HMS Prince of Wales (1860)

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For other ships of the same name, see HMS Prince of Wales.
HMS Britannia by Henry J Morgan.jpg
HMS Britannia, painting by Henry J. Morgan
Career (UK) Royal Navy Ensign
Name: HMS Prince of Wales [1]
Ordered: 29 June 1848 [2]
Re-ordered to complete as screw 9 April 1856 [2]
Builder: Portsmouth Dockyard[1][2]
Laid down: 10 June 1848 [1]
Commenced conversion to steam 27 October 1856[1]
Launched: 25 January 1860[1]
Renamed: HMS Britannia, 3 March 1869[1]
Fate: Sold 13 September 1914[1]
Arrived at Blyth for breaking up July 1916[3]
Status: Engines removed 1867.[3]
Hulked from September 1909.[3]
General characteristics
Class & type: Modified Queen-class 120- gun three-decker (as designed)[2]
Screw three-decker (as built)[1]
Tonnage: 3,186 tons (as designed)[1][2]
3,966 tons (as redesigned for steam)[3]
3,994 tons (as built)[3]
Displacement: 6,201 tons (6,112 tonnes) (as built)[3]
Length: 210 ft (64 m) overall (as designed)[1][2]
171 ft 1 in (52.1 m) keel-line (as designed)[2]
252 ft 0 in (76.8 m) overall (as built)[2]
213 ft 0 in (64.9 m) keel-line (as built)[1]
Beam: 60 ft 0 in (18.3 m) (as designed)[2]
60 ft 2 in (18.3 m) (as built)[3]
Draught: 25 ft 5 in (if fully stored)[1]
Depth of hold: 25 ft 2 in (7.7 m)[1]
Propulsion: Sails as designed
Sails and screw as built
single lifting screw, 800 nhp Penn engines 3,352 ihp (trials 31 Oct 1860)[1]
Main mast 67 ft x 42 in, Fore mast 61 ft x 40 in, Mizen 51 ft 6 in x 26 in (if fitted).[1]
Speed: 12.569 knots (23.293 km/h) Stokes Bay trials 31 Oct 1860[1]
Complement: 970 (as sailing ship)[2]
1,100[1][3]
Armament:

Gun deck 32 x 8 inch 65 cwt
Middle deck 30 x 8 in 65 cwt
Main deck 32 x 32 pdr 58 cwt
Upper deck 26 x 32 pdr 42 cwt 1 x 68 pdr 95 cwt

(Armament scheme at time of launch.)[1][3]
Notes: Cost of building £134,192[1]

HMS Prince of Wales was one of six 121-gun screw-propelled first-rate three-decker line-of-battle ships of the Royal Navy. She was launched on 25 January 1860.

In 1869 she was renamed HMS Britannia and under that name served at Dartmouth as a cadet training ship until 1905.

History[edit]

The Prince of Wales was originally a 3,186 ton 120 gun design by John Edye and Isaac Watts for a modified Queen-class sailing line-of-battle ship. She was laid down at Portsmouth on 10 June 1848, though she was not formally ordered until 29 June, and the design was approved on 28 July 1848.[2]

In 1849, the Royal Navy started ordering screw line-of-battle ships starting with the Agamemnon.[4] It is possible that construction of Prince of Wales was suspended, as screw line-of-battle ships laid down after her, were completed before her. Prince of Wales was reordered to complete as a 121 gun screw line-of-battle ship on 9 April 1856,[2] conversion work started on 27 October 1856.[2] Her half-sisters Duke of Wellington and Royal Sovereign were lengthened with an extra 23 ft amidships and 8 ft in the run, and originally it was intended that Marlborough and Prince of Wales would be converted to the same plans, but they were further lengthened during construction.[5]

Her engines were 800 nhp Penn[1] two-cylinder (82 inch diameter, 4 ft stroke) horizontal single expansion trunk engines.[3]

She was launched on 25 January 1860, and did her trials at sea in Stokes Bay on 31 October 1860 unrigged. She made an average of 12.569 knots (23.293 km/h ).[1]

Prince of Wales was completed towards the end of the unarmoured phase of a naval arms race between Britain and France. In 1860 the Royal Navy had more wooden steam line-of-battle ships than it needed to man in peacetime. The Royal Navy's first armoured line-of-battle ship, Warrior was commissioned in 1861. Unarmoured screw line-of-battle ships were still of value in the early to mid-1860s, and several new screw line-of-battle ships were commissioned in the 1860s.[6]

In 1867, the Prince of Wales's engines were removed so they could be installed in the ironclad Repulse. In 1869 she was renamed Britannia and began service as a cadet training ship at Dartmouth, replacing the previous Britannia in that role.[3] As Britannia, she was a hulk, and only had her foremast.[7] Among those starting their naval career on her was, in 1877, the future Admiral and First Sea Lord Rosslyn Wemyss.

A shore-based college at Dartmouth was opened in September 1905 and this was named Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. The Britannia training establishment was closed at the same time.[8]

A new King Edward VII-class battleship called Britannia was launched in December 1904.[9] The former Prince of Wales was officially hulked in September 1909, sold to Garnham on 23 September 1914, then resold to Hughes Bolckow arriving at Blyth in July 1916 for breaking up.[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Lambert, Andrew Battleships in Transition, the Creation of the Steam Battlefleet 1815-1860 pages 122, 127-128
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, page 90.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, page 183.
  4. ^ Lambert, Andrew Battleships in Transition, the Creation of the Steam Battlefleet 1815-1860
  5. ^ Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, page 182.
  6. ^ For instance the new screw three-decker Victoria was first commissioned in 1864, and the new screw two-deckers Gibraltar and Duncan were first commissioned in 1863 and 1864 respectively. See Lambert Battleships in Transition.
  7. ^ See photograph of Britannia at the turn of the century on page 127 of Lambert Battleships in Transition, the Creation of the Steam Battlefleet 1815-1860.
  8. ^ Lord Tweedmouth, First Lord's Statement explanatory of Navy Estimates, 1906-7, 26 February 1906, reproduced in The Naval Annual 1906, page 370.
  9. ^ Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1806-1905, p. 38.

References[edit]

  • Lambert, Andrew Battleships in Transition, the Creation of the Steam Battlefleet 1815-1860, published Conway Maritime Press, 1984. ISBN 0-85177-315-X
  • Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, published Chatham, 2004, ISBN 1-86176-032-9