Hadith of warning
The warning hadith (حدیث انذار), also known as "invitation of the close families" (دعوة ذو العشیرة - Da‘wat dhul-‘Ashīrah) is a famous Islamic hadith, that is recorded in all Muslim books through different chain of narration. The Shi'a's use this hadith to prove that Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib) is the rightful successor of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Invitation of close families
For three years Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret. Then he started inviting people publicly. When, according to the Qur'an he was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam, and gathered the Banu Hashim in a ceremony and told them clearly that whoever would be the first to accept his invitation would become his successor and inheritor. Ali who was 10 or 11 years old at that time was the one to step forth and embrace Islam.
Imam Ali, the one narrating the hadith, says he was ordered to cook food for forty people by Muhammad, for the exact number of family members attending the event.
After the food was presented and the people ate and drank, Muhammad stood up and said, "O sons of Abd al-Muttalib, by Allah, I do not know of any person among the Arabs who has come to his people with better than what I have brought to you and I have verily came to you with the best of this world and the hereafter, and Allah has ordered me to invite you to it. So who of you, will help me in this mission and to be my brother (akhí), my successor (wasiyyí), and my caliph (khalifatí) among you?"
Muhammad repeated this three times, no one present responded to him except the youngest of them — ‘Ali b. Abí Tãlib. He stood up and said, "I will be your helper, O Prophet of God" thrice.
Muhammad then put his hand on the back of Ali's neck and said, "Inna hadhã akhhí wa wasiyyí wa khalífatí fíkum, fasma‘û lahu wa atí‘û — Verily this is my brother, my successor, and my caliph amongst you; therefore, listen to him and obey.". However a handful of the people then laughed and said to Abu Talib that Muhammed has ordered you to obey your son.
- Quran 26:214
- Sunni sources: at-Tabari, at-Ta’ríkh, vol. 1 (Leiden, 1980 offset of the 1789 edition) p. 171-173; Ibn al-Athír, al-Kãmil, vol. 5 (Beirut, 1965) p. 62-63; Abu ’l-Fidã’, al-Mukhtasar fi Ta’ríkhi ’l-Bashar, vol. 1 (Beirut, n.d.) p. 116-117; al-Khãzin, at-Tafsír, vol. 4 (Cairo, 1955) p. 127; al-Baghawi, at-Tafsír (Ma‘ãlimu ’t-Tanzíl), vol. 6 (Riyadh: Dar Tayyiba, 1993) p. 131; al-Bayhaqi, Dalã’ilu ’n-Nubuwwa, vol. 1 (Cairo, 1969) p. 428-430; as-Suyuti, ad-Durru ’l-Manthûr, vol. 5 (Beirut, n.d.) p. 97; and Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanzu ’l-‘Ummãl, vol. 15 (Hyderabad, 1968) pp. 100, 113, 115. Further references: ‘Abdu ’l-Husayn al-Aminí, al-Ghadír, vol. 2 (Beirut, 1967) pp. 278-289.
- Tabatabae, (1979) p.39
- Ashraf, (2005) p.15
- Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 8126119403.
- Tabatabae, Mohammad Hosayn; Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.
- Imamate: the Vicegerency of the Prophet by Rizvi, S. Saeed Akhtar, (Tehran: WOFIS, 1985) pp. 57–60.
This hadith has been mentioned in the following Sunni books
- Tareekh altabary volume 2 page 319
- Tareekh ibn atheer volume 2 page 62
- Alsirat alhalabiya volume 1 page 311
- Shawahed altanzeel volume 1 page 371
- Kanz alummal volume 15 page 15
- Tareekh ibn asaker volume 1 page 85
- Tafseer alkhazen volume 3 page 371