HMS Caroline (1914)
HMS Caroline in 1917.
|Career (United Kingdom)|
|Laid down:||28 January 1914|
|Launched:||29 September 1914|
|Commissioned:||4 December 1914|
|Decommissioned:||31 March 2011|
|Motto:||Tenax Propositi ("Tenacious of Purpose")|
|Battle honour for Jutland 1916|
|Status:||"Moored in perpetuity" in Belfast, Northern Ireland|
|Class & type:||C-class light cruiser|
|Displacement:||Nominal: 3,750 tons
Loaded: 4,219 tons
Deep: 4,733 tons
|Length:||420 ft (128.0 m) (446 ft (135.9 m) overall)|
|Beam:||41.5 ft (12.6 m)|
|Draught:||16 ft (5 m) maximum|
|Propulsion:||4 shaft Parsons turbines
Power: 40,000 shp
|Speed:||28.5 knots (53 km/h)|
|Range:||carried 405 tons (772 tons maximum) of fuel oil|
|Armour:||Belt: 3 to 1 in
Decks: 1 inch
The eighth HMS Caroline is a decommissioned C-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy that saw combat service in World War I and served as an administrative centre in World War II. Caroline was launched and commissioned in 1914. At the time of her decommissioning in 2011 she was the second-oldest ship in Royal Navy service, after HMS Victory. She served as a static headquarters and training ship for the Royal Naval Reserve, based in Alexandra Dock, Belfast, Northern Ireland, for the later stages of her career. She was the last remaining British First World War light cruiser in service, and she remains the last survivor of the Battle of Jutland still afloat. She is also one of only three surviving Royal Navy warships of the First World War, along with the 1915 Monitor HMS M33 in Portsmouth dockyard), and the Flower class sloop HMS President (1918), (formerly HMS Saxifrage) moored on the Thames at Blackfriars.
HMS Caroline was built by Cammell Laird of Birkenhead. She was laid down on 28 January 1914, launched on 29 September 1914 and completed in December 1914. Caroline was part of the early sub-set of C-class light cruisers built without geared turbines and subsequent comparisons with later vessels of the same class demonstrated the superiority of geared propulsion. Caroline's machinery is still in place today, although not in working order.
First World War
Caroline was commissioned on 4 December 1914 and served in the North Sea throughout the First World War. Upon commissioning, she joined the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands, serving as leader of the 4th Destroyer Flotilla. She was part of the Grand Fleet's 1st Light Cruiser Squadron from February to November 1915. In early 1916 she joined the Grand Fleet's 4th Light Cruiser Squadron and remained with it – fighting as part of it at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May-1 June 1916 under the command of Captain Henry R. Crooke – through the end of the war in November 1918. From 1917 until late 1918, she carried a flying-off platform for the launching of Royal Naval Air Service and later Royal Air Force fighters to intercept German airships operating over the North Sea.
Caroline remained in the 4th Light Cruiser Squadron after World War I and in June 1919 went with the rest of the squadron to serve on the East Indies Station. In February 1922 she paid off into dockyard control and was placed in reserve. She came out of reserve in February 1924 to became a headquarters and training ship for the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve's Ulster Division at Belfast, Northern Ireland, officially beginning those duties on 1 April 1924. Harland and Wolff of Belfast removed her weaponry and boilers around 1924 after her arrival in Belfast.
Second World War
From 1939 until 1945, during the Second World War, Caroline served as the Royal Navy's headquarters in Belfast Harbour, which was used as a home base by many of the warships escorting Atlantic and Arctic convoys, including Captain-class frigates of the 3rd Escort Group.
As Belfast developed into a major naval base during the Second World War, its headquarters outgrew the confines of HMS Caroline herself and occupied different establishments in various parts of the city. Eventually several thousand ratings were wearing Caroline cap tallies. The first such establishment was set up in the Belfast Custom House. Later, Belfast Castle was taken over and included a radio station. There were depth charge pistol and Hedgehog repair workshops associated with HMS Caroline, some of which would have been on the quays beside her berth in Milewater Basin.
During the early part of the Second World War when RAF Belfast occupied Sydenham (Belfast harbour) airfield, Fleet Air Arm personnel based there were lodged under HMS Caroline. In 1943, the airfield was transferred to the Admiralty and commissioned as HMS Gadwall.
After the Second World War, the Royal Navy returned Caroline to the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, and she served as its last afloat training establishment. She underwent a refit at Harland and Wolff in Belfast in 1951.
The Royal Naval Reserve Unit decommissioned from the ship in December 2009, moved ashore, and recommissioned as the "stone frigate" (i.e., shore establishment) HMS Hibernia. Caroline herself was decommissioned on 31 March 2011 in a traditional ceremony. Her ensign was laid up in St Anne's Cathedral in Belfast.
