The HTML5 draft specification introduced the video element for the purpose of playing videos or movies, partially replacing the object element. HTML5 video is intended by its creators to become the new standard way to show video on the web without plugins, but has been hampered by lack of agreement as to which video formats should be supported in web browsers.
- 1 History of <video> element
- 2 <video> element examples
- 3 Supported video formats
- 4 Browser support
- 5 Usage
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
History of <video> element
The <video> element was proposed by Opera Software in February 2007. Opera also released a preview build that was showcased the same day, and a manifesto that called for video to become a first-class citizen of the web.
<video> element examples
The following HTML5 code fragment will embed a WebM video into a web page.
<video src="movie.webm" poster="movie.jpg" controls> This is fallback content to display if the browser does not support the video element. </video>
<video poster="movie.jpg" controls> <source src="movie.webm" type='video/webm; codecs="vp8.0, vorbis"'> <source src="movie.ogv" type='video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"'> <source src="movie.mp4" type='video/mp4; codecs="avc1.4D401E, mp4a.40.2"'> <p>This is fallback content</p> </video>
Supported video formats
The current HTML5 draft specification does not specify which video formats browsers should support. User agents are free to support any video formats they feel are appropriate, but content authors cannot assume that any video will be accessible by all complying user agents, since user agents have no minimal set of video formats to support.
The HTML5 Working Group considers it desirable to specify at least one video format which all user agents (browsers) should support. The ideal format in this regard would:
- Have good compression, good image quality, and low decode processor use.
- Be royalty-free.
- In addition to software decoders, a hardware video decoder should exist for the format, as many embedded processors do not have the performance to decode video.
Initially, Ogg Theora was the recommended standard video format in HTML5, because it was not affected by any known patents. But on December 10, 2007, the HTML5 specification was updated, replacing the reference to concrete formats:
User agents should support Theora video and Vorbis audio, as well as the Ogg container format.
with a placeholder:
It would be helpful for interoperability if all browsers could support the same codecs. However, there are no known codecs that satisfy all the current players: we need a codec that is known to not require per-unit or per-distributor licensing, that is compatible with the open source development model, that is of sufficient quality as to be usable, and that is not an additional submarine patent risk for large companies. This is an ongoing issue and this section will be updated once more information is available.
Although Theora is not affected by known non-free patents, Apple has expressed concern about unknown patents that might affect it, whose owners might be waiting for a corporation with extensive financial resources to use the format before suing. Formats like H.264 might also be subject to unknown patents in principle, but they have been deployed much more widely and so it is presumed that any patent-holders would have already made themselves known. Apple has also opposed requiring Ogg format support in the HTML standard (even as a "should" requirement) on the grounds that some devices might support other formats much more easily, and that HTML has historically not required particular formats for anything.
Mozilla and Opera support only the open formats of Theora and WebM. Google stated its intention to remove support for H.264 in 2011, specifically for the HTML5 video tag. Although it has been removed from Chromium, it has yet to be removed from Google Chrome over a year later.
Google's purchase of On2
Google's acquisition of On2 in 2010 resulted in its acquisition of the VP8 video format. Google has provided a royalty-free license to use VP8. Google also started WebM, which combines the standardized open source VP8 video codec with Vorbis audio in a Matroska based container. The opening of VP8 was welcomed by the Free Software Foundation.
When Google announced in January 2011 that it would end native support of H.264 in Chrome, criticism came from many quarters including Peter Bright of Ars Technica and Microsoft web evangelist Tim Sneath, who compared Google's move to declaring Esperanto the official language of the United States. However, Haavard Moen of Opera Software strongly criticized the Ars Technica article and Google responded to the reaction by clarifying its intent to promote WebM in its products on the basis of openness.
After the launch of WebM, Mozilla and Opera have called for the inclusion of VP8 in HTML.
On March 7, 2013, Google Inc. and MPEG LA, LLC announced agreements covering techniques that "may be essential" to VP8, with Google receiving a license from MPEG LA and 11 patent holders, and MPEG LA ending its efforts to form a VP8 patent pool.
