The HTML5 draft specification introduced the video element for the purpose of playing videos or movies, partially replacing the object element. HTML5 video is intended by its creators to become the new standard way to show video on the web without plugins, but has been hampered by lack of agreement as to which video formats should be supported in web browsers.
History of <video> element 
The <video> element was proposed by Opera Software in February 2007. Opera also released a preview build that was showcased the same day, and a manifesto that called for video to become a first-class citizen of the web.
<video> element examples 
The following HTML5 code fragment will embed a WebM video into a web page.
<video src="movie.webm" poster="movie.jpg" controls> This is fallback content to display if the browser does not support the video element. </video>
Multiple sources 
<video poster="movie.jpg" controls> <source src="movie.webm" type='video/webm; codecs="vp8.0, vorbis"'/> <source src="movie.ogg" type='video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"'/> <source src="movie.mp4" type='video/mp4; codecs="avc1.4D401E, mp4a.40.2"'/> <p>This is fallback content</p> </video>
Supported video formats 
The current HTML5 draft specification does not specify which video formats browsers should support. User agents are free to support any video formats they feel are appropriate, but content authors cannot assume that any video will be accessible by all complying user agents, since user agents have no minimal set of video formats to support.
The HTML5 Working Group considers it desirable to specify at least one video format which all user agents (browsers) should support. The ideal format in this regard would:
- Have good compression, good image quality, and low decode processor use.
- Be royalty-free.
- In addition to software decoders, a hardware video decoder should exist for the format, as many embedded processors do not have the performance to decode video.
Initially, Ogg Theora was the recommended standard video format in HTML5, because it was not affected by any known patents. But on December 10, 2007, the HTML5 specification was updated, replacing the reference to concrete formats:
User agents should support Theora video and Vorbis audio, as well as the Ogg container format.
with a placeholder:
It would be helpful for interoperability if all browsers could support the same codecs. However, there are no known codecs that satisfy all the current players: we need a codec that is known to not require per-unit or per-distributor licensing, that is compatible with the open source development model, that is of sufficient quality as to be usable, and that is not an additional submarine patent risk for large companies. This is an ongoing issue and this section will be updated once more information is available.
Non-free formats 
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is widely used, and has good speed, compression, hardware decoders, and video quality, but is patent-encumbered. Except in particular cases, users of H.264 have to pay licensing fees to the MPEG LA, a group of patent holders including Microsoft and Apple. As a result, it has not been considered as a required codec.
In June 2009, the WHATWG concluded that no existing format was suitable as a specified requirement.
Apple and Microsoft, controlling 39% of the browser market, support only H.264. This share is 15% higher than that of browsers supporting only free formats.
Free formats 
Although Theora is not affected by known patents, Apple is concerned about unknown patents that might affect it, whose owners might be waiting for a corporation with extensive financial resources to use the format before suing. Formats like H.264 might also be subject to unknown patents in principle, but they have been deployed much more widely and so it is presumed that any patent-holders would have already made themselves known. Apple has also opposed requiring Ogg format support in the HTML standard (even as a "should" requirement) on the grounds that some devices might support other formats much more easily, and that HTML has historically not required particular formats for anything.
Google, controlling 27% of the market, has stated its intention to remove support for H.264. Although it has been removed from Chromium, it has yet to be removed from Google Chrome. If it is removed, market share of browsers supporting only free formats would stand at 51%, 12% higher than that of browsers supporting only H.264.
Google purchase of On2 
Google's acquisition of On2 in 2010 resulted in its acquisition of the VP8 video format. Google has provided a royalty-free license to use VP8. Google also started WebM, which combines the standardized open source VP8 video codec with Vorbis audio in a Matroska container. The opening of VP8 was welcomed by the Free Software Foundation.
When Google announced in January 2011 that it would end native support of H.264 in Chrome, criticism came from many quarters including Peter Bright of Ars Technica and Microsoft web evangelist Tim Sneath, who compared Google's move to declaring Esperanto the official language of the United States. However, Haavard Moen of Opera Software strongly criticized the Ars Technica article and Google responded to the reaction by clarifying its intent to promote WebM in its products on the basis of openness.
After the launch of WebM, Mozilla and Opera have called for the inclusion of VP8 in HTML.
7 March 2013 Google Inc. and MPEG LA, LLC announced agreements covering techniques that "may be essential" to VP8, with Google receiving a license from MPEG LA and 11 patent holders, and MPEG LA ending its efforts to form a VP8 patent pool.
