HMS Nelson (28)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other ships with the same name, see HMS Nelson and HMS Lord Nelson.
HMS Nelson off Spithead for the Fleet Review.jpg
Career (UK)
Ordered: 1922
Builder: Armstrong-Whitworth
Laid down: 28 December 1922
Launched: 3 September 1925
Commissioned: 15 August 1927[1]
Decommissioned: February 1948
In service: 1927–1948
Struck: 1948
Motto: Palmam qui meruit ferat
Latin: "Let him bear the palm who has deserved it"
Fate: Scrapped starting on 15 March 1949
Badge: A rearing lion facing back clasping a palm frond
General characteristics
Class & type: Nelson-class battleship
Displacement: 33,950 long tons (34,490 t);
41,250 long tons (41,910 t) full load
Length: 710 ft (220 m) overall
Beam: 106 ft (32 m)
Draught: 33 ft (10 m)
Propulsion: 8 three-drum superheated boilers
2 Brown-Curtiss single reduction geared turbines, 2 screws,
45,000 hp (34 MW)
Speed: 23.5 knots (43.5 km/h; 27.0 mph) (trials)
Range: 7,000 nautical miles at 16 knots (13,000 km at 30 km/h)
Complement: 1,361
Armament:

(1945): 9 × BL 16-inch (406 mm) Mk I guns (3 × 3)
12 × BL 6 in (152 mm) Mk XXII guns (6 × 2)
6 × QF 4.7 inch (120mm) anti-aircraft guns (6 × 1)
48 × QF 2-pdr AA (6 octuple mounts)
16 × 40 mm AA (4 × 4)

61 × 20 mm AA guns
Armour: 14 in (356 mm) midships
6.75 in (171 mm) deck
16 in (406 mm) turret face
13.4 in (340 mm) conning tower sides
Aircraft carried: 1, no catapult

HMS Nelson (pennant number 28) was one of two Nelson-class battleships built for the Royal Navy between the two World Wars. She was named in honour of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson the victor at the Battle of Trafalgar. The Nelsons were unique in British battleship construction, being the only ships to carry a main armament of 16-inch (406 mm) guns, and the only ones to carry all the main armament forward of the superstructure. These were a result of the limitations of the Washington Naval Treaty. Commissioned in 1930, Nelson served extensively in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Indian oceans during World War II. She was decommissioned soon after the end of the war and scrapped in 1949.

She was nicknamed "Nels-ol" from her outline which resembled RN oilers.

Design[edit]

HMS Nelson (as was her sister, Rodney) was essentially a cut-down version of the G3 battlecruiser cancelled under the constraints of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty. The design was to carry a main armament of 16 in (410 mm) guns to match the firepower of the American Colorado and Japanese Nagato classes in a ship displacing no more than 35,000 tons. The main battery was mounted in three turrets, all placed forward, and speed was reduced and maximum armour was limited to vital areas, to meet the tonnage limit.

Armament details[edit]

Sailors of the South African Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve sitting on one of the 16 inch gun barrels of HMS Nelson during World War II.

The three turrets from forward to aft were "A", "B" and "X". The guns received individual nicknames being known as Happy, Grumpy, Sneezy, Dopey, Sleepy, Bashful, Doc, Mickey and Minnie, sometime after the release of the film Snow White in 1937.[citation needed] The secondary armament was in turrets P1 to P3 on the port, S1 to S3 on the starboard. The six 4.7 in (119 mm) anti-aircraft mounts were designated HA1 to HA6, the even numbers on the port. The six pom-pom mounts were numbered from M1 (on top of B turret) to M7 at the extreme aft—there was no M2 position—the odd numbers 3 & 5 to the starboard with 4 & 6 to port to be consistent with the HA armament labels.

History[edit]

Nelson was laid down in December 1922 and built at Newcastle by Armstrong-Whitworth. Launched in September 1925, she was commissioned in August 1927 and joined by her sister ship HMS Rodney (built by Cammell Laird) in November. She cost £ 7,504,000 to build and made partial use of the material prepared for the cancelled Admiral-class battlecruisers HMS Anson and Howe, planned sister ships of HMS Hood.

She was the flagship of the Home Fleet from launch. In 1931 the crews of both Nelson and Rodney took part in the Invergordon Mutiny. On 12 January 1934 she ran aground on Hamilton's Shoal, just outside Portsmouth, as she was about to embark with the Home Fleet to the West Indies.

Nelson was modified little during the 1930s and was with the Home Fleet when war broke out in September 1939. On 25 and 26 September she performed escort duty during the salvage and rescue operations of the submarine HMS Spearfish. Nelson was first deployed in the North Sea in October against a German formation of cruisers and destroyers, all of which easily evaded her. On 30 October she was unsuccessfully attacked by U-56 under the command of captain Wilhelm Zahn near the Orkney Islands being hit by three torpedoes, none of which exploded. Later she was again shown up for pace in the futile pursuit of German battlecruisers. In December 1939 she struck a mine (laid by U-31) at the entrance to Loch Ewe on the Scottish coast and was laid up in Portsmouth for repairs until August 1940.

HMS Nelson firing her 16-inch (406 mm) guns during a practice shoot. The massive muzzle blast churns up water to starboard.
Profile drawing of HMS Nelson

Upon return to service she went to Rosyth in case of invasion[2] and was then deployed in the English Channel. From April to June 1941 she was on convoy escort in the Atlantic. In late May she was in Freetown and was ordered to Gibraltar to stand by to take part in the chase of the German battleship Bismarck.

In June 1941 Nelson, then in Gibraltar, was assigned to Force H operating in the Mediterranean as an escort. On 27 September 1941 she was extensively damaged by a Regia Aeronautica torpedo strike and was under repair in Britain until May 1942. She returned to Force H as the flagship in August 1942, performing escort duties for supply convoys running to Malta. She supported Operation Torch around Algeria in November 1942, the invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and the Salerno operation (by coastal bombardment) in September 1943. The Italian long armistice was signed between General Dwight Eisenhower and Marshal Pietro Badoglio aboard the Nelson on 29 September.

The Nelson returned to England in November 1943 for a refit, including extensive additions to her anti-aircraft defences. Returning to action she supported the Normandy landings but hit two sea mines on 18 June 1944 and was sent to the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Pennsylvania for her repairs. She returned to Britain in January 1945 and was then deployed to the Indian Ocean, arriving in Colombo in July. She was used around the Malayan Peninsula for three months. The Japanese forces there formally surrendered aboard her at George Town, Penang, on 2 September 1945.

Nelson returned home in November 1945 as the flagship of the Home Fleet until reassigned as a training ship in July 1946. She was decommissioned in February 1948. She was used as a target ship for aerial bombing exercises for a several months before being scrapped during March 1949 at Inverkeithing.

Notes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ballantyne, Iain (2008). H.M.S. Rodney. Ships of the Royal Navy. Barnseley, UK: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-84415-406-7. 
  • Brown, David K. (2003). The Grand Fleet: Warship Design and Development 1906–1922 (reprint of the 1999 ed.). London: Caxton Editions. ISBN 1-84067-531-4. 
  • Brown, David K. (2006). Nelson to Vanguard: Warship Design and Development 1923-1945. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-59114-602-X. 
  • Burt, R. A. (1993). British Battleships, 1919-1939. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-068-2. 
  • Parkes, Oscar (1990). British Battleships (reprint of the 1957 ed.). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-075-4. 
  • Raven, Alan; Roberts, John (1976). British Battleships of World War Two: The Development and Technical History of the Royal Navy's Battleship and Battlecruisers from 1911 to 1946. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-817-4. 

External links[edit]