HRK (gene)

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Harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein (contains only BH3 domain)
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM603447 MGI1201608 HomoloGene37853 GeneCards: HRK Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE HRK 206865 at tn.png
PBB GE HRK 206864 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 8739 12123
Ensembl ENSG00000135116 ENSMUSG00000046607
UniProt O00198 P62816
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003806 NM_007545
RefSeq (protein) NP_003797 NP_031571
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
117.29 – 117.32 Mb
Chr 5:
118.17 – 118.19 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Activator of apoptosis harakiri is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HRK gene.[1][2]

Activator of apoptosis Hrk regulates apoptosis through interaction with death-repressor proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L). The HRK protein lacks significant homology to other BCL2 family members except for an 8-amino acid region that was similar to the BCL2 homology domain-3 (BH3) motif of BIK. HRK interacts with BCL2 and BCLXL via the BH3 domain, but not with the death-promoting BCL2-related proteins BAX, BAK, or BCLXS. HRK localizes to membranes of intracellular organelles in a pattern similar to that previously reported for BCL2 and BCLXL.[2]


HRK (gene) has been shown to interact with BCL2-like 1[1][3][4] and Bcl-2.[1][5]


  1. ^ a b c Inohara N, Ding L, Chen S, Nunez G (May 1997). "harakiri, a novel regulator of cell death, encodes a protein that activates apoptosis and interacts selectively with survival-promoting proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L)". EMBO J 16 (7): 1686–94. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.7.1686. PMC 1169772. PMID 9130713. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HRK harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein (contains only BH3 domain)". 
  3. ^ Whitfield, Jonathan; Harada Kokichi; Bardelle Catherine; Staddon James M (Nov 2003). "High-throughput methods to detect dimerization of Bcl-2 family proteins". Anal. Biochem. (United States) 322 (2): 170–8. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2003.07.014. ISSN 0003-2697. PMID 14596824. 
  4. ^ Imaizumi, K; Morihara T; Mori Y; Katayama T; Tsuda M; Furuyama T; Wanaka A; Takeda M; Tohyama M (Mar 1999). "The cell death-promoting gene DP5, which interacts with the BCL2 family, is induced during neuronal apoptosis following exposure to amyloid beta protein". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (12): 7975–81. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.12.7975. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10075695. 
  5. ^ Chen, Lin; Willis Simon N; Wei Andrew; Smith Brian J; Fletcher Jamie I; Hinds Mark G; Colman Peter M; Day Catherine L; Adams Jerry M; Huang David C S (Feb 2005). "Differential targeting of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins by their BH3-only ligands allows complementary apoptotic function". Mol. Cell (United States) 17 (3): 393–403. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.030. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 15694340. 

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