Ha (Javanese)

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ha
Aksara nglegena Aksara pasangan
Javanese script
Latin ortography ha, a
Phoneme [h], [ɔ], [a]
Unicode U+A9B2

(ha), is a syllable in the Javanese script which represent the sound /ɦɔ/ or /ɦa/. The letter can also represent a null consonant, in which it would be pronounced as /ɔ/ or /a/. It is commonly transliterated to Latin as "ha" or "a" and sometimes as "ho" and "o".

Pasangan[edit]

The letter's pasangan (◌꧀ꦲ) is one of six which are located on the right hand side of previous syllable, making it possible to stack two pasangans without the use of pangkon.

Extended form[edit]

doesn't have a murda form.

Final consonant[edit]

has a syllable-final form called wignyan () which replaces ha-pangkon combination. For example: "gajah" (elephant) is written as ꦒꦗꦃ, not ꦒꦗꦲ꧀

Glyphs[edit]

Nglegena forms Pasangan forms
ꦲ ha ꦲꦃ hah ꦲꦁ hang ꦲꦂ har ◌꧀ꦲ -ha ◌꧀ꦲꦃ -hah ◌꧀ꦲꦁ -hang ◌꧀ꦲꦂ -har
ꦲꦺ he ꦲꦺꦃ heh ꦲꦺꦁ heng ꦲꦺꦂ her ◌꧀ꦲꦺ -he ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦃ -heh ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦁ -heng ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦂ -her
ꦲꦼ hê ꦲꦼꦃ hêh ꦲꦼꦁ hêng ꦲꦼꦂ hêr ◌꧀ꦲꦼ -hê ◌꧀ꦲꦼꦃ -hêh ◌꧀ꦲꦼꦁ -hêng ◌꧀ꦲꦼꦂ -hêr
ꦲꦶ hi ꦲꦶꦃ hih ꦲꦶꦁ hing ꦲꦶꦂ hir ◌꧀ꦲꦶ -hi ◌꧀ꦲꦶꦃ -hih ◌꧀ꦲꦶꦁ -hing ◌꧀ꦲꦶꦂ -hir
ꦲꦺꦴ ho ꦲꦺꦴꦃ hoh ꦲꦺꦴꦁ hong ꦲꦺꦴꦂ hor ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦴ -ho ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦴꦃ -hoh ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦴꦁ -hong ◌꧀ꦲꦺꦴꦂ -hor
ꦲꦸ hu ꦲꦸꦃ huh ꦲꦸꦁ hung ꦲꦸꦂ hur ◌꧀ꦲꦸ -hu ◌꧀ꦲꦸꦃ -huh ◌꧀ꦲꦸꦁ -hung ◌꧀ꦲꦸꦂ -hur
ꦲꦿ hra ꦲꦿꦃ hrah ꦲꦿꦁ hrang ꦲꦿꦂ hrar ◌꧀ꦲꦿ -hra ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦃ -hrah ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦁ -hrang ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦂ -hrar
ꦲꦿꦺ hre ꦲꦿꦺꦃ hreh ꦲꦿꦺꦁ hreng ꦲꦿꦺꦂ hrer ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺ -hre ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦃ -hreh ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦁ -hreng ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦂ -hrer
ꦲꦽ hrê ꦲꦽꦃ hrêh ꦲꦽꦁ hrêng ꦲꦽꦂ hrêr ◌꧀ꦲꦽ -hrê ◌꧀ꦲꦽꦃ -hrêh ◌꧀ꦲꦽꦁ -hrêng ◌꧀ꦲꦽꦂ -hrêr
ꦲꦿꦶ hri ꦲꦿꦶꦃ hrih ꦲꦿꦶꦁ hring ꦲꦿꦶꦂ hrir ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦶ -hri ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦶꦃ -hrih ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦶꦁ -hring ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦶꦂ -hrir
ꦲꦿꦺꦴ hro ꦲꦿꦺꦴꦃ hroh ꦲꦿꦺꦴꦁ hrong ꦲꦿꦺꦴꦂ hror ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦴ -hro ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦴꦃ -hroh ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦴꦁ -hrong ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦺꦴꦂ -hror
ꦲꦿꦸ hru ꦲꦿꦸꦃ hruh ꦲꦿꦸꦁ hrung ꦲꦿꦸꦂ hrur ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦸ -hru ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦸꦃ -hruh ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦸꦁ -hrung ◌꧀ꦲꦿꦸꦂ -hrur
ꦲꦾ hya ꦲꦾꦃ hyah ꦲꦾꦁ hyang ꦲꦾꦂ hyar ◌꧀ꦲꦾ -hya ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦃ -hyah ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦁ -hyang ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦂ -hyar
ꦲꦾꦺ hye ꦲꦾꦺꦃ hyeh ꦲꦾꦺꦁ hyeng ꦲꦾꦺꦂ hyer ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺ -hye ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦃ -hyeh ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦁ -hyeng ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦂ -hyer
ꦲꦾꦼ hyê ꦲꦾꦼꦃ hyêh ꦲꦾꦼꦁ hyêng ꦲꦾꦼꦂ hyêr ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦼ -hyê ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦼꦃ -hyêh ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦼꦁ -hyêng ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦼꦂ -hyêr
ꦲꦾꦶ hyi ꦲꦾꦶꦃ hyih ꦲꦾꦶꦁ hying ꦲꦾꦶꦂ hyir ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦶ -hyi ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦶꦃ -hyih ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦶꦁ -hying ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦶꦂ -hyir
ꦲꦾꦺꦴ hyo ꦲꦾꦺꦴꦃ hyoh ꦲꦾꦺꦴꦁ hyong ꦲꦾꦺꦴꦂ hyor ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦴ -hyo ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦴꦃ -hyoh ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦴꦁ -hyong ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦺꦴꦂ -hyor
ꦲꦾꦸ hyu ꦲꦾꦸꦃ hyuh ꦲꦾꦸꦁ hyung ꦲꦾꦸꦂ hyur ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦸ -hyu ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦸꦃ -hyuh ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦸꦁ -hyung ◌꧀ꦲꦾꦸꦂ -hyur