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is widely used, and has good speed, compression, hardware decoders, and video quality, but is patent-encumbered. Users of H.264 need licenses either from the individual patent holders, or from the MPEG LA, a group of patent holders including Microsoft and Apple, except for some Internet broadcast video uses. H.264 is usually used in the MP4 container format, together with Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) audio. AAC is also patented in itself, so users of MP4 will have to license both H.264 and AAC.
In June 2009, the WHATWG concluded that no existing format was suitable as a specified requirement.
Apple and Microsoft support only H.264.
Cisco makes a licensed H.264 binary module available for free
On October 30, 2013, Cisco announced that they were making a binary H.264 module available for download. Cisco will pay the costs of patent licensing for those binary modules when downloaded by the using software while it is being installed, making H.264 free to use in that specific case.
In the announcement, Cisco cited its desire of furthering the use of the WebRTC project as the reason, since WebRTC's video chat feature will benefit from having a video format supported in all browsers. The H.264 module will be available on "all popular or feasibly supportable platforms, which can be loaded into any application".
Cisco is also planning to publish source code for those modules under BSD license, but without paying the royalties, so the code will practically be free software only in countries without H.264 software patents, which has already been true about other existing implementations.
Also on October 30, 2013, Mozilla's Brendan Eich announced that Firefox would automatically download Cisco's H.264 module when needed by default. He also noted that the binary module is not a perfect solution, since users do not have full free software rights to "modify, recompile, and redistribute without license agreements or fees". Thus Xiph and Mozilla continue the development of Daala.
The release concerns only H.264 video and not AAC audio formats, since "the standards bodies have aligned on Opus and G.711 as the common audio codecs for WebRTC". So software to play MP4 video (H.264+AAC) is still not freely (as in beer) available, and there is doubt as to whether a capped global licensing like like Cisco's for H.264 can be created.
This table shows which video formats are likely to be supported by a given user agent. Most of the browsers listed here use a multimedia framework for decoding and display of video, instead of incorporating such software components. It is not generally possible to tell the set of formats supported by a multimedia framework without querying it, because that depends on the operating system and third party codecs. In these cases, video format support is an attribute of the framework, not the browser (or its layout engine), assuming the browser properly queries its multimedia framework before rejecting unknown video formats. In some cases, the support listed here is not a function of either codecs available within the operating system's underlying media framework, or of codec capabilities built into the browser, but rather could be by a browser add-on that might, for example, bypass the browser's normal HTML parsing of the <video> tag to embed a plug-in based video player.
Of these browsers, only Firefox and Opera employ libraries for built-in decoding. In practice, Internet Explorer and Safari can also guarantee certain format support, because their manufacturers also make their multimedia frameworks. At the other end of the scale, Konqueror has identical format support to Internet Explorer when run on Windows, and Safari when run on Mac, but the selected support here for Konqueror is the typical for GNU/Linux, where Konqueror has most of its users. In general, the format support of browsers is much dictated by conflicting interests of vendors, specifically that Media Foundation and QuickTime support commercial standards, whereas GStreamer and Phonon cannot legally support other than free formats by default on the free operating systems that they are intended for.
|Browser||Operating system||Latest stable release||Video formats supported|
|Theora||H.264 (MP4)||VP8 (WebM)||VP9 (WebM)|
|Android browser||Android||4.4.4 "KitKat" (June 19, 2014[±])||2.3||3.0||2.3||No|
|Chromium||Unix-like and Windows||N/A||r18297||Manual install[note 1]||r47759||r172738|
|Google Chrome||Windows, Linux
||3.0||3.0[note 2]||6.0||29.0[note 3]|
|Internet Explorer||Windows||11.0.12 (v11.0.9600.17278) (9 September 2014) [±]||Manual install||9.0||Manual install||No|
|Windows Phone||10.0 (November 21, 2012[±])||No||9.0||No|
|Konqueror||All supported||4.14.1 (September 16, 2014[±])||4.4[note 4]|
|Mozilla Firefox||Windows 7+||3.5||21.0[note 5]||4.0||28.0|
|Windows XP||manual install|
|Linux||26.0 (using GStreamer)[note 6]|
|OS X 10.7+||34.0|
|Opera||20 for Android (March 18, 2014) [±]
||10.50||24.0 for Windows and OS X||10.60||No|
|Safari||iOS||7.1 (September 18, 2014) [±]
|OS X||Manual install||Manual install|
|Web (previously Epiphany)||All supported||3.12.5 (August 11, 2014[±]
) ||2.28[note 7]|
- Third-party codec packages are available.