Browser support 
This table shows which video formats are likely to be supported by a given user agent. Most of the browsers listed here use a multimedia framework for decoding and display of video, instead of incorporating such software components. It is not generally possible to tell the set of formats supported by a multimedia framework without querying it, because that depends on the operating system and third party codecs. In these cases, video format support is an attribute of the framework, not the browser (or its layout engine), assuming the browser properly queries its multimedia framework before rejecting unknown video formats. In some cases, the support listed here is not a function of either codecs available within the operating system's underlying media framework, or of codec capabilities built in to the browser, but rather could be by a browser add-on that might, for example, bypass the browser's normal HTML parsing of the <video> tag to embed a plug-in based video player.
Of these browsers, only Firefox and Opera employ libraries for built-in decoding. In practice, Internet Explorer and Safari can also guarantee certain format support, because their manufacturers also make their multimedia frameworks. At the other end of the scale, Konqueror has identical format support to Internet Explorer when run on Windows, and Safari when run on Mac, but the selected support here for Konqueror is the typical for GNU/Linux, where Konqueror has most of its users. In general, the format support of browsers is much dictated by conflicting interests of vendors, specifically that Media Foundation and QuickTime support commercial standards, whereas GStreamer and Phonon cannot legally support other than free formats by default on the free operating systems that they are intended for.
|Browser||Operating system||Latest stable release||Video formats supported|
|Theora||H.264||VP8 (WebM)||VP9 (WebM)|
|Android browser||Android||4.2.1 "Jelly Bean" (November 27, 2012[±])||2.3||3.0||2.3|
|Chromium||All supported||N/A||r18297||Manual install[note 1]||r47759||r172738|
|Google Chrome||All supported||27.0.1453.93 (May 21, 2013[±])||3.0||3.0[note 2]||6.0||25|
|Internet Explorer||Windows||10.0.5  (May 14, 2013 ) [±]||Manual install[note 3]||9.0||Manual install[note 4]|
|Windows Phone||10.0 (November 21, 2012[±])||No||9.0||No|
|Windows RT||10.0||10.0|
|Konqueror||All supported||4.10.3 (7 May 2013[±])||4.4[note 5]|
|Mozilla Firefox||Windows 7+||21.0 (May 14, 2013[±])||3.5||21.0[note 6]||4.0|
|Windows Vista||22.0 (Beta)|
|All other supported||No|
|Opera||All supported||12.15 (April 4, 2013[±])||10.50||No||10.60|
|Safari||iOS||6.0.4 (April 16, 2013[±])||No||3.1||No|
|MacOS X||Manual install[note 7]||Manual install|
|Web (previously Epiphany)||All supported||3.8.2 (May 16, 2013[±])||2.28[note 8]|
- Third-party codec packages are available.
- On 11 January 2011 the removal of support for H.264 was announced on Chromium Blog. As of 8 September 2012[update] neither actual support was removed, nor the change to this plan was announced.
- Third-party codec packages are available.
- Possible if the user has installed a VP8 codec on Windows for IE9.
- Any format supported by Phonon on Qt 4.5. Any format supported by Phonon backend. Available Phonon backends include DirectShow, QuickTime, GStreamer and xine; backends using MPlayer and VLC are in development.
- As of version 20, prefed off by default. Enabled by default beginning in version 21.
- Supported if XiphQT is installed.
- Any format supported by GStreamer on Webkit/GTK+. The support for Ogg Theora, WebM and h.264 formats is included with base, bad, and ugly plugins respectively.
As of May 2010[update], HTML5 video is not currently as widespread as Flash videos, though recent rollouts of experimental HTML5-based video players from DailyMotion (using Ogg Theora and Vorbis format), YouTube (using the H.264 and WebM formats), and Vimeo (using the H.264 format) suggest that interest in adopting HTML5 video is increasing.
On January 11, 2011, Google's Chromium Project announced on their blog that support for closed codecs (particularly H.264) would be removed from future releases of Chrome. The Chromium announcement specifically mentioned that this removal was an effort to increase the use of license-free HTML5 and the <video> tag, driving web-wide adoption of the open-source codecs VP8 and Theora. On February 2, 2011 Microsoft released the Windows Media Player HTML5 Extension for Chrome for Windows 7 which added the ability to use the licensed H.264 player included with Windows 7 to play back H.264 media content using Chrome.
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