Hadith of Mubahala

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The Hadith of Mubahela is Muslim tradition about a debate (Arabic: mubahela‎) of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of Najran and summoned the members of his household, the Ahl al-Bayt.

The event is recorded in several hadith collections and is referred to in the Qur'anic Sura Al Imran.

It is seen as one of the merits of Ahl al-Bayt and is widely used in Shia-Sunni arguments, and also used by the Shia to prove that Prophet Muhammad, Ali ibn Abu Talib, Fatimah, Hasan, Husain are Panjetan-e-Pak and most prominent among his Ahl al-Bayt.


According to Islamic tradition, the Christians of Najran were unhappy about the rapid spread of Islam in the lands of Arabia. They wished to discuss this matter with Muhammad and arrived in Medina in 630 CE. Learned scholars were selected by the Christians who had a continuous dialogue with Muhammad for three days. It started on Saturday, when Sunday arrived, the Christians asked to leave the city to pray. Muhammad told them to stay and pray inside the mosque, which they did.

Muhammad and the Christians were unable to arrive on any mutual understanding. At this point, Muhammad received revelation from God (recorded in Sura Al Imran):

But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of God on the liars. [Quran 3:61]

Hence it was decided that they would bring their families and Muhammad would bring his family and each will curse on the liar.The next morning, Muhammad emerged from his house with his hand held the hand of Hasan walking beside him, held Husain in his arms, followed by his daughter Fatimah and finally by his son-in-law Ali ibn Abu Talib. He came and stood with this family in front of the Christian bishops who also came forward to perform the Mubahela.

The chief of the Christians was bishop Abul Harris. When he saw this small family of the Prophet he turned towards his fellow Christians and told them,

do not indulge in Mubahela with this family, for I am observing such pious faces that if they would order the mountain to come to them the mountain shall move towards them. It is therefore prudent to make treaty with them rather than confrontation of this spiritual imminence.

They asked Muhammad for peace and it was accepted. Muhammad extended the hand of friendship towards them, a treaty was signed and both parties left on friendly terms.


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