HMS Grafton (1892)

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For other ships of the same name, see HMS Grafton.
HMS Grafton.jpg
HMS Grafton
Career Royal Navy Ensign
Name: HMS Grafton
Builder: Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company
Laid down: 1 January 1890
Launched: 30 January 1892
Commissioned: Portsmouth September 10 1895
Fate: Sold for breaking up 1 July 1920
General characteristics
Displacement: 7,350 tons
Length: 387.5 ft (118.1 m)
Beam: 60 ft (18 m)
Armament:

2 x BL 9.2-inch (233.7 mm) Mk VI guns
10 x QF 6-inch (152.4 mm) guns

12 x 6pdr guns

HMS Grafton was a first class cruiser of the Edgar class, launched in 1892, she served colonial service, and in the First World War.

Construction[edit]

Grafton was laid down at the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company's London shipyard on 1 January 1890, and launched on 30 January 1892.[1] She undertook sea trials in June 1893, maintaining a speed of 19 12 knots (36.1 km/h; 22.4 mph) with her engines under natural draught, where they produced 10,957 indicated horsepower (8,171 kW), and 20 15 knots (37.4 km/h; 23.2 mph) with engines under forced draught, when they were measured at 13,484 indicated horsepower (10,055 kW).[2]

Service[edit]

Commissioned at Portsmouth on September 10 1895, she served in the China sea on the China station from April 22 1896 till September 10 1899. In December 1901 she was ordered to relieve the Warspite as flagship on the Pacific Station.[3] She was commissioned at Chatham by Captain J. L. Marx on 14 January 1902, with a complement of 571 officers and men.[4] Leaving Plymouth on 31 January 1902,[5] she stopped at Madeira, São Vicente, Montevideo and Sandy Point before arriving at the garrison of the Pacific station in Valparaíso in mid-March.

On the outbreak of the First World War, Grafton was part of the 10th Cruiser Squadron, which was employed in enforcing the naval blockade of Germany.[6] In December 1914,[7] with the Edgar class having proved unsuitable for Blockade work in the North Sea, Grafton was withdrawn from active service, with her two 9.2 inch guns removed to arm the M-15-class monitors M23 and M28.[8][9] It was decided to refit four ships of the Edgar class, including Grafton, for shore bombardment work for the planned operations in the Dardanelles. Two 6 inch guns replaced the 9.2 inch weapons that had been removed to arm the M15-class ships, while anti-torpedo bulges were fitted. These reduced the ship's speed by 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph).[8][10]

Grafton, along with her sisters Endymion, Edgar and Theseus, served in the Gallipoli Campaign from July 1915. Grafton carried out shore bombardment during the landing at Suvla Bay and the Battle of Sari Bair in August 1915. She was struck by Turkish shells off Sulva on 12 August, killing nine of her crew.[11] Grafton helped to cover the evacuations from Anzac Cove on 20 December 1915 and from Cape Helles in January 1916.[12] Grafton was later awarded the Battle honour "DARDANELLES, Feb 1915- Jan 1916" for her service off Gallipoli.[13]

On 10 June 1917, Grafton was torpedoed by the German U-boat UB-43 150 nautical miles (280 km) east of Malta.[14] Grafton's anti-torpedo bulges proved effective and damage was limited, allowing her to be safely brought into port at Malta under her own power with no casualties.[15][14][16] She later took part in the Battle of Jaffa.

Grafton was sold for breaking up at Plymouth on 1 July 1920.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chesneau and Kolesnik 1979, p. 66.
  2. ^ The Engineer 30 June 1895, p. 564.
  3. ^ "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Friday, 6 December 1901. (36631), p. 6.
  4. ^ "Court circular" The Times (London). Wednesday, 15 January 1902. (36665), p. 6.
  5. ^ "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Saturday, 1 February 1902. (36680), p. 13.
  6. ^ Jellicoe 1919, p. 11.
  7. ^ From the Royal Navy log book for HMS Grafton, 9 December 1914. Transcribed by the Old Weather[?] project.
  8. ^ a b Gardiner and Gray 1985, pp. 10–11.
  9. ^ Gardiner and Gray 1985, pp. 47–48.
  10. ^ Brown 2010, p. 163.
  11. ^ Kindell, Don (2011). "1st – 31st August 1915: in date, ship/unit & name order". World War 1 - Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy and Dominion Navies. Naval-History.net. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  12. ^ Corbett, Julian S. (2013) [Originally published by Longmans, Green and Co.: London, 1924]. "History of the Great War - Naval Operations, Volume 3, Spring 1915 to June 1916 (Part 1 of 2)". Naval-History.net. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "Battle Honours and Single-Ship Actions of the Royal Navy 1914–18". Naval-History.net. 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2014. .
  14. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Grafton (hms)". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
  15. ^ Gibson and Prendergast, p. 260.
  16. ^ Brown 2010, pp. 163–164.
  17. ^ Dittmar and Colledge 1972, p. 38.

Sources[edit]