  2. ^ a b c d HMS Black Prince at Uboat.net
  3. ^ (Dutch) Go2War2.nl - Overlord, Assault Force U (Utah)
  4. ^ Buffetaut Y. (1994). D-Day Ships, London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-639-6
  5. ^ HMS Black Prince
  6. ^ Naval-History.net - HMS Black Prince
  7. ^ Frame, Tom; Baker, Kevin (2000). Mutiny! Naval Insurrections in Australia and New Zealand. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. pp. 185–206. ISBN 1-86508-351-8. OCLC 46882022. 
  8. ^ a b Gillett, Ross (1988). Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946. Brookvale, NSW: Child & Associates. p. 137. ISBN 0-86777-219-0. OCLC 23470364. 
  9. ^ Souvenir Programme, Coronation Review of the Fleet, Spithead, 15th June 1953, HMSO, Gale and Polden

References[edit]