Hadjarai peoples

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The Hadjarai are a group of peoples comprising 6.7% of the population of Chad,[1] or more than 150,000 people.[2] The name is an Arabic exonym, literally meaning "[those] of the stones" (i.e. of the mountains). It is used collectively to describe several distinct ethnic groups living in the hilly Guéra Region.[3]

While the Hadjarai groups speak diverse languages, they share many cultural traits,[4] the most prevalent of which is a common belief in margais, i.e., invisible spirits that control the natural elements. This cult has survived the rapid conversion of most Hadjarai to Islam during the colonial period, despite attempts by the French colonial authorities to avoid Islamization through the promotion of Christian missions.[2][3][5]

Though never united in the past,[3] the Hadjarai people share a strong spirit of independence, forged in pre-colonial Chad by their repeated clashes with slave-raiding razzias in their territory, and supported in particular by the Ouaddai Kingdom.[6] This tradition of independence has led to frequent clashes with the central government after Chad gained independence in 1960, at first largely because of attempts to force them to move from the hills to the plains. They were among the staunchest supporters of the rebels during the Chadian Civil War.[5] Although the Hadjarai played a crucial role in bringing to power in 1982, they grew alienated from him after the death of their spokesman Idriss Miskine. They suffered heavily in 1987, after Habré launched a campaign of terror against them in response to the formation of the MOSANAT rebel movement,[7] and members of the group were arrested and even killed en masse.[8] 840 of those arrested appear to have been immediately killed.[9] The Hadjarai thus became important supporters of Idriss Déby's rebellion against the President and contributed to Habré's downfall in 1990.[10] A crisis among Déby and the Hadjarai leadership flared in 1991 after an alleged coup attempt. Countless Hadjarai were incarcerated as fighting spread to the Hadjarai territory, despite efforts by Déby to reassure the local population of Guéra.[11]

The fifteen[4] Hadjarai ethnic groups include the Dajus, Kengas, Junkun, Dangaleats, Mogoums, Sokoros, Sabas, Barains, Bidios, Yalnas,[2] Bolgos, Koffas and Djongors.[5] Most of these are small farmers.[2] Over 90% of Hadjarai women have undergone female genital cutting.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chad", The World Factbook
  2. ^ a b c d Olson, James Stuart (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-313-27918-7. 
  3. ^ a b c Decalo, Samuel (1987). Historical Dictionary of Chad. Scarecrow Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-8108-1937-6. 
  4. ^ a b Chesley, William T. (May 1994). "Une enquete sociolinguistique parmi les sokoro du Guera". Société Internationale du Linguistique (in French). 
  5. ^ a b c Chapelle, Jean (1981). Le Peuple Tchadien: ses racines et sa vie quotidienne (in French). L'Harmattan. pp. 178–179. ISBN 2-85802-169-4. 
  6. ^ Buijtenhuijs, Robert (1978). Le Frolinat et les révoltes populaires du Tchad, 1965-1976 (in French). Mouton Éditeur. p. 45. ISBN 90-279-7656-9 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  7. ^ Nolutshungu, Sam C. (1995). Limits of Anarchy: Intervention and State Formation in Chad. University of Virginia Press. p. 234. ISBN 0-8139-1628-3. 
  8. ^ Brody, Reed (Winter 2001). "The Prosecution of Hissène Habré - An "African Pinochet"" (– Scholar search). New England Law Review 35: 321–335. [dead link]
  9. ^ S. Nolutshungu, Limits of Anarchy, 236
  10. ^ Atlas, Pierre M.; Licklider, Roy (1999). "Conflict among Former Allies after Civil War Settlement: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad, and Lebanon". Journal of Peace Research 36: 35–54. doi:10.1177/0022343399036001003. 
  11. ^ S. Nolutshungu, Limits of Anarchy, 249-252
  12. ^ Chad - Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2006, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, March 6, 2007