Haikou

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Haikou
海口市
Prefecture-level city
Haikou city skyline
Haikou city skyline
Nickname(s): Coconut City (椰子市)
Location of Haikou City jurisdiction in Hainan
Location of Haikou City jurisdiction in Hainan
Haikou is located in Hainan
Haikou
Haikou
Location of the city centre in Hainan
Coordinates: 20°02′34″N 110°20′30″E / 20.04278°N 110.34167°E / 20.04278; 110.34167Coordinates: 20°02′34″N 110°20′30″E / 20.04278°N 110.34167°E / 20.04278; 110.34167
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hainan
Government
 • CPC Municipal Party Secretary Chen Ci (zh)
 • Mayor Ni Qiang (zh)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 2,237 km2 (864 sq mi)
 • Urban 2,237 km2 (864 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,280 km2 (880 sq mi)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Prefecture-level city 2,046,189
 • Density 910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
 • Urban 2,046,189
 • Urban density 910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,046,189
 • Metro density 900/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 570000
Area code(s) 898
Website http://www.haikou.gov.cn/
Haikou
Haikou name.svg
"Haikou", as written in Chinese
Chinese
Literal meaning Mouth of the sea

Hǎikǒu (Chinese: ), is the capital and most populous city of Hainan province, People's Republic of China.[1] It is situated on the northern coast of Hainan, by the mouth of the Nandu River. The northern part of the city is the district of Haidian Island, which is separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a branch of the Nandu.

Administratively, Haikou is a prefecture-level city, comprising four districts, and covering 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi). There are 2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4 urban districts of the city.

Haikou was originally a port city. Today, more than half of the island's total trade still goes through its ports. The city is home to Hainan University, which has its main campus on Haidian Island.

History[edit]

The hanzi characters comprising the city's name, 海口, mean ocean/sea and mouth/port, respectively. Thus, the name "Haikou" is also a word for "seaport". Haikou originally served as the port for Qiongshan, the ancient administrative capital of Hainan island, located some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inland to the south east. During its early history Haikou was a part of Guangdong province. In the 13th century it was fortified and became a military post under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The port is located west of the mouth of the Nandu River, Hainan's principal river. When Qiongshan was opened to foreign trade under the Treaty of Tianjin in 1858, Haikou started to rival the old administrative city. In 1926, Haikou overtook Qiongshan in population and it was declared a separate administrative city. Haikou was developed as a port during the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) when the Japanese invaded and occupied Hainan Island from early 1939 to 1945.

Since 1949, Haikou has maintained its position as Hainan's main port, handling more than half of the island's total trade. It has replaced Qiongshan as the island's administrative capital. In 1988, Haikou was made a prefecture-level city as well as the capital of the newly created Hainan Province.

Haikou old town contains the oldest buildings in the city and was largely built by wealthy Chinese from the mainland and some overseas Chinese who had returned to their homeland. The houses are a mixture of styles including Portuguese, French, and Southeast Asian. The streets used to be divided into different areas selling Chinese and western medicine, for silk and bespoke clothes, one for fresh fish and meat, and others for the sale of incense, candles, paper, ink, and other goods.

Various projects are currently under discussion to decide the best way to restore and preserve these historical buildings.

Geography[edit]

Haikou city map

Haikou is situated on the north coast of Hainan Island, by Haikou Bay, facing the Leizhou Peninsula across the Qiongzhou Strait that stretches west from Beibu Bay near Vietnam to the James Shoal bordering the South China Sea to the west. Most of the city is almost completely flat and only a few metres above sea level. It has an area of 2,304.84 square kilometres (889.90 sq mi).[citation needed][2]

The northern part of Haikou City, the district of Haidian Island, is separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a tributary of the Nandu River. The district is accessed by one of four bridges, the largest being Haikou Century Bridge, which connects the Guomao district with Haidian Island at the estuary of the Haidian River. From east to west the remaining three road connections are provided by the Renmin, Heping and Xinbu Bridges.

Climate[edit]

Further information: Hainan#Annual fog

Haikou is on the northern edge of the torrid zone, and is part of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. April to October is the active period for tropical storms and typhoons, most of which occur between August and September. May to October is the rainy season with the heaviest rainfall occurring in September. Despite its location, the city has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), falling just short of a tropical climate, with strong monsoonal influences. Nevertheless, the area has hot summers and warm winters, usually with high humidity.[3] Extremes temperatures have ranged from 2.8 to 39.6 °C (37 to 103 °F) [4] From June to October torrential rains may occur, with 7.0 days annually receiving at least 50 mm (1.97 in) of rain; this period accounts for nearly 70 percent of the annual rainfall of 1,650 mm (65 in). With monthly percentage of possible sunshine ranging from 31% in February to 61% in July, the city receives 2,070 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Environment[edit]

As of 2012, Haikou has the second best air quality among major cities nationally, preceded only by Lhasa, Tibet.[7] However, since approximately 2009, due to an increase in the number of automobiles, there has been worsening air pollution.

