Haestingas

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Kingdom of Haestingas

6th century?–771?
Capital Hastings
Languages Old English (Englisc)
Religion Paganism?
Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism)
Government Monarchy
History
 -  Established 6th century?
 -  Disestablished 771?

The Haestingas, or alternatively Heastingas or Hæstingas, were one of the tribes of Anglo-Saxon Britain. Not very much is known about them. They settled in what became east Sussex sometime before the end of the 8th century. A 12th-century source suggested that they were conquered by Offa of Mercia in 771. They were also recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ASC) as being an autonomous grouping as late as the 11th century.

History[edit]

The foundation legend of the Kingdom of the South Saxons is given by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which states that in the year AD 477 Ælle arrived at a place called Cymenshore in three ships with his three sons.[1] Traditionally Cymenshore is thought to have been located around the Selsey area, in the south west of Sussex. However the archaeological evidence indicates that the principal area of settlement in the 5th century, for the South Saxons, has been identified as between the lower Ouse and Cuckmere rivers in East Sussex, based on the number of Anglo-Saxon cemeteries there.[2]

The Anglo-Saxon settlements of south east Britain c. 572 AD

To the east of Pevensey, beyond the Saxon Shore Fort of Anderitum, on the other side of the estuary and marsh were a group of people who settled that were known as the Haestingas. They gave their name to Hastings.[3] Not very much is known of the Haestingas but they were believed to be a separate people to the South Saxons, however there is no archaeological evidence for occupation by Anglo-Saxons in that area of Sussex between the 5th and 8th century. Medieval sources and place name evidence suggest that there were people living there by the late 8th century.[4] Some of the Saxon charters that date from the Kingdom of Sussex provide evidence which suggests the existence of two separate dynasties in Sussex. The charters of King Northelm (or Nunna), who ruled Sussex in the late 7th and early 8th century regularly attest a second king by the name of Watt (or Wattus).[5][6][7][8] The historian C.T. Chevalier has suggested that Watt may have ruled the Haestingas. This is because place-names with the name Watt or What occur in the Hastings region, but are not found in western Sussex.[2][9] The theory has been seen as a plausible by other historians.[2][10] Chevalier goes on to suggest that the Haestingas maybe of Frankish origin, however other historians reject this part of the theory as it is based solely on a misinterpretation of the place-name evidence.[2][9][10][11]

Towards the end of the 8th century, Kent did not have a secure leadership and the kingdom of Wessex was pursuing an expansionist campaign under Cædwalla; the result was that Kent found itself being raided frequently by the West Saxons.[12] It was reported that Cædwalla ravaged Kent with his brother Mul in 686.[13] However in 687 the people of Kent killed his brother Mul by 'burning' him. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Cædwalla overran Kent in the same year, presumably in response to his brother's violent death.[14] The following year Caedwalla went on a pilgrimage to Rome, why he did this is not reported but he died while he was there.[15][16] Stability was then returned to Kent under the new king Wihtred and also with Ine becoming king of Wessex.[17] The people of Kent agreed to pay compensation (Weregild) to Wessex for the taking of Mul's life.[18] The agreement may have included some ceding of border territory,[17] and it has been hypothesized that the overlordship of Haestingas would have been ceded to Ine as part of this treaty.[19] The southern kingdoms lived in relative peace for the next quarter century.[17]

The peace was shattered by the ascent of Mercian power; the chronicler Simeon of Durham records the defeat of the gens Hestingorum (the people of Hastings) by Offa of Mercia in 771.[20][21] Mercian overlordship was ended when they were defeated in 825, by Egbert of Wessex, at the Battle of Ellandun. Egbert went on to annex the territories of Essex, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, suggesting that by this time the Haestingas had been subsumed into Sussex.[22][23] However it is known that the Haestingas retained a distinct identity till the 11th century as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the Haestingas as having being harried by the Danes in 1011.[22]

The 19th century writer, Grant Allen argued that the Hastings region was predestined to be a separate region between the rest of Sussex and Kent, to later join with Sussex.[24] Effectively isolated, the region was separated from the rest of Sussex and England by the marshland of the Pevensey Levels lying to the west and the forest of the Weald to the north, while Romney Marsh separates the region from Kent to the east.[4] The kingdom of the Haestingas went on to join Sussex and become the rape of Hastings.[24]

Origins[edit]