- On 11 January 2011 the removal of support for H.264 was announced on Chromium Blog. As of 8 September 2012[update] neither actual support was removed, nor the change to this plan was announced.
- VP9 support in 25, turned off by default. Enabled by default in version 29.
- Any format supported by Phonon on Qt 4.5. Any format supported by Phonon backend. Available Phonon backends include DirectShow, QuickTime, GStreamer and xine; backends using MPlayer and VLC are in development.
- As of version 20, prefed off by default. Enabled by default beginning in version 21.
- Disabled by default until version 26. Also, depends on the codec on the system.
- Any format supported by GStreamer on Webkit/GTK+. The support for Ogg Theora, WebM and h.264 formats is included with base, good, and bad plugins respectively.
As of May 2010[update], HTML5 video is not currently as widespread as Flash videos, though recent rollouts of experimental HTML5-based video players from DailyMotion (using Ogg Theora and Vorbis format), YouTube (using the H.264 and WebM formats), and Vimeo (using the H.264 format) suggest that interest in adopting HTML5 video is increasing.
On January 11, 2011, Google's Chromium Project announced on their blog that support for closed codecs (particularly H.264) would be removed from future releases of Chrome. The Chromium announcement specifically mentioned that this removal was an effort to increase the use of license-free HTML5 and the <video> tag, driving web-wide adoption of the open-source codecs VP8 and Theora. On February 2, 2011 Microsoft released the Windows Media Player HTML5 Extension for Chrome for Windows 7 which added the ability to use the licensed H.264 player included with Windows 7 to play back H.264 media content using Chrome.
- HTML5 audio
- Comparison of layout engines (HTML5 Media)
- Comparison of HTML5 and Flash
- Encrypted Media Extensions
- "The video element". HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML. World Wide Web Consortium. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-27. "A video element is used for playing videos or movies."
- van Kesteren, Anne (28 February 2007). "[whatwg] <video> element proposal". What Working Group mailing list. http://lists.whatwg.org/pipermail/whatwg-whatwg.org/2007-February/009702.html. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- "Browser War: Episode II – Attack of the DOMs". Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "SV Web Builders Event – World Premier of Opera with builtin video support". Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "A Call for Video on the Web". Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Hickson, Ian (10 December 2007). "Video codec requirements changed". What WG mailing list. http://lists.whatwg.org/pipermail/whatwg-whatwg.org/2007-December/013135.html. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- "(X)HTML5 Tracking". HTML5. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- Amador, Manuel (2011-12-11). "Removal of Ogg is *preposterous*". WHATWG mailing list. http://lists.whatwg.org/pipermail/whatwg-whatwg.org/2007-December/013152.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "Steve Jobs: mystery patent pool to attack Ogg Theora". The Register. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Hickson, Ian (2007-12-11). "Re: Removal of Ogg is *preposterous*". WHATWG mailing list. http://lists.whatwg.org/pipermail/whatwg-whatwg.org/2007-December/013154.html. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- Stachowiak, Maciej (2007-03-21). "Codecs (was Re: Apple Proposal for Timed Media Elements)". WHATWG mailing list. http://lists.whatwg.org/htdig.cgi/whatwg-whatwg.org/2007-March/010392.html.
- "[whatwg] Removal of Ogg is *preposterous*". WHATWG mailing list. 2007-12-11. http://lists.whatwg.org/pipermail/whatwg-whatwg.org/2007-December/013152.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Connolly, Dan (December 18, 2007). "When will HTML 5 support <video>? Sooner if you help". W3C. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- Jazayeri, Michael 'Mike' (2011-01-14). "More about the Chrome HTML Video Codec Change". Chromium blog.