According to the 2005 statistical book issued by the National Bureau of Statistics, Haikou scored the highest among China's main cities in air quality, with 366 days (2004) of ambient air quality equal to or above grade II, with only 0.033 milligrams/m2 of particulate matter (the least of all main cities), 0.003 milligrams/m2 of sulphur dioxide (only Lhasa had less), and 0.013 milligrams/m2 of nitrogen dioxide (the least of all main cities).[8]

In 1995, the Haikou city government began an initiative to improve the quality of life for its residents. With the approval of the World Health Organization, and Ministry of Health, a ten-point plan was undertaken to address such issues as:

The groundwater is of international standard[clarification needed], and is classified as mineral water.

By 2004, the city had established 43 new community health service centers reaching 85 percent of the population. The initiative has increased the size of Haikou's green spaces to 2,000 hectares, with trees lining 40 percent of its roads. Noise pollution has dropped from 61.1db to 58.2db. 300 public toilets have been built. All industrial effluents, industrial waste water and solid waste, and all live sewage, is now processed through centralized treatment centers, and is disposed of without environmental impact. These improvements and others have increased life expectancy in Haikou to 78.26 years.[9]

Haikou city has also built 163 model ecological villages. Now, over 200,000 villagers in 933 villages have tap water in their homes.

Water and sewage treatment[edit]

The treatment of Haikou's wastewater, and the supply of tap water is operated by the French company Veolia Water. The partial privatization agreement gives 49 percent ownership to Veolia Water in a 30-year joint venture with Haikou Water Group.[10][11][12][13]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2010 Census, the prefecture-level city of Haikou has a registered population of 2,046,189 inhabitants, 537,848 more than the population declared on the past census in 2000. The average annual population growth during the period 2000–2010 was of 3.1 percent.[14] Most of the population of Haikou are Han Chinese (around 97.75 percent, according to the 2010 Census).

Subdivisions[edit]

Districts[edit]

Districts of Haikou:
Longhua District (blue)
Xiuying District (red)
Qiongshan District (green)
Meilan District (yellow)

Haikou is divided in four districts. The information here presented uses 2010 Census data.

English Name Simplified Traditional Pinyin Area Population Density
Longhua District 龙华区 龍華區 Lónghuá Qū 275 593,018 2,156
Xiuying District 秀英区 秀英區 Xiùyīng Qū 512 349,544 683
Qiongshan District 琼山区 瓊山區 Qióngshān Qū 940 479,960 511
Meilan District 美兰区 美蘭區 Měilán Qū 553 623,667 1128

Neighbourhoods[edit]

There are several distinct neighborhoods within the city, including:

Guomao[edit]

Guomao is a relatively affluent area located on the coast between Longquan Road to the east running west for more than one kilometre. The west part of this area has experienced substantial development since about 2007, and now contains dozens of newly built high-rise residential apartment buildings.

Shopping street in Bo'ai Lu area (French colonial district)

Bo'ai Road[edit]

Main article: Bo'ai Road area

This historical area is located on the south side of the Haidian River, at the northern part of mainland Haikou. Much of the area comprises arcade style, dilapidated buildings with European fusion-type architectural facades with Indian and Arabic influences.[15] The buildings are almost all painted white, and are usually no more than a few storeys tall. The eastern part of the area is mainly residential. The western part contains hubs for such items as exotic foods, pets, and fabrics. The building facades and roads have been restored in parts of the area, Zhongshan Road being the most notable.

Hainan University area[edit]

Located on Haidian Island, this area comprises the entire portion of the island west of its main north/south road, Renmin Dadao. It appears similar to a typical student ghetto, containing many small, inexpensive food stands and restaurants.

Parks and recreational areas[edit]

The ferris wheel at Baishamen Park
  • Evergreen Park is a 71.3 hectare[16] park located on Binhai Road about 200 m west of the southern foot of Haikou Century Bridge. It is the largest park in Haikou, containing approximately ten thousand coconut trees and several hundred species of South Asian ornamental plants,[16] however, most of the park consists of grassy fields.
  • Baishamen Park (White Sand Gate Park) was created in 2010 and is located on the north shore of Haidian Island. The park contains a small amusement park, and consists mostly of grass fields, with little tree cover.
  • Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park (Jinniuling Park) includes a small zoo, a lake, diverse flora, and a high percentage of forest areas, including a large bamboo forest. It is located on Haixiu Road, west of Longquan Road, the main north-south avenue in Haikou.
  • Haikou People's Park is a recently refurbished park located in the downtown area on Haixiu Road next to East Lake.[17] The park draws large numbers of people each morning who engage in exercises, predominantly tai chi, fitness dancing, and aerobics.
  • Hainan International Friendship Park is planned to occupy 180,000 square metres (1,900,000 sq ft) of land, with a length of over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).[18]
  • Hongcheng Lake (红城湖) is one of the largest water bodies in the city being around equal in size to the lake at Golden Bull Mountain Ridge Park. It has three islands, the largest of which contains a defunct hotel. The lake is a popular location for fishermen. At night, hawker stalls are set up along the roadsides for tourists and locals to drink and dine.
  • Holiday Beach is a 7 kilometres (4.3 mi)-long beach and visitor attraction adjacent to the west side of Haikou.
  • Dongzhai Port Nature Reserve lies some 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south east of Haikou and was the first protected mangrove forest zone in China.

