Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
|Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict|
The distinctive marking of cultural property under the convention
|Signed||14 May 1954|
|Effective||7 August 1956|
|Depositary||Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization|
|Languages||English, French, Russian and Spanish|
The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is an international treaty that requires its signatories to protect cultural property in war. It was signed at The Hague, Netherlands, on May 14, 1954, and entered into force August 7, 1956. As of February 2014, it has been ratified by 126 states.
The convention defines a protective sign to facilitate the identification of protected cultural property during an armed conflict. A triple use of that sign is also possible to mark exceptionally important cultural property under special protection.
Following the Second World War, UNESCO adopted the Hague Convention (1954) which created rules to protect cultural goods during armed conflicts. This Convention was the first international treaty aimed at protecting cultural heritage in the context of war, and which highlighted the concept of common heritage and led to the creation of the International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS), whose Director General is currently Mr Julien Anfruns from the International Council of Museums (ICOM).
As of February 2014, 126 are party to the treaty, while 4 others (Andorra, Ireland, Philippines and the UK) have signed, but not ratified.
- (Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict - 1954 (information by UNESCO)
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2010)|
1 . International Council on Monuments and Sites — Contains the full text of the Treaty 2 . Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict - 1954 (information by UNESCO) 3 . Text of the Convention at the Center for a World in Balance 4 . http://culturalpolicy.uchicago.edu/papers/2006-protecting-heritage/Boylan.paper.pdf "Implementing the 1954 Hague Convention and its Protocols: legal and practical implications" Patrick J Boylan, City University London, UK Feb 2006 5 . http://www.asser.nl/default.aspx?site_id=9&level1=13336&level2=13374&level3=13459 "THE DESTRUCTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY DURING ARMED CONFLICT" ASSER INSTITUTE 16 December 2004 6 . http://www.uscbs.org/resources.htm U S Committee of Blue shield 7 . http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/400 " International Humanitarian Law - Treaties & Documents " 2005 8 . http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=35744&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html " UNESCO "
- Patrick J. Boylan, Review of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property for the Protection in the Event of Armed Conflict (The Hague Convention of 1954), Paris, UNESCO (1993), Report ref. CLT-93/WS/12.
- Jiri Toman, La protection des biens culturels en cas de conflit armé - Commentaire de la Convention de la Haye du 14 mai 1954, Paris, (1994).
- Fabio Maniscalco, Jus Praedae, Naples (1999).
- Fabio Maniscalco (ed.), Protection of Cultural Heritage in war areas, monographic collection "Mediterraneum", vol. 2 (2002).
- Fabio Maniscalco, World Heritage and War - monographic series "Mediterraneum", vol. VI, Naples (2007).
- Nout van Woudenberg & Liesbeth Lijnzaad (ed.). Protecting Cultural Property in Armed Conflict - An Insight into the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, publ. Martinus Nijhoff. Leiden - Boston (2010)
- Peter Barenboim, Naeem Sidiqi, Bruges, the Bridge between Civilizations: The 75 Anniversary of the Roerich Pact, Grid Belgium, 2010. ISBN 978-5-98856-114-9
- http://www.hcch.net/upload/conventions/txt02en.pdf " hague conference on private international law "