Hewlett-Packard Voyager series

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HP-10C
Hp10c.jpg
HP-10C
Type Programmable Scientific
Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard
Introduced 1982
Discontinued 1984
Cost USD 80
Calculator
Entry mode RPN
Display Type LCD seven-segment display
Display Size 10 digits
CPU
Processor HP Nut
Programming
Programming language(s) Keystroke programmable (fully merged)
Memory Register 0…9
Program Steps 9…79
Other
Power consumption 0.25 mW
HP-11C
Hp11c2.jpg
HP-11C
Type Programmable Scientific
Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard
Introduced 1981
Discontinued 1989
Cost $135
Calculator
Entry mode RPN
Display Type LCD seven-segment display
Display Size 10 digits
CPU
Processor HP Nut
Programming
Programming language(s) Keystroke programmable (fully merged)
Memory Register 0…20
Program Steps 63…203
Other
Power consumption 0.25 mW
HP-12C
Hp12c.jpg
HP-12C
Type Programmable Financial
Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard
Introduced 1981
Discontinued present
Cost USD 135
Calculator
Entry mode RPN
Display Type LCD seven-segment display
Display Size 10 digits
CPU
Processor HP Nut / ARM
Programming
Programming language(s) Keystroke programmable (fully merged)
Memory Register 0…20
Program Steps

63…203

8…400 (Platinum)
Other
Power consumption 0.25 mW
HP-15C
Hp15c.jpg
HP-15C
Type Programmable Scientific
Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard
Introduced 1982
Discontinued 1989
Cost USD 135 (Original) USD 99.99 - USD 179.99 (2011 re-release)
Calculator
Entry mode RPN
Display Type LCD seven-segment display
Display Size 10 digits
CPU
Processor HP Nut / ARM
Programming
Programming language(s) Keystroke programmable (fully merged)
Memory Register 0…67
Program Steps 0…448
Other
Power consumption 0.25 mW
HP-16C
Hp16c.jpg
HP-16C
Type Programmable, Computer science
Manufacturer Hewlett-Packard
Introduced 1982
Discontinued 1989
Cost USD 135
Calculator
Entry mode RPN
Display Type LCD seven-segment display
Display Size 10 digits
CPU
Processor HP Nut
Programming
Programming language(s) Keystroke programmable (fully merged)
Memory Register 0…20
Program Steps 63…203
Other
Power consumption 0.25 mW

The Hewlett-Packard Voyager series of calculators were introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 1981.[1] All members of this series are programmable, use Reverse Polish Notation, and feature continuous memory. Nearly identical in appearance, each model provided different capabilities and was aimed at different user markets.

The HP calculators 10C series consisted of five models (with original retail price and years of production):

  • HP-10C – basic scientific calculator ($80 1982–84).
  • HP-11C – mid-range scientific calculator ($135 1981–89).
  • HP-12C – business/financial calculator ($150 1981–present).
  • HP-15C – advanced scientific calculator ($135 1982–89, $100–$180 2011).
  • HP-16C – computer programmer's calculator ($150 1982–89).

The HP-12C and its derivatives remains in widespread use today and is still available from Hewlett-Packard. The long-discontinued HP-15C was re-released in a "Limited Edition" in 2011 that has again been discontinued.

HP-10C[edit]

The HP-10C is the last and lowest-featured calculator in this line, even though its number would suggest an earlier origin. The 10C was a basic scientific programmable. While a useful general purpose RPN calculator, the HP-11C offered twice as much for only a slight increase in price. Designed to be an introductory calculator, it was still costly compared to the competition, and many looking at an HP would just step up to the better HP-11C. Poor sales led to a very short market life, making it one of the most difficult of the series to find today.

HP-11C[edit]

The HP-11C is a mid-range scientific programmable calculator.

HP-12C[edit]

Main article: HP-12C

The HP-12C is a popular financial calculator. It was such a successful model that Hewlett-Packard redesigned it from scratch,[2] added several new functions, and introduced it as the HP-12C Platinum in 2003 and a limited 30th anniversary edition in 2011.[3]

The HP-12C is HP's longest and best-selling product, in continual production since its introduction in 1981.[1] Due to its simple operation for key financial calculations, the calculator long ago became the de facto standard among financial professionals – for example, most investment banks issue HP-12Cs to the members of each incoming class of its investment banking analysts and associates. Its popularity has endured despite the fact that even a simple, but iterative, process such as amortizing the interest over the life of a loan—a calculation which modern spreadsheets can complete almost instantly—can take over a minute with the HP-12C.

Later HP financial calculators are many times as fast with more functions, but none has been as successful. For example, the HP-17B was the presumed successor to the HP-12C, but the newer design never caught up to the HP-12C. HP wisely kept selling the HP-12C along side the HP-17B and its derivatives into the 21st century.

