List of dissenting academies (19th century)

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This is a list of dissenting academies in England and Wales, operating in the 19th century. Over this period the religious disabilities of English Dissenters were lifted within the educational system, and the rationale for the existence of a system of general education parallel to that requiring Church of England beliefs therefore fell away. This provision of general education for Dissenters was one of two functions of the academies, the other being the training of ministers (Presbyterian, Congregationalist, Baptist, Methodist and Unitarian). As the century progressed, there were the administrative changes and migrations seen in the 18th century, but also a gradual merging of some of the stronger dissenting academies into the developing university system. Colleges that were in effect nonconformist seminaries could also become theological institutions within universities. By the end of the century the remaining independent "dissenting" system in practical terms had become a network of nonconformist theological colleges.

See List of dissenting academies (1660–1800) for the earlier history. See also List of English and Welsh endowed schools (19th century) for the parallel system of grammar schools.

List[edit]

Institution Dates Tutors Students
Birmingham, Spring Hill College. Founded as a seminary for the Congregational ministry in 1838, and closed in 1886 when the institution moved to Mansfield College, Oxford.[1] The old building became Moseley School. 1838–1886 John Massie;[1] Henry Rogers;[2] Thomas Richard Barker.[3] Robert William Dale[4]
Blackburn Academy. Refounded in Whalley Range, Withington, Lancashire, as Lancashire Independent College in 1843,[5] by George Hadfield, Thomas Raffles and William Roby.[6] Later known as Northern Congregational College.
Cheshunt College.[7] Moved to Cheshunt from Trefeca, Wales. 1792-1906. In 1906 moved to Cheshunt College, Cambridge. Early presidents were: Isaac Nicholson, Andrew Horne, Richard Owen, Henry Draper, Josiah Richards, John James, William Kemp, Jacob Kirkman Foster.[8] Tutors Joseph Sortain (1838–1850),[9]John Harris (1839–1850);[10] Philip Smith (1840–1850).[11] William Hendry Stowell, president 1850,[12] Henry Robert Reynolds, president 1860-94.[13] Henry Allon.
Hackney Theological College, a Congregational seminary,[14] going by a number of names (Hoxton Academy, Hackney Academy, Highbury College, but see below). It eventually became part of New College, London. 1803 George Collison
Madras House school, Hackney[15] 1817 John Allen, Alexander Allen William Smith
Homerton Academy, later merged into New College, London In operation 1800, merged c.1840.
Idle, became Airedale Independent College in 1826. From 1834 in Undercliffe, and from 1877 in Bradford. In 1888 Rotherham and Airedale became Yorkshire United College, Bradford.[16][17] 1800-1888 William Vint, tutor from 1795;[16] William Benton Clulow;[18] Andrew Martin Fairbairn, principal 1877 to 1886. Robert Harley.[19] Charles Albert Berry, John Kelly, John Waddington.
Manchester Academy; then in York, Manchester again, London, and Oxford. Became Harris Manchester College, Oxford. Operating in 1800.
New College London.[20] It was a Congregational academy formed by the amalgamation of the final form of Daventry Academy as Coward College, Highgate Academy, and Homerton College. 1850–1900. In 1900 it became part of the University of London, John Harris, Robert Halley.[21]
Cavendish College, in Manchester, became Nottingham Congregational Institute in 1863. The founder Joseph Parker withdrew after a quarrel in the very early stages (1860–1) and John Brown Paton became principal; John Radford Thomson was also on the teaching staff.[22][23] In 1921 it became Paton Congregational College.[24]
Penryn, Cornwall 1800–1820 Richard Cope[25] Thomas Byrth, John Nichols Thom.[26][27]
Rotherham Independent Academy Opened 1795[28] Edward Williams to 1813.[29]
Stepney Academy, became ultimately Regent's Park College, Oxford 1810 A Baptist foundation, growing out of the Baptist Education Society (1804) set up in London by Abraham Booth and others.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Machin, Ian. "Massie, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/58254.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^  "Rogers, Henry (1806-1877)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  3. ^  "Barker, Thomas Richard". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  4. ^ Jones, R. Tudur. "Dale, Robert William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7015.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ Jones, R. Tudur. "Raleigh, Alexander". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/23041.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ^  "Hadfield, George (1787-1879)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  7. ^ "The city of Cambridge - Theological colleges | A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3 (pp. 139-141)". British-history.ac.uk. 2003-06-22. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  8. ^ Aaron Crossley Hobart Seymour (1839). The Life and Times of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon. William Edward Painter. p. 536. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  9. ^ W. J. Mander, Alan P. F. Sell, Gavin Budge (editors), The Dictionary of Nineteenth-century British Philosophers, Volume 2 (2002), p. 1045.
  10. ^  "Harris, John (1802-1856)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  11. ^  "Smith, Philip". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  12. ^ Stowell is in the DNB.
  13. ^ Reynolds is in the DNB.
  14. ^ "Hackney - Protestant Nonconformity | A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10 (pp. 130-144)". British-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  15. ^ T.F.T. Baker (Editor) (1995). "Hackney: Education". A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10: Hackney. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  16. ^ a b  "Vint, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  17. ^ Surman Index: Idle Academy
  18. ^  "Clulow, William Benton". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  19. ^  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1912). "Harley, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement​ 2. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  20. ^ Surman Index: New College, London
  21. ^ Halley is in the DNB.
  22. ^ Tudur Jones, R. "Parker, Joseph". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35386.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  23. ^  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1912). "Paton, John Brown". Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement​ 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  24. ^ "Paton Congregational College, Nottingham - The University of Nottingham". Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  25. ^  "Cope, Richard". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  26. ^ Matthew, H. C. G. "Byrth, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4284.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  27. ^ Morgan, Basil. "Thom, John Nichols". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27504.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  28. ^ rotherhamweb.co.uk/, Rotherham Independent Academy.
  29. ^ Alan P. F. Sell (2004). Philosophy, Dissent and Nonconformity. James Clarke & Co. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-227-67977-7. 
  30. ^ Clipsham, E. F. "Booth, Abraham". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2871.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)