Other notable locations[edit]

  • Zhongjie Road (忠介路), a shopping street with a long history
  • Jiefang East Road is busy shopping street located west of the Bo'ai Road area

Economy[edit]

Hainan Airlines headquarters at the new HNA Building

The GDP per capita was $3,573 USD in 2008, ranked number 43 among 659 Chinese cities. In 2011, the city's GDP reached 71.3 billion yuan, amounting to about 30 percent of the province's total.[19]

Haikou exports substantial quantities of agricultural produce and livestock.[citation needed] There is a small amount of industry, including canning, textiles, rice hulling, and light engineering.

Hainan Airlines has its headquarters in the HNA Building in Haikou.[20] Automotive manufacturer, Haima Automobile also has its global headquarters here.

Haikou Free Trade Zone[edit]

The Haikou Free Trade Zone (Haikou FTZ) (海口保税区) is a state-level, 1.93 square kilometer area located between Nanhai Road and Yehai Road. It was approved on October 21, 1992 by the State Council.[21][22] [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Education[edit]

Several major educational institutions are located in Haikou.

Hainan University just inside the north gate.

Transportation[edit]

A downtown street. The side lane for two-wheeled vehicles is present on almost all major streets in the city.

Urban[edit]

Haikou has an extensive urban bus service. Standard fare is 1 yuan, with no bus pass or ticket system in place. Urban minibuses operated prior to 2009, but have since been phased-out. Taxi automobiles and electric motorbikes operate throughout the city. During 2009–2010, petrol-fueled motorbike taxis were banned and seized by police at numerous checkpoints within the city.

During the past few years, Haikou has experienced a substantial increase in cars. Traffic on main streets, once light, is now similar to other major cities, with rush hour problems that have prompted the city to expand several main roads.

Many main roads in the city have a side lane, separated by a median, exclusively for two-wheeled vehicles.

Physical barriers have been installed in the centre of many main two-way streets, in order to separate opposing lanes. These were installed for safety reasons to prevent pedestrians from crossing the streets at locations other than intersections.

Roundabouts are not prevalent in Haikou, being used mainly on Hai Xiu road, and a few other locations.

Traffic cameras are used at many main intersections in the city, with tickets being issued by post for traffic light infractions.

There is one tunnel in the city, the Qiaozhong Road Tunnel.

Public bicycle system[edit]

These bicycles, part of the Haikou Public Bicycle System, are locked. A pre-paid swipe card system is used to gain access to them.

At present, 60 bicycles are available for rent at four bicycle service stations within the city through the newly established Haikou Public Bicycle System. A further 1,000 service stations are planned to open by 2013 providing 20,000 bicycles.[31]

Air[edit]

Haikou is served by Haikou Meilan International Airport (IATA: HAK, ICAO: ZJHK[1]), which is located 25 km (16 mi) from the city.

In January 2011, Haikou was selected to be the first test site for an experiment allowing private helicopter flight in China.[32]

Intercity highways[edit]

Three main highways connect Haikou to other parts of Hainan, running east, west, and south through the middle of the province. The Haiwen expressway connects the city with Wenchang to the southeast.

Rail[edit]

A railway links Haikou to the mainland. A ferry service transports the railway cars, along with other motor vehicles across the strait.

The Hainan East Ring Railway links Haikou and Sanya. There are 15 stations in between, either in operation or still under construction. Trains are designed to travel at 250 km/h (155 mph). Travel time from Haikou to Sanya is approximately 1 hour and 22 minutes. The main station in Haikou is Haikou East Railway Station (东环铁路海口东站) located near the southern end of Long Quan Road.

An announcement was made in December 2010, that another high-speed railway will be built along the west coast of Hainan connecting with the Hainan Eastern Ring Railway.

Seaports[edit]

Haikou has two seaports for passenger and cargo service. Haikou New Port, formerly known as the Inner Harbour, is located on the southern side of the mouth of the Haidian River.

Approximately 7 km (4 mi) west of Haikou New Port is Haikou Xiuying Port. This port is considerably larger, and is the main distribution centre for cargo entering Hainan, and is also a major port for immigration onto Hainan Island.