It has been suggested that the Haestingas were of Frankish origin, based on Watt being a sub-king to the South Saxons and there being a place-name of Watten in north-east France.[4][9] However, the more probable explanation is that the Haestingas were Jutes who migrated from Kent.[10] Kent was the earliest Anglo-Saxon kingdom to be evangelized, at the beginning of the 7th century, and it was at this time that the simplified Christian burial was introduced. As there is little archaeological evidence for the Haestingas it is likely that they were already Christian, when they moved to Sussex .[4]

Etymology[edit]

Haestingas is from the Old English and means settlement of Haesta's People. Haesta would have been the chieftain or ruler and -ingas means People.[25][26] It is possible that the founder may have been a forbear of the Viking leader Hastein (who invaded Kent in 892), however there is no evidence to support this.[9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ASC 477. English translation at Project Gutenberg. Accessdate 19 December 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Martin Welch. Early Anglo-Saxon Sussex in Peter Brandon's. The South Saxons. pp. 23-25.
  3. ^ Armstrong. A History of Sussex. p. 39
  4. ^ a b c d Martin Welch. Early Anglo Saxon Sussex in Peter Brandon's. The South Saxons. pp. 33-34
  5. ^ Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p. lxxvi
  6. ^ Charter S.45 Northelm, king of South Saxons grants land to his sister. Accessdate 18 December 2012
  7. ^ Charter S.1173 Bruni dux of South Saxons grants four hides to the Abbot of Selsey Accessdate 18 December 2012
  8. ^ Charter S.43 Nunna, king of Sussex, to Eadberht, bishop; grant of 20 hides (tributarii) at Hugabeorgum and Dene. Accessdate 18 December 2012
  9. ^ a b c d C.T. Chevalier. The Frankish origin of the Hastings tribe in Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 104. pp. 56-62
  10. ^ a b c R. Coates. On the alleged Frankish origin of the Hastings tribe in Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 117. pp. 263-264
  11. ^ Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p. lxxix
  12. ^ Kirby. The earliest English Kings. pp. 101-103
  13. ^ ASC 686. English translation at Project Gutenberg Accessdate 19 December 2012.
  14. ^ ASC 687. English translation at Project Gutenberg. Accessdate 19 December 2012.
  15. ^ ASC 688. English translation at Project Gutenberg. Accessdate 19 December 2012.
  16. ^ Yorke. Kings and Kingdoms of early Anglo-Saxon England. See p. 137 for possible reasons why Cædwalla abdicated and went on pilgrimage.
  17. ^ a b c Kirby. The earliest English Kings. p. 105
  18. ^ ASC 694. English translation at Project Gutenberg. Accessdate 19 December 2012.
  19. ^ "History Files". Whitstable, Kent: Kessler Associates. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  20. ^ Simon of Durham. Historia Regum. Ch. 47
  21. ^ Simeon of Durham's. History of the Kings. p. 450
  22. ^ a b ASC 1011. English translation at Project Gutenberg. Accessdate 19 December 2012.
  23. ^ Kirby. The Earliest English Kings. p. 155
  24. ^ a b Grant Allen. An English Shire in Urban Sylvanus. The Gentleman's Magazine .v252. January–June. pp. 49-70. Retrieved 2 December 2013
  25. ^ Ayto. Brewer's Britain and Ireland. p. 520
  26. ^ Gelling. Place-Names in the Landscape. p. 2

References[edit]

  • Armstrong, J.R. (1971). A History of Sussex. Sussex: Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-185-4. 
  • Ayto, John; Crofton, Ian; Cavill, Paul (2005). Brewer's Britain and Ireland. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-30435-385-X. 
  • Bedwin, Owen, ed. (1966). Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol. 104. Lewes, Sussex: Sussex Archaeological Society. 
  • Bedwin, Owen, ed. (1979). Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol. 117. Lewes, Sussex: Sussex Archaeological Society. 
  • Brandon, Peter, ed. (1978). The South Saxons. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-240-0. 
  • of Durham, Simon (1855). Joseph Stevenson, ed. The Church Historians of England. London: Seeleys. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  • Gelling, Margaret (1985). Place-Names in the Landscape. London: Phoenix. ISBN 1-84212-264-9. 
  • Kelly, S.E (1998). Anglo-Saxon Charters VI: Charters of Selsey. OUP for the British Academy. ISBN 0-19-726175-2. 
  • Kirby, D.P. (2000). The Earliest English Kings. Revised Ed. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24211-8. 
  • Urban, Sylvanus, ed. (1882). Gentleman's Magazine. Volume CCLII. January to June. London: Chatto and Windus. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  • Yorke, Barbara (1990). Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. London: Seaby. ISBN 1-85264-027-8.