- Shankland, Stephen (2012-03-14). "Mozilla execs capitulate in H.264 Web-video war". CNET.
- Google. "Additional IP Rights Grant (Patents)". Google.
- Lee, Matt (May 19, 2010). "Free Software Foundation statement on WebM and VP8". FSF.
- Jazayeri, Michael 'Mike'. "HTML Video Codec Support in Chrome". The Chromium Blog.
- Bright, Peter (2011-01-12). "Google's dropping H.264 from Chrome a step backward for openness". Ars Technica.
- Sneath, Tim (2011-01-11). "An Open Letter from the President of the United States of Google". MSDN blogs.
- Moen, Haavard K (2011-01-13). "Is the removal of H.264 from Chrome a step backward for openness?". My Opera.
- Metz, Cade (2010-05-28). "Mozilla and Opera call for Google open codec in HTML5 spec". The Register.
- djwm (2013-03-07). "Google and MPEG LA make a deal over VP8 codec - Update". The H Open. Heise Media UK. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "VP8 and MPEG LA". WebM Project blog. 2013-03-07. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "AVC/H.264 Patent List" (PDF). MPEG LA. 2010-02-01.
- AVC/H.264 Licensors, MPEG LA
- Hickson, Ian (2009-06-29). "Codecs for <audio> and <video>". WHATWG mailing list. http://lists.whatwg.org/htdig.cgi/whatwg-whatwg.org/2009-June/020620.html.
- "Open-Sourced H.264 Removes Barriers to WebRTC". Cisco. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
- Brandon Eich (2013-10-30). "Cisco’s H.264 Good News". Brandon Eich's blog.
- Monty Montgomery. "Comments on Cisco, Mozilla, and H.264". Monty Montgomery blog.
- "Phonon documentation of backends", Qt, Nokia, retrieved 2011-06-03
- "Phonon documentation of querying", Qt, Nokia, retrieved 2011-06-03
- "GNU GPL - GNU General Public License Version 3 Free Software Foundation", 29 June 2007, retrieved 2013-04-27
- "Google Rolling Out Android 4.4.4 Update (KTU84P) With A Security Fix, Factory Images/Binaries Up For Nexus Devices". 2014-06-19. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
- Kyrnin, Jennifer, Understanding HTML5 Video Formats, About, retrieved 2012-01-01
- Issue 4363: [HTML5-Video] Enable HTML5 video/audio elements, Google, retrieved 2010-09-10
- "Get Chromium on Ubuntu To Play MP4, H.264, MP3 & view PDF files natively", OMG Ubuntu, 2010-11-21, retrieved 2011-11-12
- "Issue 2093007: Chromium side changes for enabling VP8 and WebM support", Code review, Google, retrieved 2010-09-10
- "Stable Channel Update". Chrome Releases. Blogger. September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "Stable Channel Update". Chrome Releases. Blogger. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- "Google Chrome support Theora and Vorbis", Code, Google, 2010-05-20
- Google Chrome 3.0 will support <video> tag, FR: C net
- Mike, Jazayeri (11 January 2011). "Chromium Blog: HTML Video Code Support in Chrome". The Chromium Blog. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Bankoski, Jim (2010-05-19), "WebM and VP8 land in Chromium" (World Wide Web log), Chromium, Google
- Kersey, Jason (2010-06-03), "Dev Channel Update", Chrome Releases, Google, retrieved 2010-07-01
- Chrome Adds Support for the Next-Generation VP9 Video Codec and Mozilla's Opus Audio
- Chrome Now Supports Google's Next-Gen VP9 Video Codec by Default
- "Microsoft Has Just One Critical Patch in September Patch Tuesday". PC Magazine. Fahmida Y. Rashid. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Microsoft Security Bulletin MS14-052 - Critical Cumulative Security Update for Internet Explorer (2977629)". Security TechCenter. Microsoft. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- McCracken, Harry (2010-03-16), Microsoft Previews the Revamped Internet Explorer 9 Platform, Technologizer
- HTML5 Video Support in IE9 Mobile, Microsoft, 2011-10-13, retrieved 2014-03-11
- "KDE Ships Applications and Platform 4.14.1". KDE. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Vestbø, Tor Arne (2008-05-13), Top Secret, Hush Hush!, Nokia, retrieved 2010-03-14
