HMS Java (1811)

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For other ships of the same name, see HMS Java.
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USS Constitution capturing HMS Java
Career (France) French Navy Ensign
Name: Renommée
Builder: Basse-Indre Nantes
Laid down: 1805
Launched: 21 August 1808
Captured: 20 May 1811
Career (UK) Royal Navy Ensign
Name: HMS Java
Acquired: 20 May 1811
In service: May 1811
Captured: 29 December 1812
Fate: Burnt on 1 January 1813
General characteristics
Class & type: Pallas-class fifth-rate frigate
Tons burthen: 1073 4194 (bm)
Length: 152 ft 5 12 in (46.5 m) (gundeck); 126 ft 5 12 in (38.5 m) (keel)
Beam: 39 ft 11 38 in (12.2 m)
Depth of hold: 12 ft 9 in (3.9 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
Complement: 397
Armament: 28 x 18-pounder guns

2 x 12-pounder guns
18 x 32-pounder carronades

1 x 24-pounder carronade

HMS Java was a British Royal Navy 38-gun fifth-rate frigate. She was originally launched in 1805 as the Renommée, described as a 40-gun Pallas-class French Navy frigate, but the vessel actually carried 46 guns. The British captured her in 1811 in a noteworthy action during the Battle of Tamatave, but she is most famous for her defeat on 29 December 1812 in a three-hour single-ship action against the USS Constitution. The Java had a crew of about 277 but during her engagement with Constitution her complement was 475.[1]

French service[edit]

In May 1811, she was part of a three-sail squadron under François Roquebert, comprising Renommée, Clorinde and Néréide,[2] and ferrying troops to Mauritius. On 20 May, the French encountered a British squadron comprising Astraea, Phoebe, Galatea, and Racehorse. In the ensuing Battle of Tamatave, Renommée struck after her mainsail was set on fire. The British captured Néréide five days later at Tamatave, Madagascar. Clorinde, commanded by Jacques de Saint-Cricq, escaped.

The British brought Renommée into service as Java and Néréide as Madagascar.

Royal Navy service[edit]

In July Java was under Captain William Gordon, but not commissioned until August under Captain Henry Lambert,[3] a senior commander who had seen combat on a number of occasions in His Majesty's service.[4]

Java sailed from Portsmouth on 12 November for Bombay to deliver the appointed Governor, Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Hislop, and his staff with their baggage, and naval stores (including copper plates for the under construction Cornwallis, at Bombay, and plans for the new ship, the Trincomalee). She was carrying additional personnel for other ships at the time and included another Royal Navy commander in transit.

Capture by USS Constitution[edit]

Diagram of the battle between USS Constitution and HMS Java

Captain Lambert of the Java was a well-qualified officer, having seen much combat during his service. Java had more than a full crew, having been rounded out while in Portsmouth; however many were landsmen still raw to service at sea, and even more damning to her cause, they had only practiced gunnery once without shot loaded in the guns. Still, Java was well supplied and manned, and would prove to be well handled and well fought. USS Constitution had an experienced crew manning a heavy frigate carrying 54 cannon: twenty-four 24-pounder guns and thirty 32-pounder carronades, plus two 18-pounder bow chasers.[4]

On 13 December 1812, sailing from Boston by way of Cape Verde the USS Constitution, under the command of Captain William Bainbridge, accompanied by USS Hornet, commanded by James Lawrence, arrived off the coast of Brazil at St. Salvador. On the 26th the Hornet was sent to its port to communicate with the American consul stationed there. On the 29th at 9:00 AM still out at high sea in search of prizes crewmen aloft the Constitution sighted strange sails on the distant horizon.[5] Bainbridge initially was unsure of the disposition of the ships, but hours later as they drew closer he was able to discern that the approaching vessels were large and now assumed them to be British. To ascertain the disposition of the unidentified ships the Constitution hoisted private signals (flags) at 11:30 AM, while the assumed British vessel also hoisted its signals, but neither ship made the correct counter-signal.[6]

Constitution tacking the wind made her way from the neutral Portuguese territorial waters with Java giving chase.[7][8] The following day at 12:30 PM Java hoisted her colors and ensign with Constitution hoisting her colors in reply. With the dispositions of each ship confirmed Java with the weather gauge to her advantage came about to position herself to rake the Constitution. Being French-built, she was comparatively light for a frigate and was consequently faster and more maneuverable than Constitution.[9] In reply Constitution fired a shot across Java '​s bow with Java returning fire with a full broadside.[6]