Ortography[edit]

There are several rules regarding the writing of , whether pronounced as "ha" or "a".

  1. in front of a word is always transliterated as "a", except for foreign loan words. The same rule applies when sandhangan swara (vowel diacritics) is used.
    • Read as "a": ꦲꦏꦸ - aku (me), ꦲꦺꦴꦫ - ora (not), ꦲꦶꦭꦁ - ilang (lost)
    • Read as "ha": ꦲꦗꦶ - haji (hajj), ꦲꦺꦴꦠꦺꦭ꧀ - hotèl, ꦲꦶꦏ꧀ꦩꦠ꧀ - hikmat (wisdom)
    (Whether a word is considered a native Javanese or not will depend on the dictionary definition.)
  2. in the middle of a word is almost always transliterated as "ha".
    • ꦠꦲꦸ - tahu (tofu), not tau
    • ꦫꦲꦪꦸ - ra-hayu (blessed), not rah-ayu (from rootword ꦲꦪꦸ ayu (beauty))
    With the exception
    • Certain words such as ꦩꦲꦺꦴꦱ꧀ - maos (reading) or ꦏꦺꦴꦱ꧀ - kaos (shirt)
    • Words that end with "a" and has suffix -a, such as ꦲꦤꦲ - ana-a (let there be)
    • Reduplicated word, where in the beginning of the second word always transliterated as "a"
  3. In root word that ends with /h/ sound (in this sense, using wignyan) and has suffix (-i, -an, etc.), (as in "ha") is added before the suffix.
    • ꦥꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦃꦲꦤ꧀ - panembah-han (to address a royalty), from the rootword ꦤꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦃ - nembah (to bow, to respect)
  4. Rootwords that ends with vowel sound and has suffix -ake, its suffix is written as ꦏ꧀ꦲꦏꦺ
    • ꦏꦠꦩ꧀ꦠꦺꦴꦏ꧀ꦲꦏꦺ - katamtokaké (have been chosen), not katamtokhaké, from the rootword ꦠꦩ꧀ꦠꦸ - tamtu - (certain)
  5. are added in front of rootwords with prefix ng-, ny-, m-, and n-, although this is not mandatory.
    • ꦲꦔꦤ꧀ꦢꦶꦏ - ngandika (said), not hangandika nor angandika
  6. Rootword that starts with if added prefix pi- or pri-, the syllable became (ya)
    • ꦥꦶꦪꦒꦼꦩ꧀ - piyagem, from root word ꦲꦒꦼꦩ꧀ - agem.


References[edit]

See also[edit]

Javanese[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+A98x
U+A99x
U+A9Ax
U+A9Bx ꦿ
U+A9Cx
U+A9Dx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0