- "Firefox — Notes (32.0.2) — Mozilla". mozilla.org. 2014-09-18. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
- "Firefox — Notes (31.1.0) — Mozilla". mozilla.org. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
- "Firefox — Notes (24.8.0) — Mozilla". mozilla.org. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
- Firefox 3.5 (release notes), Mozilla, 2009-06-30, retrieved 2010-02-15
- Bug 799315 – Windows Media Foundation backend for media playback, Mozilla, retrieved 2012-12-21
- Bug 837859 – Enable WMF backend, Mozilla, retrieved 2013-04-05
- Bug 566243 – Merge mozilla-webmedia repository to mozilla-central, Mozilla
- Firefox Nightly Builds, Mozilla
- [Phoronix] Mozilla Firefox Enables VP9 Video Codec By Default, Phoronix, retrieved 2013-12-08
- Bug 825153 - Add support for Windows Vista WMF and prepend the system32 directory path to dll names, Mozilla, retrieved 2013-03-28
- Bug 886181 - Pref on gstreamer backend, Mozilla, retrieved 2013-09-21
- Bug 794282 - Enable GStreamer in official builds, Mozilla, retrieved 2013-06-23
- "Opera browser for Android".
- "No mobile phone left behind: Opera Mini 5 and Opera Mobile 10 introduced in final, consumer-ready versions".
- "Opera Stable 24.0.1558.61 update". 2014-09-17. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- "Opera 12.17 out". 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- "Opera 12.16 changelog". 2013-07-04. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- Jägenstedt, Philip (2009-12-31), "(re-)Introducing <video>" (official blog), Core developers (Opera), retrieved 2010-02-06
- Lie, Håkon Wium (2010-05-19), Welcome, WebM <video>!, Opera
- Mills, Chris (2010-05-19), Opera supports the WebM video format, Opera
- "About the security content of Safari 6.2 and Safari 7.1". Apple Inc. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- "HTML5 video formats", Web design, About.
- "Media formats supported by the HTML audio and video elements", Developer, Mozilla.
- "WebM plugin available", Code, Google, retrieved 2011-06-23
- "evolution 3.12.5". GNOME mailing list. August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Persch, Christian (April 1, 2008), "The Future of Epiphany" (announcement), epiphany mailing list-list
- "Overview of available plug-ins", GStreamer, retrieved 2012-07-04
- "iPad-ready websites". Apple. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
- "Watch Video…without Flash". Dailymotion. 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- Carle, Kevin; Zacharias, Chris (2010-01-20). "Introducing YouTube HTML5 Supported Videos". Youtube. Google. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
- Dougherty, Brad (2010-01-21). "Try our new HTML5 player!". Vimeo. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
- Herrman, Johan (2010-02-03). "Giz Explains: Why HTML5 Isn't Going to Save the Internet". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
- "Netflix has no plans to use HTML5", Gigaom.
- "Why HTML5 won't replace Flash", Pseudocoder.
- "Flash and the HTML5 <video> tag". You tube. Google.
- "Pardon Our Dust <video> tag". Hulu. 2010-05-13.
- Netflix working on HTML5 streaming, "PCMag", PC Magazine.
- Caldato, Claudio (2011-02-02). "Greater Interoperability for Windows Customers With HTML5 Video" (blog). MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
- "HTML5 – The Video Element", What WG, W3C.
- Daoust, Francois; Hoschka, Philipp; Patrikakis, Charalampos Z (2010), Towards Video on the Web with HTML5 (PDF), Barcelona: NEM Summit.
- Lawson, Bruce; Lauke, Patrick H. (2010-02-11), Introduction to HTML5 video, Opera.
- HTML5 Video video platform software and news.
- Pieters, Simon (2010-03-03), Everything you need to know about HTML5 video and audio, Opera
- Mozilla's overview of media formats supported by browsers