The HP-12C's programming mode is very intuitive and works like a macro operation on a computer. Basically, the keys one would press in the calculating mode to arrive at a solution are entered in the programming mode along with logical operators (if, and, etc.) applicable to the solution. After the programming is complete, the macro will run in computation mode to save the user steps and improve accuracy. There are 99 lines of programmable memory on the HP-12C, and 400 lines on the HP-12C Platinum.

The HP-12C Platinum is a revision to the successful 12C. The 12C Platinum is visibly distinguished by its silver-colored upper half as opposed to the gold-colored plate on the original 12C. The Platinum has a faster processor, larger memory and more built-in functions including the option of algebraic entry.

In 2008 HP quietly supercharged the HP-12C with an Atmel AT91SAM7L128 microprocessor (based on an ARM 7TDMI 32-bitmicroprocessor core), running at 30 MHz when executing code. The processor runs the HP-12C code in emulation mode delivering performance 50-150 times faster than the original, and 10-20 times faster than the Platinum version that continues to be available.

HP-15C[edit]

The HP-15C is a high-end scientific programmable with a root-solver and numerical integration. It is able to handle complex numbers and matrix operations. Although out of production, its popularity has led to high prices of $200–400 on the used market[4] and a petition asking HP to restart production. The HP-15C was a replacement for the (LED Display based) HP-34C. On September 1, 2011, HP announced that a limited edition 15C based on the ARM hardware used in the modern 12C would be released.[5]

HP-15C Limited Edition[edit]

The HP-15C Limited Edition is a reproduction of the 15C based on the modern Atmel AT91SAM7L128-AU[6][7][8][9][10] ARM powered 12C hardware, released at the same time as the 30th Anniversary Edition HP-12C. This model is powered by 2 CR2032 batteries, and can easily be differentiated from original production run (1982–89) 15Cs by the "Limited Edition" script below the HP 15C logo, and the black text on brushed metal back label, as opposed to the white text on black of the original.

HP-16C[edit]

Main article: HP-16C

The HP-16C is a computer programmer's calculator, designed to assist in debugging. It can display numbers in hexadecimal, decimal, octal and binary, and convert numbers from one base to another. A number of specialized functions are provided to assist the programmer, including left- and right-shifting, masking, and bitwise logical operations. HP has (as of 2014) never made another programmer's calculator, but has incorporated the 16C's functions in later calculator models.

Arithmetic[edit]

One of the least-known features of this calculator series is the quality of the arithmetic inside them. Hewlett-Packard retained the well-known numerical analyst Prof William Kahan, from UC Berkeley, the architect of the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, to design the numerical algorithms implemented by the calculators. He also wrote parts of the manuals.

Programming[edit]

The HP 10c series calculator are keystroke programmable, meaning that it can remember and later execute sequences of keystrokes to solve particular problems of interest to the user. These keystroke programs, in addition to performing any operation normally available on the keyboard, can also make use of conditional and unconditional branching and looping instructions, allowing programs to perform repetitive operations and make decisions.

The available programming features differentiate between the various HP 10c series calculator systems.

Function HP 10C HP 11C HP 12C HP 15C HP 16C
BSP / ← [F 1] No Yes No Yes Yes
LBL [F 2] No Yes No Yes Yes
GSB/RTN [F 3] No Yes No Yes Yes
x≤y, x=0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
x=y, x≠y No Yes No Yes [F 4] Yes
x<0, x≠0, x>y, x>0 No Yes No Yes [F 4] Yes
x>0, x≤0, x≥y, x≥0 No No No Yes [F 4] No
DSE, ISG [F 5] No Yes No Yes No
DSZ, ISZ [F 5] No No No No Yes
SF, CF, F? No Yes No Yes Yes
I (I) [F 6] No Yes No Yes Yes
  1. ^ Without BSP (backspace) programs can only be edited by overwriting existing steps.
  2. ^ Without LBL (Label) goto commands can reference only absolute program steps.
  3. ^ Without GSB (Go Subroutine) / RTN (Return from Subroutine) one cannot write subroutines.
  4. ^ a b c Available via the g TEST n function
  5. ^ a b Without DSZ/DSE (Decrement and Skip) and ISZ/ISG (Increment and Skip) writing loops is difficult.
  6. ^ Without indirect addressing only the first 20 (0 .. 19) register can be accessed. Also the programming model is not turing complete.

Clones: DM-1XC[edit]

The DM-1x series is a series of credit-card-sized calculators made by Swiss Micros (not affiliated with HP) running Voyager series firmware and looking like miniature versions of their HP equivalents. The series consists of DM-15, DM-16, DM-12, DM-11, DM-10.[11] All calculators use the same hardware, but differ in keyboard and firmware (which can be changed with an upgrade port). These devices are essentially functional clones of the original HP models.

References[edit]

External links[edit]