|Regions with significant populations|
|Islam (Sunni, Shafi'i, Sufi Islam), Judaism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Arab people, Arab Singaporean, Chaush|
The Hadhrami (Arabic: حضرمي) or Hadharem (Arabic: الحضارم) are people inhabiting the Hadhramaut region in Yemen and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic.
Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are 1,300 distinct tribes. Historically, antagonism between townsfolk and wandering tribesmen had been so bitter that the towns are surrounded by stone walls to protect them from attack by their tribal countrymen.
Few Hadramis still practice the nomadic lifestyle of their ancient ancestors. Today, approximately half of the Hadramis live in the towns and villages scattered through the deep valleys of their region. Among these settled peoples, there are sharp distinctions, the highest social prestige belonging to the wealthy, educated Sadahs, who claim to be direct descendants of Muhammed. In the past, Hadramis rarely married outside their own social level, and often lived in segregated groups in separate parts of town.
The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition. Hadhrami seamen have navigated in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the Horn of Africa to the Swahili Coast to the Malabar Coast and Hybrad in South India to Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the Horn region, especially in Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province of Somalia, in particular. During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somalian towns. They were also frequently recruited in the armies of the Somali Sultanates.
- Arab Indonesian
- Arab Singaporean
- Chaush, in India
- Sodagar (Gujarati Shaikh)
- Arab (Gujarat) (some claim to be of Hadhrami descent)
- Nawayath in India
- Mappila in India (some claim Hadhrami descent)
Horn of Africa
- Ho, Engseng. 2006. Graves of Tarim. University of California Press. Berkeley. passim
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- Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah (2012) "Arabic Literature in Diaspora: an Example from South Asia" in: Rizio Yohannan Raj (ed.): Quest of a Discipline: New Academic Directions for Comparative Literature (Cambridge University Press, India) . See http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9788175969346.018