Caroline is listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, Core Collection. On her decommissioning, she was placed into the care of the National Museum of the Royal Navy at Portsmouth, though remaining moored in her position in Alexandra Dock in Belfast. Although no longer capable of making way under her own power, Caroline remains afloat and in excellent condition. Buffeting from waves and high winds have caused the ship to almost come away from her moorings several times. In 2005, during a storm, she ripped several huge bollards out of the jetty concrete, but failed to break free entirely. She is not normally open to tourists, although entrance can be gained during the annual RMS Titanic celebrations.
Upon Caroline's decommissioning in 2011, her future was uncertain, with several proposals put forward. Proposals have been made to return the ship to her First World War appearance, which among other things would involve sourcing and installing 4-inch (102-mm) guns of that era and removing of the large deckhouse from her midships deck. One proposal considered was to remain in Belfast as a museum ship within the Titanic Quarter development alongside SS Nomadic. Another was a move to Portsmouth, with many of her original fittings restored to return her as much as possible to her First World War appearance. Thus far the estimated costs involved have been prohibitive and no scheme has progressed beyond the discussion stage.
In June 2012 plans to move Caroline to Portsmouth were announced, subject to the availability of funding. However, in October 2012 the Northern Ireland government announced that the ship would remain in Belfast and that the National Heritage Memorial Fund had pledged £1,000,000 to help to restore her. In May 2013 the Heritage Lottery Fund announced an £845,600 grant to support conversion work as a museum.
At her decommissioning in 2011, Caroline held the title of the second-oldest ship in Royal Navy service, as well as being the last First World War British light cruiser in service. She is the last survivor of the Battle of Jutland.[Note 1]
Caroline retains the record of having the fastest build time of any significant warship – nine months from her keel being laid until her launch.
- Among warships afloat, the oldest steel warship appears to be the Netherlands ironclad turret-ram Hr Ms Buffel, launched in 1868 and now a museum ship in Rotterdam, although Buffel is not in commission. HMS Warrior, launched in 1860, is not in commission, and required extensive refurbishment, but is now afloat in Portsmouth. One of the oldest steel warships afloat known to have fought in battle is the USS Olympia launched in November 1892, but it was decommissioned in 1922. Even older and still afloat in the Chilean port of Talcahuano is the ironclad Huáscar, launched in 1865, and which saw extensive service in battle during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883), being now a museum ship. The Russian cruiser Aurora is also afloat and, having been launched in December 1900, is older than Caroline, and is today in commission, but it was an uncommissioned museum ship from 1957 to about 1990. Of ships not afloat, the Japanese battleship Mikasa launched in November 1900 is older than Caroline and the Russian cruiser Aurora, but it is neither in commission nor afloat; it became a museum ship in 1921 and is in drydock. A Swedish ironclad monitor launched in the 1870s, HMS Sölve, is (January 2009) under restoration at the Goteborg Maritime Centre, but it is unknown whether it will be displayed afloat or dry. The Greek armored cruiser Georgios Averof, launched in 1911, is still apparently afloat and commissioned.
- Gardiner, Robert, ed., Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906-1921, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1985, ISBN 0-87021-907-3, OCLC 423834653, LCCN 84-42782, p. 56, (preview of 2006 reprint).
- The Grand Fleet: Warship Design and Development 1906–1922, D. K Brown
- Gardiner, Robert, ed., Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906-1921, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1985, ISBN 0-87021-907-3, OCLC 423834653, LCCN 84-42782, p. 57, (preview of 2006 reprint).
- Colledge, J. J., Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of All Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy From the Fifteenth Century to the Present, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-652-X, p. 74.
- Weir, Fiona (1 April 2011). "End of an era for HMS Caroline". British Forces Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "HMS Caroline options considered by Royal Navy museum". BBC News online. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Historic warship HMS Caroline set to leave Belfast". BBC News online. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- BBC News: HMS Caroline WWI warship to stay in Belfast
- "Historic warship HMS Caroline gets £845,600 boost". BBC News Online. 9 May 2013.
- Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) . Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
- Jane's Fighting Ships of World War One (1919), Jane's Publishing Company
- Ships of the Caroline class
- Jane's Fighting Ships for 1919 – Caroline-class
- Allison, R.S. (1974). HMS Caroline: a brief account of some warships bearing the name, and in particular of HMS Caroline (1914–1974), and of her part in the development of the Ulster Division, RNVR, and later RNR. Belfast: The Blackstaff Press. ISBN 0-85640-056-4.
- Friedman, Norman (2010). British Cruisers. Seaforth Publishing. pp. 43, 57, 59, 61–62. ISBN 978-1-84832-078-9.