Arts and culture[edit]

Several large public buildings now occupy Guoxing Road, the new area for arts and culture. These include the Hainan Provincial Museum, the Hainan Provincial Library, and the Hainan Centre for the Performing Arts. These are all located near to one another on the south side of the road, west of Haikou College of Economics, Haikou campus.

At the west side of Evergreen Park is the Haikou Great Hall of the People, a concert hall, and Hainan Exhibition & Convention Center, a large centre for trade shows and other commercial events. Haikou City Stadium, is the main venue for sports events, and is located at the southeast corner of Evergreen Park.

Nightlife[edit]

Haikou has a very active nightlife that continues each evening until dawn. Bars and KTV are patronized until after midnight. Roadside BBQ sites are common throughout the city. These may be part of a daytime restaurant, but are more typically mobile restaurants wheeled out to the roadside. They usually comprise several round tables, plastic patio chairs, and a restaurant setup consisting of a display table for the prepared items and a long metal trough used for barbecueing. Most items for sale are prepared on skewers, with tinfoil bags of shellfish also being served. Patrons drink local beer in large bottles. These businesses operate from around nine pm to five am every night.

Tourism[edit]

Haikou received 4.11 million tourists in 2002, up 7.99 percent from 2001. The city earned approximately three billion yuan (361 million US dollars) from the tourism industry during that period, up 11 percent from the previous year.[33]

Haikou is also developing its Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions industry. The local government set up the Haikou Convention and Exhibition Bureau in June 2012 and pledged RMB35 million (US$5.6 million) to support the development of the MICE industry.[34] More international hotel chains are also arriving. By 2013, international brands included Shangri-La, Westin (opening September 2013[35] ), and Sheraton.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  2. ^ "Geography of Haikou" (in Chinese). Official website of Haikou government. 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  3. ^ "China Tourist Cities". Asia-planet.net. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  4. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
  5. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  6. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  7. ^ Hong, Lin; Thai, Michael. "Fuzhou ranks third in air quality across the nation". http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. ChinaDaily. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  8. ^ "Ambient Air Quality in Main Cities (2004) in China Statistics 2005". Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  9. ^ "Haikou's Healthy New Environment". China.org.cn. 2004-08-27. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  10. ^ "海口威立雅水务". Haikouvw.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  11. ^ "Veolia’s big bid for Haikou Water | Global Water Intelligence - Archive: Global Water Intelligence". Globalwaterintel.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  12. ^ "Haikou City No. 1 Water Affairs Company Limited - Individual Project Information - Private Infrastructure Projects - The World Bank & PPIAF". Ppi.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  13. ^ "威立雅水務(海口)投資有限公司注册信息|Veolia Water (Haikou) Investment Co. Limited registered information" (in Chinese). Hkcopinfo.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  14. ^ (Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  15. ^ "Qilou Arcade Streets in Haikou, China's Hainan[1]|chinadaily.com.cn". Usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  16. ^ a b "Evergreen Park | Haikou Living ~ 'drs2biz'". Drs2biz.wordpress.com. 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  17. ^ Haikou Parks
  18. ^ Hainan to build International Friendship Park in Haikou - What's On Sanya
  19. ^ Zhao, Zhang. "Haikou promotes projects for international fair". http://www.chinadaily.com.cn. ChinaDaily. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  20. ^ "Contact Us." Hainan Airlines. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  21. ^ "Haikou Free Trade Zone". hktdc.com. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  22. ^ "Haikou Free Trade Zone". hktdc.com. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  23. ^ "Haikou Free Trade Zone | China Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  24. ^ "Haikou Free Trade Zone". Chinaknowledge.com. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  25. ^ "中国保税区出口加工区协会". Cfea.org.cn. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  26. ^ "国家级开发区——海口保税区概况 - 海南省人民政府". Hainan.gov.cn. 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  27. ^ "海口保税区西移 原有企业怎么办?_加工贸易_中国国际电子商务网". Jm.ec.com.cn. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  28. ^ "海口保税区成为中国第四个综合保税区". Hq.xinhuanet.com. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  29. ^ "国务院批准海口保税区升级为综合保税区_网易新闻中心". News.163.com. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  30. ^ "海口保税区海关". Haikou.customs.gov.cn. 2010-12-21. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  31. ^ http://life.globaltimes.cn/travel/2011-01/611891.html
  32. ^ China Loosens the Screws on a Toehold of Its Airspace | Flying Magazine | The World’s Most Widely Read Aviation Magazine
  33. ^ "More Scenic Sites to Be Built in South China Province". China.org.cn. 2003-03-22. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  34. ^ "Surf’s up for Hainan island". TTGmice. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  35. ^ "THE WESTIN HAIKOU - OPENING SEPTEMBER 28, 2013". Westin. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 

External links[edit]