Java started the battle badly out-matched both in terms of the experience of her crew and the weight of her broadside. Constitution, with her experienced commander and crew, countered by not shortening sail as was standard (this reduced strain on the masts thus making it less likely to lose a mast under fire).[4] By 2 PM both ships were heading southeast. The opening phase of the action comprised both ships turning to and from attempting to get the better position for which to fire upon and rake the other, but with little success. Bainbridge now wore Constitution to a matching course and opened fire with a broadside at half a mile. This broadside accomplished nothing and forced Bainbridge to risk raking to close Java.[10] Another broadside from Java carried away Constitution '​s helm, disabling her rudder and leaving Bainbridge severely wounded; however he still maintained command refusing to sit out the battle. Both ships resumed firing broadsides but by now Java had a mast and sail falling over her starboard side that prevented most of her guns on that side from firing, which also prevented her from laying alongside Constitution. The guns that attempted to fire only managed to set the fallen sail and rigging ablaze.[11][12]

Constitution '​s accuracy of fire and the greater weight of her broadside put the much smaller Java at a large disadvantage. Within one hour, after several close encounters involving the rigging of each ship getting entangled with the other's, Java '​s masts collapsed. During this encounter a sharpshooter aloft in Constitution mortally wounded Lambert.[13][14] Lieutenant Chads now took over command, assisted by the captain in transit to his ship. Bainbridge used this opportunity to distance the Constitution so as to make immediately needed repairs, taking approximately an hour. However clearing the masts and fallen rigging aboard Java had hardly begun when the Constitution returned from repairing her damage and immediately took a raking position from which Java could not defend herself. This left Lieutenant Chads no choice but to surrender Java. The Constitution hoisted out a boat and sent First Lieutenant Parker to take possession of the prize. [7][13][15]

In the battle, Java suffered 22 men killed, including Lambert, and 102 wounded.[3] Constitution lost nine dead initially and 57 wounded, including Bainbridge. Some four or five wounded died later of their wounds.[16][Note 1]

In the course of battle the Java was rendered a dismasted hulk that was not worth taking as a prize. Instead Bainbridge removed her helm and installed it on the Constitution, replacing the one that had been shot away. On New Year's Day 1813, two days after the engagement, Bainbridge gave the order to set Java ablaze; she subsequently blew up.[18][19][20]

Upon learning of the death of Captain Lambert, Commodore Bainbridge expressed deep sorrow for a commander he credited to be brave and noble. On 23 April 1813, Lieutenant Chads and the other surviving officers and men of the Java faced the customary court martial aboard Gladiator for the loss of their ship. They were honourably acquitted.

Post script[edit]

Although claims exist that the still-commissioned Constitution (anchored in Boston Harbor) sports the wheel that Bainbridge salvaged from Java, the evidence is that the US Navy replaced the wheel from Java in a subsequent refurbishment.[21]

In fiction[edit]

The engagement between Java and Constitution was fictionalized in the novel The Fortune of War by Patrick O'Brian.

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Hollis, 1900 pp.136-137
  2. ^ Naval history of Great Britain, by William James
  3. ^ a b Winfield (2008), p.181.
  4. ^ a b c Toll, p.376
  5. ^ Cooper, 1856 pp.269-270
  6. ^ a b Harris, 1837 p.148
  7. ^ a b Cooper, 1856 p.270
  8. ^ Crawford, 2009 p.639
  9. ^ Roosevelt, 1883 p.120
  10. ^ Toll, p.377
  11. ^ Roosevelt, 1883 pp.120-123
  12. ^ James & Chamier, 1837 p.129
  13. ^ a b Toll, p.379
  14. ^ Roosevelt, 1883 p.122
  15. ^ James & Chamier, 1837 p.128
  16. ^ a b Harris, 1837 p.146.
  17. ^ Roosevelt, 1883 p.123
  18. ^ Hollis, 1900 pp.177-185
  19. ^ Harris, 1837 pp.145-150
  20. ^ Cooper, 1856 pp.270-272
  21. ^ Talk:HMS Java (1811)#Wheel

References[edit]

  • Crawford, Michael J. (1985). The Naval War of 1812: a documentary history.
    US Government Printing Office. p. 772. ISBN 978-1-78039-364-3.
      Url
  • Harris, Gardner W. (1837). The life and services of Commodore William Bainbridge, United States navy.
    Carey Lea & Blanchard, Philadelphia. p. 254. ISBN 0-945726-58-9.
      Url1 Url2
  • Hollis, Ira N. (1900). The frigate Constitution the central figure of the Navy under sail.
    Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston and New York; The Riverside Press, Cambridge. p. 263.
      Url
  • Winfield, Rif (2008). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Accounts of Constitution's number of dead and wounded appear to vary. i.e.Roosevelt claims 12-killed, 22 wounded;[17] Harris puts the numbers at 9 killed, 25 wounded, not taking into account 3 of the wounded who later died.[16]
  2. ^ Roosevelt draws on the primary sources of the Logbook of the Constitution, Chad's address to the Court-martial, 23 April 1813, Commodore Bainbridge's letters, testimony of Christopher Speedy at Chad's Court-martial, Naval Surgeon J.C.Jones' report.[1]
  1. ^ Roosevelt, 1883 pp.120-122