|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
Though most of the Muslim peoples of the Arabian peninsula speak Arabic and have similar ancestry and dress, they are not all one people. Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are 1,300 distinct Arab tribes. Historically, antagonism between townsfolk and wandering tribesmen had been so bitter that the towns are surrounded by stone walls to protect them from attack by their tribal countrymen.
Few Hadramis still practice the nomadic lifestyle of their ancient ancestors. Today approximately half of the Hadramis live in the towns and villages scattered through the deep valleys of their region. Even among these settled peoples, there are sharp distinctions, the highest social prestige belonging to the wealthy, educated Sadahs, who claim to be direct descendants of Muhammed. In the past, Hadramis rarely married outside their own social level, and often lived in segregated groups in separate parts of town.
The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition, which has seen them migrate in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the Horn of Africa and the Swahili Coast in East Africa to the Malabar Coast and Hyderabad, India in South India, and to Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the Horn region, especially in Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province, in particular. During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somalian towns, and were frequently recruited in the armies of Somali Sultans.
There is a popular movement among Hadhramis to revert to independence state. Some prefer to join the previous South Yemen state and some prefer complete independence from both North and South Yemen. 
Diaspora communities 
- Arab Indonesian
- Arab Singaporean
- Chaush, in India
- Sodagar (Gujarati Shaikh)
- Arab (Gujarat) (some claim to be of Hadhrami descent)
- Nawayath in India
- Mappila in India (some claim Hadhrami descent)
Hadhrami people 
- Ho, Engseng. 2006. Graves of Tarim. University of California Press. Berkeley. passim
- Jean-François Seznec The Financial Markets of the Arabian Gulf, Routledge, 1987
- Cassanelli, Lee V. (1973). The Benaadir past: essays in southern Somali history. University of Wisconsin. p. 24
- Gavin, R. J. (1975). Aden under British rule, 1839–1967. London: Hurst. p. 198. ISBN 0-903983-14-1
- Francoise Le Guennec, Changing Patterns of Hadhrami Migration and Social Integration in East Africa in Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s, Edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, BRILL, 1997, pg 165
- Hadhrami League Forces 
- Kumar Suresh Singh; Rajendra Behari Lal, Anthropological Survey of India (2003). Gujarat, Part 1. Popular Prakashan. p. 74. ISBN 81-7991-104-7,ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4.
Further reading 
- Leif Manger, The Hadrami Diaspora: Community-building on the Indian Ocean Rim, Berghahn Books, 2010
- Omar Khalidi, The Arabs of Hadramawt in Hyderabad in Mediaeval Deccan History, eds Kulkarni, Naeem and de Souza, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1996
- Leif Manger, Hadramis in Hyderabad: From Winners to Losers, Asian Journal of Social Science, Volume 35, Numbers 4-5, 2007, pp. 405–433(29)
- Engseng Ho, The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean, University of California Press, 2006
- Ababu Minda Yimene, An African Indian community in Hyderabad, Cuvillier Verlag, 2004, pg 201
- Natalie Mobini-Kesheh, The Hadrami Awakening: Community and Identity in the Netherlands East Indies, 1900-1942, SEAP Publications, 1999
- Anne K. Bang, Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925, Routledge, 2003
- Linda Boxberger, On the Edge of Empire: Hadhramawt, Emigration, and the Indian Ocean, 1880s-1930s, SUNY Press, 2002
- Ulrike Freitag, Hadhramaut: A Religious Centre for the Indian Ocean in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries?, Studia Islamica, No. 89 (1999), pp. 165–183
- The Hadhrami Diaspora in Southeast Asia: Identity Maintenance or Assimilation?, edited by Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk and Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, BRILL, 2009
- A Hadrami Diaspora in the Sudan in Diasporas Within and Without Africa: Dynamism, Hetereogeneity, Variation edited by Leif O. Manger and Munzoul A. M. Assal, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2006, pg 61
- Abdullah Hassan Al-Saqqaf, The Linguistics of Loanwords in Hadrami Arabic, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Volume 9, Issue 1 January 2006, pages 75 – 93
- Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s Edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, BRILL, 1997
- Frode F. Jacobsen, Hadrami Arabs in Present-day Indonesia, Taylor & Francis, 2009
- Patricia W. Romero, Lamu: History, Society, and Family in an East African Port City, Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997, pp 93 – 108, 167- 184
- Mona Abaza, M. Asad Shahab: A Portrait of an Indonesian Hadrami Who Bridged the Two Worlds in Southeast Asia and the Middle East: Islam, Movement, and the Longue Durée, edited by Eric Tagliacozzo, NUS Press, 2009, pp 250 – 274
- Jonathan Miran, Red Sea Translocals: Hadrami Migration, Entrepreneurship, and Strategies of Integration in Eritrea, 1840s-1970s, Northeast African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2012, pp. 129–168.
- Ulrike Freitag, From Golden Youth in Arabia to Business Leaders in Singapore: Instructions of a Hadrami Patriarch in Southeast Asia and the Middle East: Islam, Movement, and the Longue Durée, edited by Eric Tagliacozzo, NUS Press, 2009, pp 235 – 249
- Talib, Ameen, Hadramis in Singapore, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol 17 no1 (April 1997): 89- 97 (UK).
- Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, The Role of Hadramis in Post-Second World War Singapore - A Reinterpretation, Immigrants & Minorities, Volume 25, Issue 2 July 2007, pages 163 - 183
- Iain Walker, Hadramis, Shimalis and Muwalladin: Negotiating Cosmopolitan Identities between the Swahili Coast and Southern Yemen, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2008, pages 44 – 59
- Shanti Sadiq Ali, The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, Orient Blackswan, 1996, pp 193–202
- Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah (2012) "Arabic Literature in Diaspora: an Example from South Asia" in: Rizio Yohannan Raj (ed.): Quest of a Discipline: New Academic Directions for Comparative Literature (Cambridge University Press, India) . See http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9788175969346.018